Mir Osman Ali Khan
His Exalted Highness Nawab Sir Mir Osman Ali Khan Siddiqi, Asaf Jah VII, was the last Nizam of the princely state of Hyderabad, the largest princely state in British India. He ruled Hyderabad State between 1948, until it was annexed by India, he was styled as His Exalted Highness the Nizam of Hyderabad. In many accounts, the Nizam is held to have been a benevolent ruler who patronized education and development. During his 37-year rule, electricity was introduced, railways and airways were developed, he is credited with the establishment numerous public institutions in the city of Hyderabad, including the Osmania University, Osmania General Hospital, State Bank of Hyderabad, Begumpet Airport, Hyderabad High Court. Two reservoirs, namely Osman Sagar and Himayat Sagar were built during his reign, to prevent another great flood in the city; the Nizam was one of the wealthiest people of all time. In 1937, he was featured on the cover of Time magazine, labelled as the 5th richest man in history, he was a philanthropist, donating millions of rupees to various educational and religious institutions all over India.
Apart from his wealth, he was known for his eccentricities, as he used to knit his own socks, borrow cigarettes from guests. After India's independence in 1947, the Nizam did not wish to accede his state to the newly formed nation. By his power had weakened due to the Telangana movement and rise of a radical Muslim militia known as the Razakars. In 1948, the Indian Army invaded and annexed Hyderabad State, the Nizam was forced to surrender, he was made the Rajpramukh of Hyderabad State between 1950 and 1956, after which the state was partitioned and became part of Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra. The Nizam died in 1967; the famous Golconda mines was the major source of wealth for the Nizam's apart from land revenue. Hyderabad State in British India was the only supplier of Diamonds for the global market in the 18th century, he acceded as the Nizam of Hyderabad upon the death of his father in 1911. The state of Hyderabad was the largest of the princely states in pre-independence India. With an area of 86,000 square miles, it was the size of the present-day United Kingdom.
The Nizam was the highest-ranking prince in India, was one of only five princes entitled to a 21-gun salute, held the unique title of "Nizam", was titled "His Exalted Highness" and "Faithful Ally of the British Crown" In 1908, three years before the Nizam's coronation, the city of Hyderabad was struck by a major flood that resulted in the death of thousands. The Nizam, on the advice of Sir Visvesvaraya, ordered the construction of two large reservoirs, namely the Osman Sagar and Himayat Sagar to prevent another flood, he was given the title of "Faithful Ally of the British Crown" after World War One due to his financial contribution to the British Empire's war effort. He paid for a Royal Navy vessel, the N-class destroyer, HMAS Nizam commissioned in 1940 and transferred to the Royal Australian Navy. In 1918, the Nizam issued a firman that brought into existence the Osmania University, the first university to have Urdu as a medium of instruction; the present campus was completed in 1934. In 1919, the Nizam ordered the formation of the Executive Council of Hyderabad, presided by Sir Sayyid Ali Imam, with eight other members, each in charge of one or more departments.
The President of the Executive Council would be the Prime Minister of Hyderabad. The Begumpet Airport was established in the 1930s with formation of Hyderabad Aero Club by the Nizam, it was used as a domestic and international airport for the Nizam's Deccan Airways, the earliest airline in British India. The terminal building was created in 1937, he arranged a matrimonial alliance between his son Azam Jah and Princess Durrushehvar of the Ottoman Empire. It was believed at that time that the matrimonial alliance between the Nizam and the deposed Caliph would lead to the emergence of a Muslim ruler who could be acceptable to the world powers in place of the Ottoman Sultans. After India's Independence, the Nizam made vain attempts to declare his sovereignty over the state of Hyderabad, either as a protectorate of the British Empire, or as a sovereign monarchy. However, his power weakened due to the Telangana rebellion and rise of the Razakars, a radical Muslim militia who wanted Hyderabad to remain under Muslim rule.
