Wemotaci is a First Nations reserve on the north shore of the Saint-Maurice River at the mouth of the Manouane River in the Mauricie region of Quebec, Canada. Together with the Obedjiwan and the Coucoucache Indian Reserve No. 24, it belongs to the Atikamekw First Nation. The reserve, an enclave within the City of La Tuque, is bordered to the west and south by the Saint-Maurice River, whereas its eastern boundary is about 3.8 kilometres long, its northern boundary is 7.8 kilometres. It is accessible by gravel road from La Tuque's town centre through the hamlet of Sanmaur, on the opposite shore of the Saint-Maurice River. At this location, the Canadian National Railway crosses the river and has a siding at Sanmaur; the local economy is based on the art and craft and services, trapping, tourism and outfitters. Like many other native names, Wemotaci underwent many spelling variations over time; the oldest reference to the toponym is from 1724. In 1827, it was written as Montachene, in 1829 as Weymontachinque, in 1830 as Waimootansking, in 1832 as Weymontachingue and Warmontashingen, in 1837 as Warmontaching.
The 1932 spelling of Weymontachingue on the map of John Arrowsmith became the most common form until 1986, when it was replaced by Weymontachie, as demanded by the local band council. The standardized writing of the Atikamekw language spells it as Wemotaci, made official in March 1997; the area of the upper Saint-Maurice River had long been the homeland and hunting grounds of the Atikamekw indigenous people. Some sources claim that the North West Company had established a trading post at this place between 1770 and 1780, but this remains doubtful. Confirmation of the existence of a trading post at Wemotaci came in 1806, when Jean-Baptiste Perrault built the first structures for fur trading. In 1821, the post was taken over by the Hudson's Bay Company. In 1851, the Government enacted the allotment of 230,000 acres of land as reserves for the use and benefit of the "Indian" tribes residing in Lower Canada. Two years these lands were distributed among the Atikamekw and Abenakis by John Rolph, Commissioner of Crown Lands.
On August 9, 1853, this was made official by the Governor General in Council. But the Atikamekw didn't settle on the reserve, and it wasn't until 1895. The construction of a dam and the National Transcontinental Railway led to the growth of the Sanmaur settlement, which in turn attracted the Atikamekw to the reserve at the beginning of the 20th century. In 1939 however, the Hudson's Bay Company left Weymontachingue and due to lack of funding for maintenance of the village, its population stopped growing after 1950, when its inhabitants began to leave and settled either in Sanmaur or in other nearby villages. In the 1970s, the village revitalized. A new village was built closer to its namesake mountain. In 1971, the Federal Government bought the lands of the Hudson's Bay Company and these were subsequently added to the reserve. In May 2010, many residents of Wemotaci were evacuated. Historic populations: Population in 2001: 1042 Population in 1996: 856 Population in 1991: 708Mother tongue: English: 0% French: 3.4% Atikamekw: 96.2% Other: 0.4% There are two schools on the reserve: École Seskitin, Pre-Kindergarten to Secondary grade 1 École Waratinak Nikanik, grades Secondary 1 to Secondary 5 Sanmaur, Quebec Manouane River Conseil de la Nation Atikamekw
The Saint-Maurice River flows North to South in central Quebec from Gouin Reservoir to empty into the Saint Lawrence River at Trois-Rivières, in province of Quebec, in Canada. From its source at Gouin Reservoir, located at the same latitude as the Lac Saint-Jean, the river has a total drop of about 405 meters, to reach the river Trois-Rivières; the river is 563 km in length and has a drainage basin of 43,300 km². Saint-Maurice river is one of the most important tributaries of St. Lawrence river; the main tributaries of the Saint-Maurice River are: Matawin River. Between Weymontachie and Trois-Rivières, the St-Maurice River has 27 tributaries identified as significant enough for downhill wood: Weymontachingue, Little Rock, Little Flamand, Flamand, Grande Pierriche, Petite Pierriche, "La Trenche", Croche, Rivière-au-Lait, Little Bostonnais, Small Stream, Caribou, Rivière-aux-Rats, Little Batiscan River, l'Oiseau, Bête Puante, Mekinac, River "au Lac des Pêches" and Shawinigan River. During the 18th century, early fur traders travelled along the river.
During the second half of the 19th century, logging became an important industry in the surrounding Mauricie region. For much of the 20th century, the river was used to transport logs to mills down river and it was, still is, a major source of hydroelectric power. First communication channel in this region, the river was used by local Native Americans long before the arrival of Europeans on the spot. Early explorations by religious conversion in pain and trappers in search of furs for the trade, it was one of the primary routes of rivers in Quebec. Several municipalities have been established on its banks, thereby taking advantage of its hydroelectric power where the falls were high enough to install a dam integration an electrical generating station. Among other cities, La Tuque and Trois-Rivières are the best known, are themselves located along the Route 155 which connects the St. Lawrence River to Lake St. John; the original name of the river was "Métabéroutin", the name given by Algonquin, which means "discharge of the wind" and in turn, the Attikameks of Haute-Mauricie still call "Sipi Tapiskwan", the "river of the threaded needle".
