No. 42 Squadron RNZAF
No.42 Squadron of the RNZAF was formed at Rongotai Airport in December 1943 to provide a communications service around New Zealand, initially using impressed civilian types. It was briefly disbanded in 1946, but its aircraft continued with general purpose operations at RNZAF Station Ohakea. When reformed the squadron was equipped with numbers of Harvard IIB & III, Avenger, Devon C.1, Mustang. TBF Avengers flown by 42 Squadron pilots were involved in the first aerial topdressing trials carried out in the world and their main purpose was to tow gunnery targets for air-to-air gunnery and for the navy and army. The P-51 Mustang provided high-speed towing of targets, especially for Vampire jets. The role of the squadron changed to VIP flights, multi-engine conversion courses, and general transport flying around New Zealand. During the visit of Queen Elizabeth in 1953/54,42 Squadron Dakotas carried her around New Zealand, in the late 1950s the squadrons inventory comprised only Dakotas and Devons, and in the mid 1960s the Dakota fleet was enlarged to six aircraft.
The reliable but aging Dakotas were retired in 1977 and replaced by four Andover twin-engine transports, were converted to full VIP configuration, NZ7625 was semi-converted and NZ7627 remained in the utility configuration. To accommodate the reformed No.2 Squadron RNZAF with Skyhawks at Ohakea in 1984,42 Squadron moved to Whenuapai, the squadron had 10 Andovers. In 1988 an Hawker Siddeley Andover joined the United Nations Iran–Iraq Military Observer Group, the detachment of 17 personnel and aircraft were based at Tehran until withdrawn in December 1990. In 1993 three 42 Squadron Andovers went to Somalia to join the United States-led Unified Task Force, based at Mogadishu, they flew air transport support missions for the force. Four Andovers were withdrawn from service in 1997 and the remainder in 1998 and they were replaced by Beechcraft Model B200 Super King Airs leased from Pacific Aeromotive. This was a new venture for the RNZAF, with a contractor providing maintenance support to the aircraft on site.
The squadron returned to Ohakea in January 2002 where it now operates five King Airs as part of the training wing. The Defence White Paper due for release in the part of 2015 will look at the governments long-term plan for replacement of the RNZAF Super King Air fleet. Possible aircraft are the C-27J Spartan or the CASA C-295,437 Transport Squadron and 412 Transport Squadron No.32 Squadron No.34 Squadron RAAF No.42 Sqn RNZAF42 Squadron History
No. 30 Squadron RNZAF
No.30 Squadron RNZAF was a New Zealand light bomber squadron which saw service against the Japanese in the Pacific Theatre during the last two years of the Second World War. 30 Squadron of the Royal New Zealand Air Force was formed from pilots of No.8 Squadron RNZAF at Gisborne, the squadron initially flew Vickers Vincents and the very similar Vickers Vildebeest, North American Harvards and finally Grumman Avengers. It moved from home defe The Squadron flew 1,432 hours on operations dropping 330 tons of bombs, six 30 Squadron aircrew were lost on operations, the last of which was flown on 22 May 1944. A30 Squadron Grumman Avenger is preserved by the Gisborne Aviation Protection Society
No. 5 Squadron RNZAF
No.5 Squadron RNZAF is a squadron of the Royal New Zealand Air Force formed during November 1941 in Fiji. It remains on duty and logged 2,300 hours flight time in 2007. Initially, the squadron was equipped with Vickers Vincents, from the outbreak of hostilities with Japan, the squadron operated the Short Singapore Mk. These types were superseded by Consolidated PBY Catalinas, which aided the air-sea rescue capability, the Squadron moved from Fiji in late 1944 to operate between Espiritu Santo and the Admiralty Islands. During this time the conqueror of Mount Everest, Edmund Hillary, in November 1944 the squadron moved to Luganville Seaplane Base on Espiritu Santo to carry out anti-submarine patrols and escort duty In August 1945 the squadron was withdrawn to Fiji. Following the war the squadron was re-equipped with 16 Short Sunderland MR, from 1965 the squadron relocated to Whenuapai, Auckland, to re-equip with five Lockheed P-3B Orions in the anti-submarine role. The squadron withdrew its last flight of Sunderlands from Lauthala Bay in 1967, the P-3B fleet was upgraded in the mid 1980s with a more modern radar, an IRDS camera, a digital computing bus and electronic displays/information management system.
