Nikuhitsu-ga is a form of Japanese painting in the ukiyo-e art style. The woodblock prints of this genre have become so famous in the West as to become synonymous with the term "ukiyo-e", but most ukiyo-e artists were painters as well as printmakers, with much the same style and subjects; some turned to painting at the end of a career in prints, while some, like Miyagawa Chōshun and a number of the artists of the Kaigetsudō school, never made prints and only worked in paintings. Though advances in printing technology advanced over the course of the Edo period, allowing for the production of more and more elaborate and colorful prints, the medium of painting always allowed a greater degree of freedom to the artist, involved a much larger product in any case. JAANUS
Shini-e called "death pictures" or "death portraits", are Japanese woodblock prints those done in the ukiyo-e style popular through the Edo period and into the beginnings of the 20th century When a kabuki actor died, memorial portraits shini-e were conventionally published with his farewell poem and posthumous name. Memorial portraits were created by ukiyo-e artists to honor a colleague or former teacher who had died. List of ukiyo-e terms Keyes, Roger S. and Keiko Mizushima.. The Theatrical World of Osaka Prints: a Collection of Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century Japanese woodblock Prints in the Philadelphia Museum of Art. Philadelphia: Philadelphia Museum of Art. OCLC 186356770 Newland, Amy Reigle.. The Hotei Encyclopedia of Japanese Woodblock Prints. Amsterdam: Hotei. ISBN 9789074822657.
Bokashi is a technique used in Japanese woodblock printmaking. It achieves a variation in lightness and darkness of a single color or multiple colors by hand applying a gradation of ink to a moistened wooden printing block, rather than inking the block uniformly; this hand-application had to be repeated for each sheet of paper, printed. The best-known examples of bokashi are in the 19th-century ukiyo-e works of Hokusai and Hiroshige, in which the fading of Prussian blue dyes in skies and water create an illusion of depth. In work by Hiroshige, for example the series One Hundred Famous Views of Edo, most prints featured bokashi such as red-to-yellow-to-blue color sunrises. Gradations can be created on the blocks themselves using the itobokashi technique, or brushed on by hand using fukibokashi, they can be done freehand directly onto a print, without using a printing block. Fukibokashi requires gradations of ink to be applied to the printing block; this is not a precise technique. The technique ichimonji bokashi is the one associated with the works of Hiroshige.
Ink is applied only to one end of the brush's bristles, the brush is drawn across the desired portion of the printing block. This creates a gradation at the width of the brush. In futa-iro bokashi two colours are worked toward each other, achieved by applying two inks to opposite edges of the brush. In hakkake bokashi a flat colour is printed, the same printing block is washed and re-brushed with a bokashi effect to overprint over the first. Itabokashi, or'block shading,' is a technique used to produce ruffled edges on areas of color, it is produced by first cutting an area larger than needed for a color abrading the edges of that area to make the transition from that color less sharp. This is used in clouds and shading; some techniques are performed freehand, without using a printing block, results can vary from print to print. Kumadori bokashi is used for finer details, such as around eyes, requires the artist to draw with a brush loaded with ink on a wetted area. Atenashi bokashi is similar, requiring the wetting of areas to be inked, is used for details such as clouds.
Newland, Amy Reigle.. Hotei Encyclopedia of Japanese Woodblock Prints. Amsterdam: Hotei. ISBN 9789074822657.
Sōsaku-hanga was an art movement in early 20th-century Japan. It stressed the artist as the sole creator motivated by a desire for self-expression, advocated principles of art, "self-drawn", "self-carved" and "self-printed"; as opposed to the shin-hanga movement that maintained the traditional ukiyo-e collaborative system where the artist, carver and publisher engaged in division of labor, creative print artists distinguished themselves as artists creating art for art’s sake. The birth of the sōsaku-hanga movement was signaled by Kanae Yamamoto's small print Fisherman in 1904. Departing from the ukiyo-e collaborative system, Kanae Yamamoto made the print on his own, all the way from drawing and printing; such principles of "self-drawn", "self-carved" and "self-printed" became the foundation of the creative print movement, which struggled for existence in prewar Japan along with other art movements, gained its momentum and flourished in postwar Japan as the genuine heir of the ukiyo-e tradition.