In 1948, India invaded and annexed Hyderabad State, the rule of the Nizam ended. Nearly all the major public buildings and institutions in Hyderabad city, such as Osmania General Hospital, Hyderabad High Court, Jubilee Hall, Nizamia Observatory, Nizamia Hospital, Moazzam Jahi Market, Kachiguda Railway Station, Asafiya Library now known as the State Central Library, Town Hall now known as the Assembly Hall, Hyderabad Museum now known as the State Museum and many other monuments were built under his reign, he built the Hyderabad House in Delhi, now used for diplomatic meetings by the Government of India. Apart from giving donations to major educational institutions throughout India, he introduced many educational reforms during his reign. 11% of the Nizam's budget was spent on education. He made large donations to many institutions in India and abroad with special emphasis given to educational institutions such as the Jamia Nizamia and the Darul Uloom Deoband; the foundation of agricultural research in Marathwada region of erstwhile Hyderabad state was laid by the Nizam with the commencement of the Main Experimental Farm in 1918 in Parbhani.
During the Nizam's ru
Kollur Mine was a series of gravel-clay pits on the south bank of the River Krishna in the Golconda, India. It is thought to have produced many large diamonds that have been a part of crown jewels; the mine was operated until the 19th century. Kollur Mine operated between the 16th and mid-19th centuries, was one of the largest and most productive diamond mines on the Indian subcontinent. At the height of production, around 30,000 – 60,000 people worked there, including men and children of all ages. Kollur itself had a population of around 100,000. Golconda mines were owned by the king, but operation was leased to diamond merchants, either foreigners or Indians of the goldsmith caste; as well as rent, the king received 2% from sales, he was entitled to keep all diamonds over 10 carats. Mining at Kollur was crude, labour-intensive, dangerous. Miners wore loincloths, slept in huts covered with straw, were given food instead of money; the pit walls had no timber supports and caved in after heavy rains, killing dozens of men at a time.
The area was evacuated in the 2000s to make way for the Pulichinthala irrigation project and is submerged by 50 feet of water for most of the year. The gravel-clay pits were a maximum depth of 4 metres due to the high water table; the diamond-bearing seam was 1 foot thick. Alluvial workings covered an area 1.5 kilometres long and between 800 metres wide. It was bounded to the east by an outcrop of the Nallamala Hills and to the north and west by a meander of the River Krishna. Most of the pits have since been filled up with scree and eluvium from neighbouring hillsides; the Tavernier Blue diamond was purchased by Jean-Baptiste Tavernier from the Kollur Mine in the mid-17th century. King Louis XIV of France bought the diamond from Tavernier, but it was stolen during the French Revolution. Other diamonds thought to have originated at Kollur include the Koh-i-Noor, the Great Mogul, the Wittelsbach-Graff, the Regent, the Daria-i-Noor, the Orlov, the Nizam, the Dresden Green, the Nassak. Kollur Mine's location on the south bank of River Krishna at latitude 16° 42' 30" N and longitude 80° 5' E is indicated on several maps created in the 17th and 18th centuries.
All memory of its position was lost until it was rediscovered in the 1880s by Valentine Ball, a geologist who helped to create this map of Golconda mines. In his annotated English edition of gem merchant Jean-Baptiste Tavernier's book Travels in India, Ball notes that ruins of houses and mine workings could still be found at Kollur. In the 1960s, Kollur Mine was pinpointed more as being 1.5 kilometres due north-east of Kollur village on the south bank of River Krishna at latitude 16° 43' N and longitude 80° 02' E, extending for 1.5 kilometres all the way up to Pulichinthala village. Golconda Diamonds Placer mining Media related to Kollur Mine at Wikimedia Commons
Golkonda known as Golconda, Gol konda, or Golla konda, is a citadel and fort in Southern India and was the capital of the medieval sultanate of the Qutb Shahi dynasty, is situated 11 km west of Hyderabad. It is a tehsil of Hyderabad district, India; the region is known for the mines that have produced some of the world's most famous gems, including the Koh-i-Noor, the Hope Diamond, Nassak Diamond and the Noor-ul-Ain. Golkonda was known as Mankal. Golkonda Fort was first built by the Kakatiyas as part of their western defenses along the lines of the Kondapalli Fort; the city and the fortress were built on a granite hill, 120 meters high, surrounded by massive battlements. The fort was strengthened by Rani Rudrama Devi and her successor Prataparudra; the fort came under the control of the Musunuri Nayaks, who defeated the Tughlaqi army occupying Warangal. It was ceded by the Musunuri Kapaya Bhupathi to the Bahmani Sultanate as part of a treaty in 1364. Under the Bahmani Sultanate, Golkonda rose to prominence.