A sixth aircraft was purchased from the RAAF during the Project Rigel upgrade, the aircraft have been deployed to assist international efforts on several occasions. From May 2003 to February 2004, a detachment operated in support of Operation Enduring Freedom by patrolling the Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman. In October 2004, a contract was signed with L-3 Communications Integrated Systems, of the United States, to upgrade the aircraft’s communication, surveillance, the contract included an upgrade of crew training, software testing and integration facilities and mission preparation and analysis systems. In 2005 the first of the six P-3K Orions began being upgraded to the new P-3K2 standard, modernising the avionics, in January 2006 No.5 Squadron conducted trials to prove the aircraft could operate from Antarctica. In 2006 an Orion was used to photograph Raoul Island after a volcanic eruption killed a Department of Conservation worker. On the 2 May 2011 the RNZAF accepted the first upgraded P-3K2 Orion from the Ministry of Defence, the aircraft is due to undergo a period of Operational Testing and Evaluation before commencing active use.
Following the disappearance of Malaysian Airlines flight MH-370 in March 2014, as of March 2015 all six RNZAF P-3K2 Orions are fully operational after their comprehensive upgrades. Combat Codes, A Full Explanation and Listing of British, paraparaumu, New Zealand, Kiwi Air Research. RNZAF Web site 5 Squadron page Culpan, Pete
The Lockheed Ventura is a twin engine medium bomber of World War II, used by United States and British Commonwealth forces in several guises, including maritime patrol. The Ventura was developed from the Lockheed Model 18 Lodestar transport, used in daylight attacks against occupied Europe, they proved to have weaknesses and were removed from bomber duty and some used for patrols by Coastal Command. After United States Army Air Forces monopolization of land-based bombers was removed, the Ventura was very similar to its predecessor, the Lockheed Hudson. The primary difference was not in layout, the Ventura was larger and heavier than the Hudson, the RAF ordered 188 Venturas in February 1940. They were delivered from mid-1942 onwards, Venturas were initially used for daylight raids on occupied Europe. Like some other RAF bombers, they proved too vulnerable without fighter escorts and they were replaced in this role by the very fast de Havilland Mosquito. The Venturas were gradually transferred to patrol duties with Coastal Command,30 went to the RCAF, the RAF placed a further order for 487 Ventura Mark IIs, but many of these were diverted to USAAF service.
The USAAF placed its own order for 200 Ventura Mark IIA, in August 1941, large orders for Venturas were placed with Lend-Lease Act money. Among the orders were for 550 armed reconnaissance versions of the Ventura and this aircraft was originally planned to be built under the designation O-56. The main differences between the Ventura and the O-56 were in the engines, rather than the 2,000 hp Pratt & Whitney R-2800 radials of the Ventura, the O-56 used 1,700 hp Wright R-2600-13 radials. Before completion of the first O-56, the U. S. Army Air Forces dropped the O- category used to designate observation aircraft, the O-56 was redesignated the RB-34B. Before the first of these flew, the design was redesignated again as the B-37 with a powered version of the R-2600. The PV-1 Ventura, built by the Vega Aircraft Company division of Lockheed, was a version of the Ventura built for the U. S. Navy. The main differences between the PV-1 and the B-34 were the inclusion of special equipment in the PV-1, adapting it to its patrol bombing role.
The maximum fuel capacity of the PV-1 was increased from 1,345 gal to 1,607 gal, to increase its range, the most important addition was of an ASD-1 search radar. Early production PV-1s still carried a bombardiers station behind the radome, with four side windows. Late production PV-1s dispensed with this position and replaced it with a pack with three 0.50 in machine guns underneath the nose. These aircraft could carry eight 5 in HVAR rockets on launchers underneath the wings
While first flown in 1928, it remained in service at the start of the Second World War, with the last Vildebeests flying against Japanese forces over Singapore and Java in 1942. After initial evaluation, the Vildebeest was shortlisted for evaluation with the Blackburn Beagle, an initial production order was placed in 1931 for nine aircraft, with the first production aircraft flying in September 1932. In 1931, Vickers designed as a private venture a General Purpose version of the Vildebeest to replace the RAFs Westland Wapitis and Fairey IIIFs, between 1934 and 1936,197 Vincents were built for or converted from Vildebeests for the RAF. The Vildebeest was purchased in large numbers by the Royal Air Force from 1931. It entered service with No.100 Squadron at RAF Donibristle in Scotland in October 1932, four frontline torpedo-bomber squadrons were equipped with the Vildebeest, two at Singapore, and two more in the United Kingdom. The Vincent entered service with No.84 Squadron RAF at Shaibah, Iraq in December 1934, re-equipping General Purpose squadrons throughout the Middle East, by 1937, it equipped six squadrons in Iraq, Kenya and Egypt.
