International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication. The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title, ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature. The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971, ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the content is published in more than one media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media, the ISSN system refers to these types as print ISSN and electronic ISSN, respectively. The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers, as an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits. The last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows, NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character.
The ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, for calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, the modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker that can validate an ISSN, ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres, usually located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris. The International Centre is an organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, at the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept, where ISBNs are assigned to individual books, an ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole.
An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an identifier associated with a serial title. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change, separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. Also, a CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial
Hyrax Hill is a prehistoric site near Nakuru in the Rift Valley province of Kenya. It is a rocky spur roughly half a kilometer in length, with an elevation of 1,900 meters above sea level at its summit. The site was first discovered in 1926 by Louis Leakey during excavations at the nearby Nakuru Burial Site, and Mary Leakey conducted the first major excavations between 1937 and 1938. There are two areas of occupation at Hyrax Hill, one which was occupied during the Neolithic and late Iron Age. Hyrax Hill is named after the hyrax, a mammal that lives in rocky areas. Hyraxes were once common in the crevasses of Hyrax Hill. Hyrax Hill is the location of Hyrax Hill Prehistoric Site and Museum, Louis Leakey discovered the remains of prehistoric settlements at Hyrax Hill while excavating the nearby Nakuru Burial in 1926. He did not excavate it at the time because he believed it to be a recent occupation, Louis Leakey returned to the area in 1937 with his wife, Mary Leakey. It was Mary Leakey who began excavations at Hyrax Hill.
She excavated and named both Site I and Site II between 1937 and 1938, with no carbon dating technology available, dating the sites was difficult at the time. Leakey mistakenly described the Iron Age Sirikwa Holes as a pre-Iron Age village with pit-dwellings, Hyrax Hill is located near Lake Nakuru. 5000 to 6000 years ago, during the occupation of Site I, Hyrax Hill was a peninsula at this time, which jutted out into the north side of the lake. The occupants would have had access to a supply of fresh water. Mary Leakey identified the ancient rocky beach of the lake in her 1938 excavations, the early occupation of Site I lies directly on the ancient beach, and she was able to use this and relative dating to date this portion of the site. Lake levels began to drop starting 3500 years ago, and the became a more open savanna grassland. The drier environment was well suited to the used by the Sirikwan inhabitants of Site II. Site I is the area of Hyrax Hill that was occupied during the Neolithic, the Iron Age portion of the site dates to around 200 years ago, and consists of several stone enclosures and a large midden.
Directly under this layer was an earlier Neolithic cemetery, the Neolithic cemetery consisted of several low burial mounds formed out of large blocks of stone
Armenia, officially the Republic of Armenia, is a sovereign state in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia. The Republic of Armenia constitutes only one-tenth of historical Armenia, Armenia is a unitary, multi-party, democratic nation-state with an ancient cultural heritage. Urartu was established in 860 BC and by the 6th century BC it was replaced by the Satrapy of Armenia, in the 1st century BC the Kingdom of Armenia reached its height under Tigranes the Great. Armenia became the first state in the world to adopt Christianity as its official religion, in between the late 3rd century to early years of the 4th century, the state became the first Christian nation. The official date of adoption of Christianity is 301 AD. The ancient Armenian kingdom was split between the Byzantine and Sasanian Empires around the early 5th century, under the Bagratuni dynasty, the Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia was restored in the 9th century. Declining due to the wars against the Byzantines, the fell in 1045. An Armenian principality and a kingdom Cilician Armenia was located on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea between the 11th and 14th centuries.
By the 19th century, Eastern Armenia had been conquered by the Russian Empire, during World War I, Armenians living in their ancestral lands in the Ottoman Empire were systematically exterminated in the Armenian Genocide. By 1920, the state was incorporated into the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, in 1936, the Transcaucasian state was dissolved, transforming its constituent states, including the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, into full Union republics. The modern Republic of Armenia became independent in 1991 during the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Republic of Armenia recognises the Armenian Apostolic Church, the worlds oldest national church, as the countrys primary religious establishment. The unique Armenian alphabet was invented by Mesrop Mashtots in 405 AD, Armenia is a member of the Eurasian Economic Union, the Council of Europe and the Collective Security Treaty Organization. Armenia supports the de facto independent Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, which was proclaimed in 1991, the native Armenian name for the country is Հայք.