The Abenaki the call for their "Madôbaladenitekw" or the "river that ends". Jacques Cartier named it "River Fouez" in honor of the House of Foix in 1535. However, this name was abandoned in the early seventeenth century to the name of "Three Rivers", its current name was given in the early eighteenth century in reference to the "fief of Saint-Maurice", the common name of lordship on the west bank granted about 1668 to Maurice Poulin in La Fontaine, government prosecutor of Three Rivers. He was the owner of some property along the river in the 17th century; the name "St. Maurice" is attested for the first time in a judgment dated 1723 and supplanted the "Three Rivers" between 1730 and 1740; the river gave its name to the administrative region of Mauricie. Communities on the river include, from the mouth of the river: Order from downstream toward upstream: Territory of Shawinigan Territory of La Tuque Order from downstream to upstream: All plants on the St. Maurice are the property of Hydro-Québec.
In 1996, the Saint-Maurice River was the last river in Quebec to stop the transportation of timber by flotation. For nearly 150 years, companies in forestry have used the current of the river and its tributaries for timber transportation. Before being stacked on the ice in Upper-Mauricie, logs were identified in order to be recovered downstream where baunes were implemented, including Grandes-Piles, in Grand-Mère, Shawinigan or Trois-Rivières; each spring, an army of loggers cleaned the river banks for delivering timbers which were hung on the shores, rocks or in riparian wood. The loggers sorted the timbers for relaunching them into the water for redirecting them to Pulp paper plant downstream. In the last 174 kilometers, between Trois-Rivières and La Tuque, the experts found 42 fish species frequenting the river; the density of fish biomass is low, characteristic of rivers in Canadian Shield. List of Quebec rivers 1663 Charlevoix earthquake Île Anselme-Fay Tourisme Mauricie Regional tourist office
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
Quebec is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is bordered to the west by the province of Ontario and the bodies of water James Bay and Hudson Bay. S. states of Maine, New Hampshire and New York. It shares maritime borders with Nunavut, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia. Quebec is Canada's largest province by its second-largest administrative division, it is and politically considered to be part of Central Canada. Quebec is the second-most populous province of Canada, after Ontario, it is the only one to have a predominantly French-speaking population, with French as the sole provincial official language. Most inhabitants live in urban areas near the Saint Lawrence River between Montreal and Quebec City, the capital. Half of Quebec residents live in the Greater Montreal Area, including the Island of Montreal. English-speaking communities and English-language institutions are concentrated in the west of the island of Montreal but are significantly present in the Outaouais, Eastern Townships, Gaspé regions.
The Nord-du-Québec region, occupying the northern half of the province, is sparsely populated and inhabited by Aboriginal peoples. The climate around the major cities is four-seasons continental with cold and snowy winters combined with warm to hot humid summers, but farther north long winter seasons dominate and as a result the northern areas of the province are marked by tundra conditions. In central Quebec, at comparatively southerly latitudes, winters are severe in inland areas. Quebec independence debates have played a large role in the politics of the province. Parti Québécois governments held referendums on sovereignty in 1980 and 1995. Although neither passed, the 1995 referendum saw the highest voter turnout in Quebec history, at over 93%, only failed by less than 1%. In 2006, the House of Commons of Canada passed a symbolic motion recognizing the "Québécois as a nation within a united Canada". While the province's substantial natural resources have long been the mainstay of its economy, sectors of the knowledge economy such as aerospace and communication technologies and the pharmaceutical industry play leading roles.
These many industries have all contributed to helping Quebec become an economically influential province within Canada, second only to Ontario in economic output. The name "Québec", which comes from the Algonquin word kébec meaning "where the river narrows" referred to the area around Quebec City where the Saint Lawrence River narrows to a cliff-lined gap. Early variations in the spelling of the name included Kébec. French explorer Samuel de Champlain chose the name Québec in 1608 for the colonial outpost he would use as the administrative seat for the French colony of New France; the province is sometimes referred to as "La belle province". The Province of Quebec was founded in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 after the Treaty of Paris formally transferred the French colony of Canada to Britain after the Seven Years' War; the proclamation restricted the province to an area along the banks of the Saint Lawrence River. The Quebec Act of 1774 expanded the territory of the province to include the Great Lakes and the Ohio River Valley and south of Rupert's Land, more or less restoring the borders existing under French rule before the Conquest of 1760.