At the outbreak of the Second World War,101 Vildebeests were still in service with the RAF, the two British-based squadrons flew coastal patrol and convoy escort missions until 1940 when their Vildebeests were replaced by the Bristol Beaufort. The Vildebeests continued to attack the Japanese as their forces advanced down Malaya, sustaining losses from Japanese fighters. On 26 January 1942, the Japanese landed at Endau,250 miles from Singapore, despite an escort of Brewster Buffalo and Hawker Hurricane fighters, five Vildebeests were lost. The attack was repeated that day by eight Vildebeests of 36 Squadron, the surviving Vildebeests were withdrawn to Java on 31 January and attacked another Japanese landing force off Rembang, claiming eight ships sunk but sustaining further losses. The final two Vildebeests of 36 Squadron attempted to escape to Burma on 6 March but were lost over Sumatra, the last Vildebeests in RAF service, operated by 273 Squadron at Ceylon were retired in March 1942. Vincents were used for bombing missions against Italian forces in the East African Campaign and for patrols from Aden.
Other Vincents bombed Iraqi forces during the Anglo-Iraqi War of 1941, the last frontline Vincents retired in January 1943, with the type continuing in second line service until 1944. Around 20 survived to fight with the Spanish Republican Air Force on the loyalist side of the Spanish Civil War, a Vildebeest was the first victim of Francoist ace Joaquin Garcia-Morato. 12 Vildebeests were purchased by the Royal New Zealand Air Force in 1935 for coastal defence, in addition,60 or 62 of these machines, were passed on to the RNZAF. New Zealand Vildebeests were used for photo mapping, Type 132 Prototype built at Weybridge with a Jupiter VII engine. Type 192 Prototype modified as a Series II with a Jupiter XF engine, Type 194 Prototype modified as a Series III with a Jupiter XIF engine. Type 204 Second private venture prototype as Series IV to Air Ministry Type 209 Prototype modified as a Series V with a Jupiter XIF engine, Type 214 Prototye modified as a Series VI with a Jupiter XFBM engine
World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
No. 2 Squadron RNZAF
No.2 Squadron RNZAF was a squadron of the Royal New Zealand Air Force. It was formed in 1930 as part of the Territorial Air Force with the main Headquarters at Wellington and shadow flights at New Plymouth, Squadron personnel conducted their annual flying at RNZAF Base Wigram. In 1937 the Territorial Squadrons were re-organised and No.2 Squadron became the Wellington Territorial Squadron, a year later, in 1940, all Territorial Squadrons were merged to become the New Zealand General Reconnaissance Squadron, based at Whenuapai, Auckland. Within 12 months, No.2 Squadron was reformed, based at Nelson with Vickers Vildebeests and Vickers Vincent aircraft, it resumed its protection of Cook Strait providing air cover for troop ship convoys entering and leaving Wellington. Later in 1941, the squadron was re-equipped with the new Lockheed Hudson Bomber and in 1943 re-equipped once more, in November 1943, the squadron moved to Palikulo Bay Airfield on Espiritu Santo, where it carried out reconnaissance, anti-submarine, supply dropping and general flight patrols.
It was during this tour that the squadron made the heaviest raid by a New Zealand formation in the South Pacific and this second tour finished in March 1945, and three months the squadron began its third and last operational tour, consisting of mainly bombing land targets. The squadron returned to RNZAF Base Ohakea in October 1945, during the operational tours of the South West Pacific the squadron was based at Espiritu Santo, New Georgia, Green Island and Jacquinot Bay. On return to New Zealand in October 1945, No.2 Squadron operated a variety of aircraft, including Hudsons, early in 1946, No.2 Squadron began training crews for the new Mosquito aircraft to be ferried from the United Kingdom to New Zealand. The Territorial Squadrons were reformed and in December 1948 No.2 Squadron was raised and this squadron operated in a similar manner to its 1930s predecessor with annual flying carried out at Ohakea and Wigram on Harvards and Mustangs. The Territorial Squadrons were eventually disbanded in 1957, reformed in December 1984 at Ohakea, No.2 Squadron was equipped with the McDonnell Douglas A-4G Skyhawk when it took delivery of 10 ex-RAN Skyhawks aircraft.
