click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Nitration

Nitration is a general class of a chemical process for the introduction of a nitro group into an organic chemical compound. More loosely the term is applied incorrectly to the different process of forming nitrate esters between alcohols and nitric acid, as occurs in the synthesis of nitroglycerin; the difference between the resulting structure of nitro compounds and nitrates is that the nitrogen atom in nitro compounds is directly bonded to a non-oxygen atom carbon or another nitrogen atom, whereas in nitrate esters called organic nitrates, the nitrogen is bonded to an oxygen atom that in turn is bonded to a carbon atom. There are many major industrial applications of nitration in the strict sense. Nitration reactions are notably used for the production of explosives, for example the conversion of guanidine to nitroguanidine and the conversion of toluene to trinitrotoluene. However, they are of wide importance as chemical precursors. Millions of tons of nitroaromatics are produced annually. Typical nitration syntheses apply so-called "mixed acid", a mixture of concentrated nitric acid and sulfuric acids.

This mixture produces the nitronium ion, the active species in aromatic nitration. This active ingredient, which can be isolated in the case of nitronium tetrafluoroborate effects nitration without the need for the mixed acid. In mixed-acid syntheses sulfuric acid is not consumed and hence acts as a catalyst as well as an absorbent for water. In the case of nitration of benzene, the reaction is conducted at a warm temperature, not exceeding 50 °C; the process is one example of electrophilic aromatic substitution, which involves the attack by the electron-rich benzene ring: Alternative mechanisms have been proposed, including one involving single electron transfer. Selectivity can be a challenge in nitrations because as a rule more than one compound may result but only one is desired, so alternative products act as contaminants or are wasted. Accordingly, it is desirable to design syntheses with suitable selectivity; the substituents on aromatic rings affect the rate of this electrophilic aromatic substitution.

Deactivating groups such as other nitro groups have an electron-withdrawing effect. Such groups deactivate the reaction and directs the electrophilic nitronium ion to attack the aromatic meta position. Deactivating meta-directing substituents include sulfonyl, cyano groups, keto and carboxylates. Nitration can be accelerated by activating groups such as amino and methyl groups amides and ethers resulting in para and ortho isomers; the direct nitration of aniline with nitric acid and sulfuric acid, according to one source, results in a 50/50 mixture of para- and meta-nitroaniline isomers. In this reaction the fast-reacting and activating aniline exists in equilibrium with the more abundant but less reactive anilinium ion, which may explain this reaction product distribution. According to another source, a more controlled nitration of aniline starts with the formation of acetanilide by reaction with acetic anhydride followed by the actual nitration; because the amide is a regular activating group the products formed are the para and ortho isomers.

Heating the reaction mixture is sufficient to hydrolyze the amide back to the nitrated aniline. In the Wolffenstein–Böters reaction, benzene reacts with nitric acid and mercury nitrate to give picric acid. With aryl chlorides and nonaflates ipso substitution can take place as well in so-called ipso nitration; the phrase was first used by Perrin and Skinner in 1971 in an investigation into chloroanisole nitration In one protocol 4-chloro-n-butylbenzene is reacted with sodium nitrite in t-butanol in presence of 0.5 mol% Pd23, a biarylphosphine ligand and a phase-transfer catalyst to 4-nitro-n-butylbenzene Menke nitration Zincke nitration Reactive nitrogen species

Elton Brown (basketball)

Elton Brown is an American professional basketball player who last played for SLUC Nancy Basket of the LNB Pro A. He is a 6' 9" center from Virginia. Brown played college basketball at the University of Virginia with the Virginia Cavaliers. Majoring in Anthropology he ranked 20th in all-time scoring, Top 10 in rebounding, he was a 3-year first team All-Rookie. During his junior and senior years, he was awarded the All-ACC Honorable Mention with an average of 14.8 points and 8 rebounds as a junior and 12 points and 8 rebounds as a senior. Brown began his pro career in the Greek League with Makedonikos Kozani in the 2005-06 season, where he led the Greek League in rebounding and was the only player in the league to average a double-double for the season, he spent the 2006-07 season playing in the NBA Development League with the Colorado 14ers. Brown participated in the 2nd annual NBA Development League All-Star Game, leading the Red Team with 20 points and 10 rebounds in a losing effort. Brown Also led the NBA Development League in rebounding with 12.7 and second in scoring with an 18.4 average per game while being the first overall pick in the NBA Development Draft for the Colorado 14ers.