The 1951 São Paulo Art Biennial witnessed the success of the creative print movement. Both of the Japanese winners and Kiyoshi Saitō were printmakers, who outperformed Japanese paintings, Western-style paintings and avant-garde. Other sōsaku-hanga artists such as Kōshirō Onchi, Un'ichi Hiratsuka, Sadao Watanabe and Maki Haku are well known in the West; the creative print movement was one of the many manifestations of the rise of the individual after decades of modernization. In both artistic and literary circles, there emerged at the turn of the century expressions of the "self". In 1910, Kōtarō Takamura's "A Green Sun" encourages artists' individual expression: "I desire absolute freedom of art. I recognize the limitless authority of individuality of the artist... If two or three artists should paint a "green sun", I would never criticize them for I myself may see a green sun". In 1912, in "Bunten and the Creative Arts", Natsume Sōseki states that "art begins with the expression of the self and ends with the expression of the self".
These two essays marked the beginning of the intellectual discussion of the "self", which found echo in the art scene. 1910 witnessed the first publication of a monthly magazine called White Birch, the most important magazine shaping the thought of the Taishō period. Aspiring young artists organized its first exhibition in the same year. Shirakaba sponsored exhibitions of Western art. In its early formative years, the sōsaku-hanga movement, like many other art movements such as the shin-hanga movement and proletarian art movement, struggled to survive and sought a voice in an art scene dominated by mainstream arts that were well received by the Bunten. Hanga in general did not achieve the status of Western oil paintings in Japan. Hanga was considered as a craft, inferior to paintings and sculptures. Ukiyo-e woodblock prints had always been considered as mere reproductions for mass commercial consumption, as opposed to the European view of ukiyo-e as art, during the climax of Japonisme, it was impossible for sōsaku-hanga artists to make a living by just doing creative prints.
Many of the renowned sōsaku-hanga artists, such as Kōshirō Onchi, were book illustrators and wood carvers. It was not until 1927. In 1935, extracurricular classes on hanga were permitted; the wartime years from 1939 to 1945 was a metamorphosis for the creative print movement. The First Thursday Society, crucial to the postwar revival of Japanese prints, was formed in 1939 through the groups of people who gathered in the house of Kōshirō Onchi in Tokyo; the group met once a month to discuss subjects of woodblock prints. First initial members included Gen Jun ` ichirō Sekino. American connoisseurs Ernst Hacker, William Hartnett and Oliver Statler attended, they revived Western interest in Japanese prints in the form of creative print movement. The First Thursday Collection, a collection of prints by members to circulate to each other, was produced in 1944; such a group and publication provided comradeship and a venue for artistic exchange and nourishment during the difficult war years when resource was scarce and censorship severe.
The rebirth of the Japanese print coincided with the rebirth of Japan after World War II. The 1951 San Francisco Peace Treaty ended the American Occupation in Japan. During the occupation, American soldiers and their wives bought and collected Japanese prints as souvenirs, it can be said. With the aim of promoting “democratic art”, American patronage shifted from shin-hanga to sōsaku-hanga. By 1950, abstraction became the mode of the creative print movement in Japan. Japanese prints were perceived as genuine blending of West. Artists such as Kōshirō Onchi, who had shown passion for abstract expression since his early years, turned to abstract art after the war; the 1951 São Paulo Art Biennial was Japan’s first postwar submission to an international exhibition. Notable artists such as Shikō Munakata and Naoko Matsubara worked in the folk art tradition, held one-man shows in the United States. Contemporary Japanese prints have a rich diversity in subject style. Tetsuya Noda
Urushi-e refers to three different types of Japanese artworks: Woodblock prints overpainted with a mixture of ink and animal glue to produce shiny areas resembling lacquer. Painting in lacquer on three-dimensional lacquer objects. Paintings painted with actual lacquer on paper or silk. Urushi-e woodblock prints were made using thick, dark black lines, were sometimes hand-colored; the ink was mixed with an animal-based glue called nikawa, which thickened it and gave it a lustrous shine, said to resemble lacquer. Most this was used not in creating the entire print, but only in enhancing a particular element, such as an obi or a figure's hair, to give it shine and make the image more luxurious overall. Prints which include urushi-e elements are to feature the use of mica, metal dusts, other elements which enhanced the appearance and value of the works; the technique was most popular in the early 18th century, can be seen in works by Okumura Masanobu, Torii Kiyomasu and Torii Kiyonobu I, among many others.
In painting, the term refers to the use of colored lacquers, produced by mixing pigments with clear lacquer. The use of colored lacquer for painting goes back to the prehistoric Jōmon period, became popular in the Nara period, when a great many works were made using red lacquer against a black background; until the 19th century, the use of natural pigments restricted the colors accessible to artists to red, yellow and light brown. Artist Shibata Zeshin is famous for his innovations in this regard, was the first to use lacquer not just as a decorative element but as a medium for painted scrolls. Zeshin experimented extensively with various substances, which he mixed with lacquer to create a variety of effects, including simulating the appearance of various metals, imitating the appearance and texture of Western oil painting. Urushi Urushi-e at JAANUS