The name in the Middle Ages was extended to Հայաստան, by addition of the Persian suffix -stan, the further origin of the name is uncertain. It is postulated that the name Hay comes from one of the two confederated, Hittite vassal states—the Ḫayaša-Azzi. The exonym Armenia is attested in the Old Persian Behistun Inscription as Armina, the ancient Greek terms Ἀρμενία and Ἀρμένιοι are first mentioned by Hecataeus of Miletus. Xenophon, a Greek general serving in some of the Persian expeditions, describes many aspects of Armenian village life and he relates that the people spoke a language that to his ear sounded like the language of the Persians. According to the histories of both Moses of Chorene and Michael Chamchian, Armenia derives from the name of Aram, a descendant of Hayk
The Takwa settlement is situated on the south side of Manda Island, in the Lamu District in the coastal province of Kenya. They are the ruins of a town which was abandoned around the 18th century, the Takwa site can be easily reached from Lamu town. The ruins were first excavated by James Kirkman in 1951, in 1972 the site was cleared again under the supervision of James de Vere Allen, the Curator of the Lamu Museum. Takwa was never a large place and it was founded around 1500, and probably abandoned around 1700. Kirkman thought that it was perhaps a place where holy men or religious people retreated, the Great Mosque at Takwa is relatively well preserved. The other structure of importance is the Pillar Tomb, which has an inscription with the date of 1681-1682 and it is reported that when Takwa was abandoned, its inhabitants settled just across the bay at Shela on Lamu Island. Twice a year the people of Shela come to the Pillar Tomb in Takwa to pray for rain, the Takwa Ruins were designated a Kenyan National Monument in 1982.
Martin, Chryssee MacCasler Perry and Esmond Bradley Martin, Quest for the Past, an historical guide to the Lamu Archipelago. Wilson, Thomas H. Takwa, An Ancient Swahili Settlement of the Lamu Archipelago
Reproducibility and replicability together are among the main principles of the scientific method. The values obtained from distinct experimental trials are said to be if they are obtained according to the same reproducible experimental description. Thus all knowledge, all science, necessarily involves the formation of general concepts, however, in science, a very well reproduced result is one that can be confirmed using as many different experimental setups as possible and as many lines of evidence as possible. The first to stress the importance of reproducibility in science was the Irish chemist Robert Boyle, boyles air pump was designed to generate and study vacuum, which at the time was a very controversial concept. Indeed, distinguished philosophers such as René Descartes and Thomas Hobbes denied the possibility of vacuum existence. By repeating the experiment over and over again, Boyle argued. In the 1660s, the Dutch scientist Christiaan Huygens built his own air pump in Amsterdam, Huygens was finally invited to England in 1663, and under his personal guidance Hooke was able to replicate anomalous suspension of water.
Following this Huygens was elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society, however and Schaffer note that “the accomplishment of replication was dependent on contingent acts of judgment. One cannot write down a formula saying when replication was or was not achieved”, the philosopher of science Karl Popper noted briefly in his famous 1934 book The Logic of Scientific Discovery that “non-reproducible single occurrences are of no significance to science”. Reproducibility is one component of the precision of a measurement or test method, the other component is repeatability which is the degree of agreement of tests or measurements on replicate specimens by the same observer in the same laboratory. Both repeatability and reproducibility are usually reported as a standard deviation, a reproducibility limit is the value below which the difference between two test results obtained under reproducibility conditions may be expected to occur with a probability of approximately 0.95. Reproducibility is determined from controlled interlaboratory test programs or a measurement systems analysis, although they are often confused, there is an important distinction between replicates and an independent repetition of an experiment.
Replicates are performed within an experiment and they are not and cannot provide independent evidence of reproducibility. Rather they serve as a check on an experiment and should not be shown as part of the experimental results within a scientific publication. That can be used to reproduce the results and create new work based on the research, Psychology has seen a renewal of internal concerns about irreproducible results. Researchers showed in a 2006 study that, of 141 authors of a publication from the American Psychology Association empirical articles,103 did not respond with their data over a 6-month period. In a follow up study published in 2015, it was found that 246 out of 394 contacted authors of papers in APA journals did not share their data upon request. In a 2012 paper, it was suggested that researchers should publish data along with their works, in 2015, Psychology became the first discipline to conduct and publish an open, registered empirical study of reproducibility called the Reproducibility Project
Pate Island is located in the Indian Ocean close to the northern coast of Kenya, to which it belongs. It is the largest island in the Lamu Archipelago, which lie between the towns of Lamu and Kiunga in the former Coast Province, the island is almost completely surrounded by mangroves. From the 7th century, Paté island was a site of Arabic colonisation. It was the centre of the Pate sultanate from the 13th–19th centuries, the Swahili port of Pate long vied with Lamu and Takwa for economic dominance of the area, and came into prominence around the 14th century. It was subjugated by Lamu, however, in the late 19th century, public transportation is provided by a few mini buses. The main administrative centre on the island, with the station, is Faza. Faza town, on the North coast, known by the name of Ampaza by the Portuguese dates back at least to the 14th century. In 1587, Faza was destroyed by the Portuguese as the local Sheikh had supported Mir Ali Bey, the Portuguese arrived from Goa with some 650 men on their punitive expedition, and unleashed their fury on Faza.
