Nirvana (band)

Nirvana was an American rock band formed in Aberdeen, Washington in 1987. It was founded by guitarist Kurt Cobain and bassist Krist Novoselic. Nirvana went through a succession of drummers, the longest-lasting and best-known being Dave Grohl, who joined in 1990. Though the band dissolved in 1994 after the death of Cobain, their music maintains a popular following and continues to influence modern rock and roll culture. In the late 1980s, Nirvana established itself as part of the Seattle grunge scene, releasing its first album, for the independent record label Sub Pop in 1989, they developed a sound that relied on dynamic contrasts between quiet verses and loud, heavy choruses. After signing to major label DGC Records in 1991, Nirvana found unexpected mainstream success with "Smells Like Teen Spirit", the first single from their landmark second album Nevermind. A cultural phenomenon of the 1990s, the album went on to be certified Diamond by the Recording Industry Association of America. Nirvana's sudden success popularized alternative rock, Cobain found himself described as the "spokesman of a generation" and Nirvana the "flagship band" of Generation X.

Following extensive tours and the 1992 compilation album Incesticide and EP Hormoaning, Nirvana released their third studio album, In Utero, to critical acclaim and further chart success. Its abrasive, less mainstream sound challenged the band's audience, though less successful than Nevermind, it was a commercial success. Nirvana disbanded following the death of Cobain in 1994. Various posthumous releases have been overseen by Novoselic and Cobain's widow Courtney Love; the posthumous live album MTV Unplugged in New York won the Grammy Award for Best Alternative Music Album in 1996. During their three years as a mainstream act, Nirvana was awarded an American Music Award, Brit Award, Grammy Award, seven MTV Video Music Awards and two NME Awards, they have sold over 25 million records in the United States and over 75 million records worldwide, making them one of the best-selling bands of all time. Nirvana has been ranked as one of the greatest music artists of all time, with Rolling Stone ranking them at number 27 on their list of the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time in 2004, at number 30 on their updated list in 2011.

Nirvana was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in their first year of eligibility in 2014. Singer and guitarist Kurt Cobain and bassist Krist Novoselic met while attending Aberdeen High School in Washington; the pair became friends while frequenting the practice space of the Melvins. Cobain wanted to form a band with Novoselic. Cobain gave him a demo tape of his project Fecal Matter. Three years after the two first met, Novoselic notified Cobain that he had listened to the Fecal Matter demo and suggested they start a group, their first band, the Sellouts, was a Creedence Clearwater Revival tribute band. They recruited Bob McFadden on drums. In early 1987, Cobain and Novoselic recruited drummer Aaron Burckhard, they practiced material from Cobain's Fecal Matter tape but started writing new material soon after forming. During its initial months, the band went through a series of names, including Fecal Matter, Skid Row and Ted Ed Fred; the group settled on Nirvana because, according to Cobain, "I wanted a name, kind of beautiful or nice and pretty instead of a mean, raunchy punk name like the Angry Samoans".

Novoselic and Cobain moved to Tacoma and Olympia and temporarily lost contact with Burckhard. They instead practiced with Dale Crover of the Melvins, Nirvana recorded its first demos in January 1988. In early 1988, Crover moved to San Francisco but recommended Dave Foster as his replacement on drums. Foster's tenure with Nirvana lasted only a few months. Cobain and Novoselic put an ad in Seattle music publication The Rocket seeking a replacement drummer, but received no satisfactory responses. Meanwhile, a mutual friend introduced them to drummer Chad Channing, the three musicians agreed to jam together. Channing continued to jam with Cobain and Novoselic, although according to Channing, "They never said'okay, you're in.'" Channing played his first show with Nirvana that May. Nirvana released its first single, a cover of Shocking Blue's "Love Buzz", in November 1988 on the Seattle independent record label Sub Pop, they did their first interview with John Robb in Sounds who made the release single of the week.

The following month, the band began recording its debut album, with local producer Jack Endino. Bleach was influenced by the heavy dirge-rock of the Melvins and Mudhoney, 1980s punk rock, the 1970s heavy metal of Black Sabbath; the money for the recording sessions for Bleach, listed as $606.17 on the album sleeve, was supplied by Jason Everman, subsequently brought into the band as the second guitarist. Though Everman did not play on the album, he received a credit on Bleach because, according to Novoselic, they "wanted to make him feel more at home in the band". Just prior to the album's release, Nirvana became the first band to sign an extended contract with Sub Pop. Following the release of Bleach in June 1989, Nirvana embarked on its first national tour, the album became a favorite of college radio stations. Due to increasing differences between Everman over the course of the tour, Nirvana canceled the last few dates and drove back to Washington. No one told Everman he was fired, while Everman said he had quit.