Sultan Quli Qutb-ul-Mulk, sent as a governor of Telangana, established it as the seat of his government around 1501. Bahmani rule weakened during this period, Sultan Quli formally became independent in 1538, establishing the Qutb Shahi dynasty based in Golkonda. Over a period of 62 years, the mud fort was expanded by the first three Qutb Shahi sultans into the present structure, a massive fortification of granite extending around 5 km in circumference, it remained the capital of the Qutb Shahi dynasty until 1590 when the capital was shifted to Hyderabad. The Qutb Shahis expanded the fort; the fort fell into ruin in 1687, after an eight-month-long siege led to its fall at the hands of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb. The Golkonda Fort used to have a vault where the famous Koh-i-Noor and Hope diamonds were once stored along with other diamonds. Golkonda is renowned for the diamonds found on the south-east at Kollur Mine near Kollur, Guntur district and Atkur in Krishna district and cut in the city during the Kakatiya reign.
At that time, India had the only known diamond mines in the world. Golkonda's mines yielded many diamonds. Golkonda was the market city of the diamond trade, gems sold there came from a number of mines; the fortress-city within the walls was famous for diamond trade. However, Europeans believed. Magnificent diamonds were taken from the mines in the region surrounding Golkonda, including the Daria-i-Noor or "Sea of Light", at 185 carats, the largest and finest diamond of the crown jewels of Iran, its name has come to be associated with great wealth. Gemologists use this classification to denote a diamond with a complete lack of nitrogen. Many famed diamonds are believed to have been excavated from the mines of Golkonda, such as: Daria-i-Noor Noor-ul-Ain Koh-i-Noor Hope Diamond Princie Diamond Regent Diamond Wittelsbach-Graff Diamond By the 1880s, "Golkonda" was being used generically by English speakers to refer to any rich mine, to any source of great wealth. During the Renaissance and the early modern eras, the name "Golkonda" acquired a legendary aura and became synonymous for vast wealth.
The mines brought riches to the Qutb Shahis of Hyderabad State, who ruled Golkonda up to 1687 to the Nizam of Hyderabad, who ruled after the independence from the Mughal Empire in 1724 until 1948, when the Indian integration of Hyderabad occurred. The Golkonda fort is listed as an archaeological treasure on the official "List of Monuments" prepared by the Archaeological Survey of India under The Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act. Golkonda consists of four distinct forts with a 10 km long outer wall with 87 semicircular bastions, eight gateways, four drawbridges, with a number of royal apartments and halls, mosques, stables, etc. inside. The lowest of these is the outermost enclosure into which we enter by the "Fateh Darwaza" studded with giant iron spikes near the south-eastern corner. An acoustic effect can be experienced at Fateh Darwazaan, characteristic of the engineering marvels at Golkonda. A hand clap at a certain point below the dome at the entrance reverberates and can be heard at the'Bala Hisar' pavilion, the highest point a kilometer away.
This worked. The whole of the Golkonda Fort complex and its surrounding spreads across 11 km of total area and discovering its every nook is an arduous task. A visit to the fort reveals the architectural beauty in many of the pavilions, gates and domes. Divided into four district forts, the architectural valour still gleams in each of the apartments, temples and stables; the graceful gardens of the fort may have lost their fragrance, for which they were known 400 years ago, yet a walk in these former gardens should be in your schedule when exploring the past glories of Golkonda Fort. Bala Hissar Gate is the main entrance to the fort located on the eastern side, it has a pointed arch bordered by rows of scroll work. The spandrels have yalis and decorated roundels; the area above the door has peacocks with ornate tails flanking an ornamental arched niche. The granite block lintel below has sculpted yalis flanking a disc; the design of peacocks and lions is t
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
The almond is a species of tree native to Mediterranean climate regions of the Middle East, but cultivated elsewhere. The almond is the name of the edible and cultivated seed of this tree. Within the genus Prunus, it is classified with the peach in the subgenus Amygdalus, distinguished from the other subgenera by corrugations on the shell surrounding the seed; the fruit of the almond is a drupe, consisting of an outer hull and a hard shell with the seed, not a true nut, inside. Shelling almonds refers to removing the shell to reveal the seed. Almonds are sold unshelled. Blanched almonds are shelled almonds that have been treated with hot water to soften the seedcoat, removed to reveal the white embryo; the almond is a deciduous tree. The young twigs are green at first, becoming purplish where exposed to sunlight grey in their second year; the leaves are 8 -- 13 cm long, with a 2.5 cm petiole. The flowers are white to pale pink, 3–5 cm diameter with five petals, produced singly or in pairs and appearing before the leaves in early spring.