Everybody they could find was killed, including the local Sheikh, the Portuguese preserved his head in a barrel of salt for display in India. After 4 days of looting they invited Fazas arch-rivals from Pate town to take anything that they liked from Faza. The Portuguese in Faza constructed a chapel there, nothing remains of it, in the 18th century Faza again fell into decline due to the rise of Pate. The English Consul Holmwood visited the place in 1873 and found it dirty, the Pate Sultanate was a sultanate from at least the beginning of the 13th century until 1895. From 1858 on it was the known as Wituland. Archeological evidence suggests Pate was a prominent location in local trade networks by the 10th century, Pate Town is situated on the South-West coast of the island. According to the Pate Chronicle, the town of Pate was founded by refugees from Oman in the 8th century and re-founded by members of the Nabahani family, from Oman, in 1203. The Pate Chronicle claims that in the 14th century Pate was so powerful that it had conquered most of the towns on the Swahili Coast.
However, recent archaeological findings suggest that the references in the Chronicle to Pate are wrong. The 18th century was known as the Golden Age of Pate, builders constructed some of the finest houses on the Swahili Coast, with extensive elaborate plaster works
Louis Seymour Bazett Leakey, known as L. S. B. Having established a program of inquiry in eastern Africa, he motivated many future generations to continue this scholarly work. Several members of Leakeys family became prominent scholars themselves, another of Leakeys legacies stems from his role in fostering field research of primates in their natural habitats, which he saw as key to understanding human evolution. He personally chose three female researchers, Jane Goodall, Dian Fossey, and Birutė Galdikas, calling them The Trimates, each went on to become an important scholar in the field of primatology. Leakey encouraged and supported many other Ph. D. candidates, Leakey played a major role in creating organizations for future research in Africa and for protecting wildlife there. Louiss parents and Mary Bazett Leakey, were Church of England missionaries in British East Africa, Harry was the son of James Shirley Leakey, one of the eleven children of the portrait painter James Leakey. Harry Leakey was assigned to an established post of the Church Mission Society among the Kikuyu at Kabete, the station was at that time a hut and two tents.
Louiss earliest home had a floor, a leaky thatched roof and insects. The facilities slowly improved over time, the mission, a center of activity, set up a clinic in one of the tents, and a girls school. Harry was working on a translation of the Bible into the Gikuyu language and he had a distinguished career in the CMS, becoming canon of the station. Louis had a brother and two older sisters and Julia. The Leakey household came to contain Miss Oakes, Miss Higgenbotham, Louis grew up, and learned to hunt with Africans. He learned to walk with the gait of the Kikuyu and speak their language fluently. He was initiated into the Kikuyu ethnic group, an event of which he never spoke, Louis requested and was given permission to build and move into a hut, Kikuyu style, at the end of the garden. It was home to his collection of natural objects, such as birds eggs. All the children developed a keen interest in and appreciation of the natural surroundings in which they found themselves. They raised baby animals, turning them over to zoos, Louis read a gift book, Days Before History, by H. R.
Hall, a juvenile fictional work illustrating the prehistory of Britain. He began to collect tools and was encouraged in this activity by a role model, Arthur Loveridge, first curator of the Natural History Museum in Nairobi
Mortar and pestle
A pestle and mortar is a kitchen device used since ancient times to prepare ingredients or substances by crushing and grinding them into a fine paste or powder. The mortar is a bowl, typically made of hard wood, the pestle is a heavy and blunt club-shaped object, the end of which is used for crushing and grinding. The substance to be ground is placed in the mortar and ground and pestles have been used in cooking up to the present day, they are frequently associated with the profession of pharmacy due to their historical use in preparing medicines. They can be used in masonry and in types of construction. Scientists have found ancient mortars and pestles that date back to approximately 35,000 B. C, the English word mortar derives from classical Latin mortarium, among several other usages, receptacle for pounding and product of grinding or pounding. The classical Latin pistillum, meaning pounder, led to English pestle, the Roman poet Juvenal applied both mortarium and pistillum to articles used in the preparation of drugs, reflecting the early use of the mortar and pestle as a symbol of a pharmacist or apothecary.