The Treaty of Paris ceded territories south of the Great Lakes to the United States. After the Constitutional Act of 1791, the territory was divided between Lower Canada and Upper Canada, with each being granted an elected legislative assembly. In 1840, these become Canada East and Canada West after the British Parliament unified Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada; this territory was redivided into the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario at Confederation in 1867. Each became one of the first four provinces. In 1870, Canada purchased Rupert's Land from the Hudson's Bay Company and over the next few decades the Parliament of Canada transferred to Quebec portions of this territory that would more than triple the size of the province. In 1898, the Canadian Parliament passed the first Quebec Boundary Extension Act that expanded the provincial boundaries northward to include the lands of the local aboriginal peoples; this was followed by the addition of the District of Ungava through the Quebec Boundaries Extension Act of 1912 that added the northernmost lands of the Inuit to create the modern Province of Quebec.
In 1927, the border between Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador was established by the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Quebec disputes this boundary. Located in the eastern part of Canada, part of Central Canada, Quebec occupies a territory nearly three times the size of France or Texas, most of, sparsely populated, its topography is different from one region to another due to the varying composition of the ground, the climate, the proximity to water. The Saint Lawrence Lowland and the Appalachians are the two main topographic regions in southern Quebec, while the Canadian Shield occupies most of central and northern Quebec. Quebec has one of the world's largest reserves of fresh water, occupying 12% of its surface, it has 3 % of the world's renewable fresh water. Mor
The Atikamekw are the First Nations inhabitants of the area they refer to as Nitaskinan, in the upper Saint-Maurice River valley of Quebec, Canada. Their population stands at around 7,000. One of the main communities is Manawan, about 160 kilometres northeast of Montreal, they have a tradition of agriculture as well as fishing and gathering. They have close traditional ties with the Innu people, who were their historical allies against the Inuit; the Atikamekw language, a variety of the Cree language in the Algic family, is in everyday use, making it therefore among the indigenous languages least threatened with extinction. But their home land has been appropriated by logging companies and their ancient way of life is extinct, their name, which means "lake whitefish", is sometimes spelt "Atihkamekw", "Attikamekw", "Attikamek", or "Atikamek". The French colonists referred to them as Têtes-de-Boules, meaning "Ball-Heads" or "Round-Heads". A small number of families canoes; the early documents begin to mention the Atikamekw at beginning of the 17th century, when they lived in the boreal forest of the upper Mauricie.
They had formed themselves into a group of 500 to 600 people, thus present themselves as "one of the nations more considerable of the north". In these early documents, the Atikamekw were recorded as "Atikamegouékhi". For food, they fished and trapped, supplementing their diet with agricultural products such as corn and maple syrup that the Atikamekw made by boiling the sap extracted from maple trees. Implements would be made of wood and clothing of animal hides, obtaining other necessities through trade with tribes in nearby areas. In summer, the Atikamekw would gather at places like Wemotaci. In the fall, they would pack up and disperse through the boreal forest for the winter; when the French arrived in the region, the Atikamekw became dependent on externally controlled trade the fur trade. They were considered a peaceful people, sharing the region with the Innu in the east, the Cree in the north, Algonquin to the south, but they had conflicts with the Mohawks. Through their Innu allies, the Atikamekw caught devastating diseases that were brought over by the Europeans.
Around 1670-1680, a smallpox epidemic devastated the Atikamekw tribe. The French pulled the Atikamekw into a trade war between the Montagnais and the Iroquois in which the Atikamekw and Innu did not fare well; those Atikamekw who had survived the smallpox were slaughtered by the Iroquois. However, at the start of the 18th century, a group called "Tête-de-Boule" reappeared in the region. While there exists no certainty as to the origin of this group, they may have been a regrouping of the few Atikamekw survivors and who were associated with other indigenous nomadic tribes, but they are considered to be unrelated to the former Atikamekw though they lived in the same area and took on the same name. Today, the Atikamekw, like their historical allies the Innu, suffer from mercury poisoning due to the central electric power companies that had contaminated the water supply. Despite all these events, the Atikamekw were not moved off their traditional grounds; the Atikamekw have their own traditional culture and rituals, though they had strong influences from the neighboring peoples.
From this grouping, three prominent communities developed, where each of the three communities spoke the same language but with unique dialects reflecting each of the three. Members of the tribe as a whole speak the Atikamekw language, but the majority do not write it. Traditionally, the Atikamekw lived in dome-shaped homes, covered with bark called "piskokan"; the floor was carpeted with spruce boughs and furs were used as beds and blankets. The Atikamekw had developed a technique for preserving meat by smoking and drying, a process still practiced by some families. Collected berries were processed into a paste. A full list of their ethnobotany can be found at http://naeb.brit.org/uses/tribes/8/. The making of hunting equipment as well as clothing and blankets, was in former times a task necessary for survival. Like all First Nations, the Atikamekw stood apart by a special way to decorate their clothing. One distinguishing feature were the bells covering their ceremonial robes that were made of bones emptied of the marrow.