Brown participated in the Los Angeles Lakers' training camp prior to the 2007-08 NBA season. He played on the Denver Nuggets' Summer League team that participated in the 2008 Las Vegas Summer League, where he averaged 13.3 points per game and 10 rebounds per game over 5 games. During the season of 2007–08 he joined Hapoel Holon from Israel, with whom he won the Israeli League Championship. On December 2, 2008, Brown signed with the Euroleague team of [[Maccabi Tel Aviv B. C.| On February 6, 2009, Brown signed with the German BBL team Brose Baskets Bamberg. He played a big role in the remaining season of Bamberg, but could not avoid his team's loss in the semifinal series against Oldenburg. In August 2009, he re-signed with Bamberg for one more season. In his second season with the club, he won the German German Cup. For the 2010–11 season he signed with Barak Netanya of Israel. Brown was selected All Euro-challenge Third team while playing with Netanya. Season 2011–12 he spent in Turkey with Trabzonspor.

In 23 games of the Turkish Basketball League he averaged 12 rebounds per game. Brown was selected to the TBL All-Star game. In July 2012 he signed a one-year contract with the Serbian team where he won the Serbian cup championship Crvena zvezda. In October 2013, he signed with Paris-Levallois Basket of the LNB Pro A for the 2013–14 season. Brown won sixth man of the year in the LNBOn January 4, 2015, he signed with BCM Gravelines of the LNB Pro A. On February 2, 2015, he parted ways with Gravelines. On March 10, he signed with Indios de Mayagüez of Puerto Rico. Brown was the only player to average a double-double with 11.8 rebounds per game. On November 19, 2015, he signed with the French club STB Le Havre for the rest of the 2015–16 season. On January 12, 2017, he signed with French club SLUC Nancy Basket for the rest of the 2016–17 Pro A season. Elton Brown at eurobasket.com Elton Brown at euroleague.com Elton Brown at fiba.com

PlayMakers Repertory Company

PlayMakers Repertory Company is the professional theater company in residence at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. PlayMakers Repertory Company is the successor of the Carolina Playmakers and is named after the Historic Playmakers Theatre. PlayMakers was founded in 1976 and is affiliated with the Dramatic and performing arts at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; the company consists of residents, guest artists, professional staff and graduate students in the Department for Dramatic Arts at UNC and produces seasons of six main stage productions of contemporary and classical works that run from September to April. PlayMakers Repertory Company has a second stage series, PRC², that examines controversial social and political issues; the company has been acknowledged by the Drama League of New York and American Theatre magazine for being one of the top fifty regional theaters in the country. PlayMakers operates under agreements with the Actors' Equity Association, United Scenic Artists, the Society of Stage Directors and Choreographers.

In 1918, Professor Frederick Koch came to the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill to teach the University's first courses in playwriting. In that same year, he founded the Carolina Playmakers theater company for the production of these original plays. Koch and the Playmakers produced what they considered to be "folk plays." Koch defined a folk play as being based on "the legends, customs, environmental differences, the vernacular of the common people." He saw them as "realistic and human," and chiefly concerned with "man's conflict with the forces of nature and his simple pleasure in being alive." Working with folk plays encouraged Koch's students to write about the small communities and rural populations they were to be familiar with, and, as in the experience of Paul Green, to address the experiences of "marginalized populations of the South," such as African-Americans and American Indians. The Carolina Playmakers began touring locally in 1920 statewide the following year. In 1922, the first series of Carolina Folk Plays was published, which included five plays written and produced by the Playmakers.

In 1925, Smith Hall, a building on campus used as a library and ballroom, was remodeled and dedicated as Playmakers Theatre for Playmakers performances. A number of successful writers and actors honed their craft in the Carolina Playmakers. Novelist Thomas Wolfe wrote and acted in several plays as a UNC student - including taking the title role in "The Return of Buck Gavin" in the Playmakers' first bill of plays on March 14 and 15, 1919. Betty Smith, who would write A Tree Grows in Brooklyn from her home in Chapel Hill, first came to town in 1936 as part of the WPA Federal Theater Project, wrote many plays for the company. In the late 1940s, Andy Griffith had featured roles in several Playmakers performances, including Gilbert and Sullivan's "The Mikado" and "HMS Pinafore." Other notable writers associated with the Carolina Playmakers include Paul Green, Josefina Niggli, Kermit Hunter, Margaret Bland, John Patric, Jonathan W. Daniels; the Historic Playmakers Theatre is a Greek Revival temple built in 1851, designed by New York architect Alexander Jackson Davis as a combined library and ballroom.

Its original name, Smith Hall, was in honor of a former North Carolina Governor, named Benjamin Smith, who donated his land to the university for the building. After the building was used as a laboratory, bath house, law school, it became a theater in 1925; the theater is the perpetual home of the Carolina Playmakers, although their successor, Playmakers Repertory Company, uses the Paul Green Theatre as its primary venue. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1971 and was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1973; the Historic Playmakers Theatre is one of the oldest buildings dedicated to the arts of the university. The theatre is located next to South Building on East Cameron Avenue on the campus of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; the Paul Green Theatre was completed in 1976 as a 500-seat facility. Located in the Center for Dramatic Arts on the campus of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, this building is the primary venue of PlayMakers Repertory Company.