Almond grows best in Mediterranean climates with mild, wet winters. The optimal temperature for their growth is between 15 and 30 °C and the tree buds have a chilling requirement of 300 to 600 hours below 7.2 °C to break dormancy. Almonds begin bearing an economic crop in the third year after planting. Trees reach full bearing five to six years after planting; the fruit matures in 7 -- 8 months after flowering. The almond fruit is 3.5–6 cm long. In botanical terms, it is not a nut but a drupe; the outer covering or exocarp, fleshy in other members of Prunus such as the plum and cherry, is instead a thick, grey-green coat, called the hull. Inside the hull is a reticulated, woody shell called the endocarp. Inside the shell is the edible seed called a nut. One seed is present, but two occur. After the fruit matures, the hull splits and separates from the shell, an abscission layer forms between the stem and the fruit so that the fruit can fall from the tree; the almond is native to the Mediterranean climate region of the Middle East, from Syria, Turkey and eastward to Pakistan.
It was spread by humans in ancient times along the shores of the Mediterranean into northern Africa and southern Europe, more transported to other parts of the world, notably California, United States. The wild form of domesticated almond grows in parts of the Levant. Selection of the sweet type from the many bitter types in the wild marked the beginning of almond domestication, it is unclear as to. The species Prunus fenzliana may be the most wild ancestor of the almond in part because it is native of Armenia and western Azerbaijan where it was domesticated. Wild almond species were grown by early farmers, "at first unintentionally in the garbage heaps, intentionally in their orchards". Almonds were one of the earliest domesticated fruit trees due to "the ability of the grower to raise attractive almonds from seed. Thus, in spite of the fact that this plant does not lend itself to propagation from suckers or from cuttings, it could have been domesticated before the introduction of grafting".
Domesticated almonds appear in the Early Bronze Age such as the archaeological sites of Numeria, or earlier. Another well-known archaeological example of the almond is the fruit found in Tutankhamun's tomb in Egypt imported from the Levant. Of the European countries that the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh reported as cultivating almonds, Germany is the northernmost, though the domesticated form can be found as far north as Iceland; the word "almond" comes from Old French almande or alemande, Late Latin *amandula, derived through a form amygdala from the Greek ἀμυγδάλη, an almond. The al- in English, for the a- used in other languages may be due a confusion with the Arabic article al, the word having first dropped the a- as in the Italian form mandorla. Other related names of almond include mandel or knackmandel, mandorla, amêndoa, almendra; the adjective "amygdaloid" is used to describe objects which are almond-shaped a shape, part way between a triangle and an ellipse. See, for example, the brain structure amygdala, which uses a direct borrowing of the Greek term amygdalē.
The pollination of California's almonds is the largest annual managed pollination event in the world, with close to one million hives being trucked in February to the almond groves. Much of the pollination is managed by pollination brokers, who contract with migratory beekeepers from at least 49 states for the event; this business has been affected by colony collapse disorder, causing nationwide shortages of honey bees and increasing the price of insect pollination. To protect almond growers from the rising cost of insect pollination, researchers at the Agricultural Research Service have developed a new line of self-pollinating almond trees. Self-pollinating almond trees, such as the'Tuono', have been around
Nizam of Hyderabad
The Nizam of Hyderabad was a monarch of the Hyderabad State, now divided into Telangana state, Hyderabad-Karnataka region of Karnataka and Marathwada region of Maharashtra. Nizam, shortened from Nizam-ul-Mulk, meaning Administrator of the Realm, the title of the rulers of Hyderabad State, was the premier Prince of India, since 1724, belonging to the Asaf Jahi dynasty; the Asaf Jahi dynasty was founded by Mir Qamar-ud-Din Siddiqi, a viceroy of the Deccan under the Mughal Empire from 1713 to 1721. He intermittently governed the region after Aurangzeb's death in 1707. In 1724, Mughal control weakened, Asaf Jah became independent of them; when the British achieved paramountcy over India, the Nizams were allowed to continue to rule their princely states as client kings. The Nizams retained internal power over Hyderabad State until the 17 September 1948 when Hyderabad was integrated into the new Indian Union; the Asaf Jah dynasty had only seven rulers. They were never recognised as rulers; the seventh and last Nizam was Mir Osman Ali Khan, who fell from power when Hyderabad was annexed by India in 1948.