The atikamekw have been recognized for their skill in crafting birch bark items such as baskets and canoes, decorated with beautiful designs. These skills were always transmitted from generation to generation so that today they are still practiced, giving them the nickname "people of the bark". Handicrafts made from birch bark is less practiced in Obedjiwan than in other communities, since it is located in the boreal forest where conifer trees dominate. Among Atikamekw, the year is divided into six seasons. In every season, there is a principal activity; the seasons begin with Sîkon, a pre-Spring in which the Atikamekw used to manufacture bark baskets, which can contain maple-sap gathered in this time of year. After Sîkon is Mirôskamin, Spring proper. In this season, the Atikamekw would go partridge hunting; these activities continue through Nîpin. During Takwâkin, the Atikamekw would go moose hunting. A successful hunt required the careful removal of the skin of the moose, offerings are made, the meat is jerkied for preservation.
Women would continue to remove the hairs from the moose hide soak and tan the hide make thin strips of leather for snowshoe netting. During the onset of winter
Manawan named communauté Atikamekw de Manawan, is a First Nations reserve on the south-western shores of Lake Métabeskéga in the Lanaudière region of Quebec, Canada. It belongs to the Atikamekw of Manawan band of the Atikamekw Nation; the 5 kilometres long by 2 kilometres wide reserve is an enclave within the Baie-Atibenne unorganized territory 72 kilometres north of Saint-Michel-des-Saints. It is accessible by gravel road; the reserve takes its name from the Manouane River. The standardized writing of the Atikamekw language spells it as Manawan, this form was adopted on January 8, 1991, it means "place where they gather eggs". "Manawan" means "place. The real name of the place where is located the village of Manawan is "Metapeckeka"" which mean "where swamps emerge" or "savannath that emerge from a bay"; the Indian Reserve of Manawan is an enclave within the Baie-Atibenne unorganized territory in Lanaudière, Quebec. It is located at 113 kilometres northeast of Mont-Laurier and it covers an area of 774 hectares.
It is link by a gravel road to Saint-Michel-des-Saints to the south, the closest service centre. The main city the closest to the village is Montreal. At least since 1850 and earlier, the shores of Lake Métabeskéga were a gathering place for Atikamekw families from Wemotaci; this location, near their winter hunting grounds, was known in the 19th century as Metapeckeka, meaning "swamp coming from a bay". Around 1870, logging companies moved into the area, prompting several families to permanently settle on the site. A year the Hudson's Bay Company opened its post, but damming of Kempt, Châteauvert Lakes in the early 1900s inundated the old village. A new village formed downstream at the current site. Establishing a reserve for themselves proved difficult for the Atikamekw; the repeated requests of Chief Louis Néwashish for this portion of their territory were rebuffed by the Canadian Government, saying that the Maniwaki reserve, created in 1850, was reserved for them. The Atikamekw refused to live there.
The federal government still declined to establish a reserve, arguing that Wemotaci was for them. After years of correspondence followed by numerous trips in birch-bark canoe to Ottawa and lengthy negotiations for federal services, the government agreed. On August 29, 1906, the Manouane Reserve was founded with 1,906 acres of land and having some 50 inhabitants; the Hudson's Bay Company general store closed circa 1941. The village experienced further growth in the 1950s when more families settled down as a result of growing forest exploitation and the construction of large dams. In 1973, Manawan was connected by road to Saint-Michel-des-Saints. 1861-01-31: Act of 1861, aside land not exceeding 93,080 hectares for the use of Indians. 1906-05-25: Surveying land for reserve Manowan. Undivided land. Area: 771.32 hectares. 1906-08-29: Order in Council 532, transfer of the management and administration of the Government of Quebec to Government of Canada. Undivided land. Area: 771.32 hectares. Current Situation Lands undivided, land acquired under the 1861 Act Transferring the management and administration of the Government of Quebec to Government of Canada by Order in Council 532.
Area: 771.32 hectares Historic populations: Population in 2001: 1646 Population in 1996: 1416 Population in 1991: 1224Mother tongue: English: 0.2% French: 2.4% Atikamekw: 97.1% Other: 0.2% There are 2 schools on the reserve: École Simon P. Ottawa, pre-kindergarten to Elementary grade 6 École secondaire Otapi, grades Secondary 1 to Secondary 5 Atikamekw of Manawan Conseil de la Nation Atikamekw André Quitich 100 year anniversary of the Manawan reserve Conseil de la Nation Atikamekw