The antiquity of these tools is well documented in writing, such as the Egyptian Ebers Papyrus of ~1550 BCE. Mortars and pestles were used in pharmacies to crush various ingredients prior to preparing an extemporaneous prescription. The mortar and pestle, with the Rod of Asclepius, the Orange Cross, for pharmaceutical use, the mortar and the head of the pestle are usually made of porcelain, while the handle of the pestle is made of wood. This is known as a Wedgwood mortar and pestle and originated in 1759, today the act of mixing ingredients or reducing the particle size is known as trituration. Mortars and pestles are used as drug paraphernalia to grind up pills to speed up absorption when they are ingested. Mortars are used in cooking to prepare ingredients such as guacamole and pesto, the molcajete, a version used by pre-Hispanic Mesoamerican cultures including the Aztec and Maya, stretching back several thousand years, is made of basalt and is used widely in Mexican cooking. Other Native American nations use mortars carved into the bedrock to grind acorns, many such depressions can be found in their territories.
In Japan, very large mortars are used with wooden mallets to prepare mochi, a regular sized Japanese mortar and pestle are called a suribachi and surikogi, respectively. Granite mortars and pestles are used in Southeast Asia, as well as Pakistan, in India, it is used extensively to make spice mixtures for various delicacies as well as day to day dishes. With the advent of motorized grinders, use of the mortar and it is traditional in various Hindu ceremonies to crush turmeric in these mortars. In Malay, it is known as batu lesung, large stone mortars, with long wood pestles were used in West Asia to grind meat for a type of meatloaf, or kibbeh, as well as the hummus variety known as masabcha. In Indonesia and the Netherlands mortar is known as Cobek or Tjobek and it is often used to make fresh sambal, a spicy chili condiment, hence the sambal ulek/oelek denote its process using pestle
Cave paintings are painted drawings on cave walls or ceilings, mainly of prehistoric origin, to some 40,000 years ago in Eurasia. The exact purpose of the Paleolithic cave paintings is not known, evidence suggests that they were not merely decorations of living areas since the caves in which they have been found do not have signs of ongoing habitation. They are located in areas of caves that are not easily accessible. Some theories hold that cave paintings may have been a way of communicating with others, the paintings are remarkably similar around the world, with animals being common subjects that give the most impressive images. Humans mainly appear as images of hands, mostly hand stencils made by blowing pigment on a hand held to the wall. The earliest known cave paintings/drawings of animals are at least 35,000 years old and are found in Pettakere cave on the island of Sulawesi in Indonesia, previously it was believed that the earliest paintings were in Europe. The earliest non-figurative rock art dates back to approximately 40,000 years ago, nearly 340 caves have now been discovered in France and Spain that contain art from prehistoric times.
But subsequent technology has made it possible to date the paintings by sampling the pigment itself, the choice of subject matter can indicate chronology. For instance, the reindeer depicted in the Spanish cave of Cueva de las Monedas places the drawings in the last Ice Age. The oldest date given to a cave painting is now a pig that has a minimum age of 35,400 years old at Pettakere cave in Sulawesi. Indonesian and Australian scientists have dated other non-figurative paintings on the walls to be approximately 40,000 years old, the method they used to confirm this was dating the age of the stalactites that formed over the top of the paintings. The art is similar in style and method to that of the Indonesian caves as there were hand stencils and this date coincides with the earliest known evidence for Homo sapiens in Europe. Because of the cave arts age, some scientists have conjectured that the paintings may have made by Neanderthals. The earliest known European figurative cave paintings are those of Chauvet Cave in France and these paintings date to earlier than 30,000 BCE according to radiocarbon dating.
Some researchers believe the drawings are too advanced for this era, the radiocarbon dates from these samples show that there were two periods of creation in Chauvet,35,000 years ago and 30,000 years ago. In 2009, cavers discovered drawings in Coliboaia Cave in Romania, an initial dating puts the age of an image in the same range as Chauvet, about 32,000 years old. Some caves probably continued to be painted over a period of thousands of years. This was created roughly between 10,000 and 5,500 years ago, and painted in rock shelters under cliffs or shallow caves, though individual figures are less naturalistic, they are grouped in coherent grouped compositions to a much greater degree