The theatre company's annual six Mainstage productions are presented in this facility. The Paul Green Theatre is home to professional actors and artists from across the nation; the Elizabeth Price Kenan Theatre was built in 1999 as an extension to the Paul Green Theatre. The Kenan Theatre seats between 120 and 265 depending on stage configuration and is considered a Black box theatre, it features the productions of PlayMakers Repertory Company's second stage series, PRC². PRC ² presents plays that examine controversial political issues, and is supported by the North Carolina Arts Council and the National Endowment for the Arts. The venue hosts productions by undergraduates in the Dramatic and Performing Arts at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Two student-run organizations, Lab! Theatre and The Kenan Theatre Company, produce student-directed work in this venue. Native Son by Nambi E. Kelly September 11-29, 2019 Dairyland by Heidi Armbruster October 16 - November 3, 2019 Ragtime book by Terrence McNally, lyrics by Lynn Ahrens, music by Stephen Flaherty November 20 - December 15, 2019 Everybody by Branden Jacobs-Jenkins January 22 - February 9, 2020 Julius Caesar by William Shakespeare March 4-22, 2020 Native Gardens by Karen Zacarias April 8–26, 2020 No Fear and Blues Long Gone: Nina Simone by Howard Craft August 21–25, 2019 The Amish Project by Jessica Dickey January 8–12, 2020 Edges of Time by Jacqueline E. Lawton April 29 - May 3, 2020 Justin

Beauty Cave

Beauty Cave is a cave on Liuqiu Island off Pingtung County, Taiwan. It is administered as a scenic area whose ticket includes access to nearby Mountain Pig Ditch and Black Dwarf Cave; the name of the cave derives from local legends that it was the home of a beautiful young woman centuries ago. In one version of the story, during the Wanli Era of the Ming Dynasty, she survived a shipwreck in the Taiwan Strait and made the cave her own home, surviving on spring water and wild fruits. In another, the inhabitant of the cave was a Ming loyalist, exiled from mainland China during its conquest by the Qing in the 17th century, his young and filial daughter accompanied him into exile, they survived on plants and fish. When the father died, the daughter was overwhelmed. Rather than join the island's other inhabitants, she committed suicide; the cave is a solutional cave formed by the gradual erosion of Liuqiu Island's limestone. It features fossilized shells and corals; the surrounding scenic area includes other nearby caves, divided into two parts and connected by 13 paths.

The cave was built in 1075. Geology of Taiwan Black Dwarf & Lobster Caves

Aarong

Aarong is a chain of Bangladeshi department stores specializing in Bengali ethnic wear and handicrafts. It is owned by the non-profit development agency BRAC, employs thousands of rural artisans across the country, it operates fourteen outlets in six Bangladeshi metropolitan cities. The organisation was established in 1978. Aarong operates production units in rural and semi-urban areas as a part of its social enterprise model and provides the market linkage through its own retail outlets.. Directorate of National Consumers' Right Protection fined Tk4.5 lakh to Uttara outlet of Aarong and closed it for a day for selling same products in double price within a gap of five days. Following on a client's complaint that Aarong was selling a panjabi after nearly doubling its price, DNCRP officials visited the chain’s flagship store on Jashimuddin Avenue at Uttara on May 31, 2019 and fined them after finding the allegation to be true. Monjur Mohammad Shahriar, deputy director of Directorate of National Consumers' Right Protection led the drive

Álvaro Nadal

Álvaro María Nadal Belda is a Spanish economist and politician. He has been a member of the Congress of Deputies since 2008, he was appointed Minister of Energy and Digital Agenda on November 4, 2016. He left office in June 7, 2018 after the Government that he was part of lost the support of the Congress, he has a twin brother named Alberto Nadal Belda, Secretary of State of Budgets and Expenditures since 2016 to 2018. Álvaro María Nadal Belda born in Madrid on January 30, 1970. He holds a degree in Law and Business, he is a Commercial Technician and State Economist and he passed a Doctorate courses at Harvard University. He held different administrative positions in the ministries of Economy, the Treasury and Industry. Since 2004 is Secretary of Economy of the Popular Party and since 2011, General Director of the Economic Office of the President of the Government. In 2008 he was elected Deputy of the Congress of Deputies. In 2016, PM Mariano Rajoy appointed him as his new Minister of Energy and Digital Agenda until 2018.

He speaks fluently English and German. As a curiosity, his twin brother has the same degrees