Although Sub Pop did not promote Bleach as much as other releases, it was a steady seller

Bulgaria 1300

Interkosmos 22, more known as Bulgaria 1300, was Bulgaria's first artificial satellite. It was named after the 1300th anniversary of the foundation of the Bulgarian state, it was designed to study the magnetosphere of the Earth. The satellite was developed by the Bulgarian Space Agency around the "Meteor" bus, provided by the Soviet Union as part of the Interkosmos program. Assembly took place in Bulgaria, the spacecraft was launched from Plesetsk in 13:35 local time on 7 August 1981. During that same year the Bulgarian government organized a massive celebration to commemorate the 1300th anniversary of the country's founding. Interkosmos 22 was inserted in a near-polar orbit; the outer skin of the spacecraft, including the solar panels, is coated with a conducting material in order to allow the proper measurement of electric fields and low energy plasma. Power is provided by the two solar panels. A rechargeable battery pack is used as an energy supply. Gathered data is stored on two tape recorders, each with a capacity of 60 megabits.

The main transmitter radiates 10 W in the 130-MHz band. No operational limit was planned; as of 2009, the satellite was operational and it is still on BSA's list of active programs. It provides data about the extraterrestrial environment over Earth's polar regions; the satellite contains a large set of scientific devices and built in Bulgaria: Ion Drift Meter combined with a Retarding Potential Analyzer.

John Long Routt

John Long Routt was an American politician of the Republican Party. Born in Eddyville, Kentucky, he served as the first and seventh Governor of Colorado from 1876 to 1879 and 1891 to 1893, he served as Mayor of Denver, Colorado from 1883 to 1885. He died in Colorado. John Long Routt was born in Eddyville and moved to Bloomington, Illinois shortly thereafter where he completed his public school education. Upon completion of his studies, he worked as a carpenter prior to entering elected office. While living in Illinois, he attained his first elected office as Sheriff of McLean County, Illinois. Routt's blossoming public service career was abruptly interrupted by service in the American Civil War, during which acted as a captain in the 94th Illinois Volunteer Infantry. U. S. President Ulysses S. Grant appointed John Routt as the Governor of the Territory of Colorado on March 29, 1875. Statehood had long been Colorado's primary interest. Thomas Patterson and Jerome Chaffee, in House Bill 435 provided for the creation of the Colorado state government.

Routt's time as Territorial Governor was spent deliberating the contents of the Colorado state constitution. After Colorado was established as a state, the popular Routt won the gubernatorial election without making a single speech in public; as the first governor, Routt tackled the major issues Colorado was facing at the time, including violence in and around the city of Creede, Colorado, as well as problems dealing with county valuations. Routt was very popular among the female citizenry of the state because of his strong support for women's suffrage - with nudges from his wife, Eliza Pickrell Routt, a pioneer in the women's suffrage movement. At one point, he arranged a speaking tour for popular women's suffragist Susan B. Anthony and escorted her around the state; when women in Colorado first became able to vote in 1893, his wife, Eliza Pickrell Routt, became the first woman to register to vote in Colorado history. Following his first two terms as Governor of Colorado, Routt entered the private sector, but re-entered public service again to serve as the Mayor of Denver, Colorado from 1883 to 1885.

After unsuccessfully running for the United States Senate, Routt ran for the governorship again in 1891, served as Colorado's seventh Governor until 1893. His third term was marked by a high level of disagreement within the Republicans in Colorado's state government. Routt was buried in Denver's Riverside Cemetery. Routt County and Routt National Forest are named in his honor. History of Colorado Law and Government of Colorado List of Governors of Colorado State of Colorado Territory of Colorado Bibliography Lohse, Joyce B.. First Governor, First Lady: John and Eliza Routt of Colorado. Filter Press. ISBN 0-86541-063-1; the Governors of Colorado @ Biography of John Long Routt @ John Long Routt at Find a Grave