By the time of its annexation, Hyderabad was the largest and most prosperous one among all the princely states. It covered 82,698 square miles of homogeneous territory and had a population of 16.34 million people, of which a majority was Hindu. Hyderabad State had its own army, telecommunication system, railway network, postal system and radio broadcasting service. Hindus were under-represented in government and the military. Of 1765 officers in the State Army, 1268 were Muslims, 421 were Hindus, 121 others were Christians and Sikhs. Of the upper level government officials, 59 were Muslims, 5 were Hindus and 38 were of other religions; the Nizam and his nobles, who were Muslims, owned 40% of the total land in the state. All kotwals, police commissioners, were Muslims; the name Nizam spelled as Nezam, comes from Urdu /nɪˈzɑːm/, which itself is derived from the ancient Arabic language niẓām which means "order" or "arrangement". Nizām-ul-mulk was a title first used in Urdu around 1600 to mean Governor of the realm or Deputy for the whole Empire.
The word is derived from the Arabic language, as in Abu Ali Hasan ibn Ali Tusi, better known by his honorific title of Nizam al-Mulk. According to Sir Roper Lethbridge in "The Golden Book of India"—, the Nizams are lineally descended from the First Caliph Abu Bakr, the successor of the Prophet Muhammed; the family of Nizams in India is descended from Abid Khan, a Turkoman from Samarkand, whose lineage is traced to Sufi Shihab-ud-Din Suhrawardi of Central Asia. In the early 1650s, on his way to hajj, Abid Khan stopped in Deccan, where the young prince Aurangzeb Governor of Deccan, cultivated him. Abid Khan returned to the service of Aurangzeb to fight in the succession wars of 1657–58. After Aurangzeb's enthronement, Abid Khan was richly rewarded and became Aurangzeb's favourite nobleman, his son Ghazi Uddin Khan received in marriage, Safiya Khanum, the daughter of the former imperial prime minister Sa‘dullah Khan. Mir Qamaruddin Khan, the founder of the line of Nizams, was born of the couple, thus descending from two prominent families of the Mughal court.
Ghazi Uddin Khan rose to become a General of the Emperor Aurangzeb and played a vital role in conquering Bijapur and Golconda Sultanates of Southern India in 1686. He played a key role in thwarting the rebellion by Prince Akbar and alleged rebellion by Prince Mu`azzam.. After Aurangzeb's death and during the war of succession and his father remained neutral thus escaping the risk of being on the losing side, their successor Farrukhsiyar appointed Qamaruddin the governor of Deccan in 1713, awarding him the title Nizam-ul-Mulk. However, the governorship was taken away two years and Qamaruddin withdrew to his estate in Moradabad. Under the next emperor, Muhammad Shah, Qamaruddin accepted the governorship of Deccan for the second time in 1721; the next year, following the death of his uncle Muhammad Amin Khan, a power-broker in the Mughal Court, Qamaruddin returned to the Delhi and was made the wazir. According to historian Faruqui, his tenure as prime minister was undermined by his opponents and a rebellion in Deccan was engineered against him.
In 1724, the Nizam returned to Deccan to reclaim his base, in the process making a transition to a semi-independent ruler. In 1724, Asif Jah I defeated Mubariz Khan to establish autonomy over the Deccan Suba, named the region Hyderabad Deccan, started what came to be known as the Asaf Jahi dynasty. Subsequent rulers retained the title Nizam ul-Mulk and were referred to as Asif Jahi Nizams, or Nizams of Hyderabad. Nizam I never formally declared independence from the Mughals. In Friday prayers, the sermon would be conducted in the name of Aurangzeb, this tradition would continue until the end of Hyderabad State in 1948; the death of Asif Jah I in 1748 resulted in a period of political unrest as his sons, backed by opportunistic neighbouring states and colonial foreign forces, contended for the throne. The accession of Asif Jah II, who reigned
Hyderabad State known as Hyderabad Deccan, was an Indian princely state located in the south-central region of India with its capital at the city of Hyderabad. It is now divided into Telangana state, Hyderabad-Karnataka region of Karnataka and Marathwada region of Maharashtra; the state was ruled from 1724 to 1857 by the Nizam, a viceroy of the Great Mogul in the Deccan. Hyderabad became the first princely state to come under British paramountcy signing a subsidiary alliance agreement. Under the leadership of Asaf Jah V it changed its traditional heraldic flag; the dynasty declared itself an independent monarchy during the final years of the British Raj. After the Partition of India, Hyderabad signed a standstill agreement with the new dominion of India, continuing all previous arrangements except for the stationing of Indian troops in the state. Hyderabad's location in the middle of the Indian union, as well as its diverse cultural heritage, was a driving force behind India's invasion and annexation of the state in 1948.
Subsequently, Mir Osman Ali Khan, the 7th Nizam, signed an instrument of accession. Hyderabad State was founded by Mir Qamar-ud-din Khan, the governor of Deccan under the Mughals from 1713 to 1721. In 1724, he resumed rule under the title of Asaf Jah, his other title, Nizam ul-Mulk, became the title of his position "Nizam of Hyderabad". By the end of his rule, the Nizam had become independent from the Mughals, had founded the Asaf Jahi dynasty. Following the decline of the Mughal power, the region of Deccan saw the rise of Maratha Empire; the Nizam himself saw many invasions by the Marathas in the 1720s, which resulted in the Nizam paying a regular tax to the Marathas. The major battles fought between the Marathas and the Nizam include Palkhed and Kharda. Following the conquest of Deccan by Bajirao I and the imposition of chauth by him, Nizam remained a tributary of the Marathas for all intent and purposes. From 1778, a British resident and soldiers were installed in his dominions. In 1795, the Nizam lost some of his own territories to the Marathas.
The territorial gains of the Nizam from Mysore as an ally of the British were ceded to the British to meet the cost of maintaining the British soldiers. Hyderabad was a 212,000 km2 region in the Deccan, ruled by the head of the Asaf Jahi dynasty, who had the title of Nizam and on whom was bestowed the style of "His Exalted Highness" by the British; the last Nizam, Osman Ali Khan, was one of the world's richest men in the 1930s. In 1798, Nizam ʿĀlī Khan was forced to enter into an agreement that put Hyderabad under British protection, he was the first Indian prince to sign such an agreement. The Crown retained the right to intervene in case of misrule. Hyderabad under Asaf Jah II was a British ally in the second and third Maratha Wars, Anglo-Mysore wars, would remain loyal to the British during the Indian Rebellion of 1857, his son, Asaf Jah III Mir Akbar Ali Khan ruled from 1768 to 1829. During his rule, a British cantonment was built in Hyderabad and the area was named in his honor, Secunderabad.
The British Residency at Koti was built during his reign by the British Resident James Achilles Kirkpatrick. Sikander Jah was succeeded by Asaf Jah IV, who ruled from 1829 to 1857, was succeeded by his son Asaf Jah V. Asaf Jah V's reign from 1857 to 1869 was marked by reforms by his Prime Minister Salar Jung I. Before this time, there was no regular or systematic form of administration, the duties were in the hand of the Diwan, corruption was thus widespread. In 1867, the State was divided into five divisions and seventeen districts, subedars were appointed for the five Divisions and talukdars and tehsildars for the districts; the judicial, public works, educational and police departments were re-organised. In 1868, sadr-i-mahams were appointed for the Judicial, Revenue and Miscellaneous Departments. Asaf Jah VI Mir Mahbub Ali Khan became the Nizam at the age of three years, his regents were Salar Jung I and Shams-ul-Umra III. He assumed full rule at the age of 17, ruled until his death in 1911.
The Nizam's Guaranteed State Railway was established during his reign to connect Hyderabad State to the rest of British India. It was headquartered at Secunderabad Railway Station; the railway marked the beginning of industry in Hyderabad, factories were built in Hyderabad city. During his rule, the Great Musi Flood of 1908 struck the city of Hyderabad, which killed an estimated 50,000 people; the Nizam opened all his palaces for public asylum. He abolished Sati where women used to jump into their husband's burning pyre, by issuing a royal Firman; the last Nizam of Hyderabad Mir Osman Ali Khan ruled the state from 1911 until 1948. He was given the title "Faithful Ally of the British Empire". Hyderabad was considered peaceful, during this time; the Nizam's rule saw growth of culturally. The Osmania University and several schools and colleges were founded throughout the state. Many writers, poets and other eminent people migrated from all parts of India to Hyderabad during the reign of Asaf Jah VII, his father and predecessor Asaf Jah VI.
The Nizam established Hyderabad State Bank. Hyderabad was the only state in British India which had the Hyderabadi rupee; the Begumpet Airp