While stationed at Ohakea, the squadron provided pilot conversion and operational training, and was tasked for reconnaissance, systems evaluation, in the middle of 1988 the Squadron received delivery of the first Project KAHU updated Skyhawks for test flight trials. The squadron was equipped with two A-4K and four TA-4K aircraft supported by 50 to 60 personnel, the highlight of the RAN exercises was the successful sinking of the decommissioned HMAS Adroit in August 1994 by No.2 Squadron Skyhawks. No.2 Squadron continued to air defence training to the ADF until November 2001. The Air Combat Force of the RNZAF comprising Nos 2,14, New Zealand Electronic Text Centre, Territorial Air Force,1930 Supersonic life is a video produced by 2 Squadron personnel soon before disbanding in 2001, https, //www. youtube. com/watch. v=EGlAbo5ko6g
No. 3 Squadron RNZAF
No.3 Squadron RNZAF is a unit of the Royal New Zealand Air Force. No.3 Squadron formed as a Territorial unit of the New Zealand Permanent Air Force based at Christchurch in 1930, pilots attached to the squadron used NZPAF aircraft based at Wigram until No.3 Squadron got its first aircraft Blackburn Baffin torpedo bombers, in 1938. Following the outbreak of war the unit was equipped with Vickers Vincent, the squadron received modern aircraft – Lockheed Hudsons – converted to the patrol bomber role. The squadron was deployed to Palikulo Bay Airfield on Espiritu Santo on 9 October 1942, on 23 November 1942, No.3 became the first RNZAF squadron deployed to the front line at Henderson Field on Guadalcanal. Despite being lightly armed, a Hudson of Flying Officer Gudsell twice saw off attacks by three Japanese aircraft, Gudsell was awarded the Air Medal. The Squadron moved to Kukum Field on Guadalcanal and stayed there until October 1943 when it returned to Santo where it remained until January 1944, from February–March 1944 the Squadron returned to Guadalcanal, returned to Santo from May–July and deployed to Guadalcanal again from July–August 1944.
The Squadron re-equipped with Lockheed Venturas and in August 1944 moved to Piva Airfield on Bougainville, in October 1944 the Squadron moved to Emirau where they flew interdiction patrols against Japanese shipping and ground targets. No.3 squadron was replaced by No.4 Squadron in November 1944, the Squadron returned to Guadalcanal from February–March 1945 and was deployed to Green Island from March–June 1945. From 1948 to 1957 No.3 Squadron reverted to being a territorial squadron, based at Wigram with de Havilland Tiger Moths, North American Harvards and P-51 Mustangs. The Squadrons Naval Support Flight flew helicopters for the Royal New Zealand Navys frigates from 1966 until October 2005, the flight flew Westland Wasps, and Kaman Seasprites of the naval air wing attached to the squadron from 1966 to 2005. Pilots from No.3 Squadron served in Vietnam and in UN peace keeping in the Sinai, the Squadron served in East Timor. For many years a detachment was based in Singapore, to support the New Zealand Army presence there, detachments have recently served in the Solomon Islands and Antarctica.
No.3 Squadron UH-1s transported the participants on the first episode of Survivor, today, No.3 Squadron provides tactical air transport for the New Zealand Army. The Iroquois have been replaced by NH90s, the squadron has a total personnel strength of approximately 135, and operates the following aircraft, Five Agusta A109 LUH helicopters. A procurement to purchase a further three A-109 signalled by the Defence Force White Paper, one NH-90 purchased used as a source of spare parts and/or an attrition airframe. The first helicopters to be flown by the RNZAF, six B47G-3B-1 were delivered in 1965, seven B47G-3B-2 were purchased in 1968 and delivered during 1970. All Bell 47G-3B-2 have been retired and replaced by the Agusta A109LUH since 2011, the RNZAF has retired its fleet of 16 Iroquois helicopters as of 1 July 2015. The first delivery was five UH-1D in 1966 followed in 1970 by nine UH-1H, all of the UH-1D aircraft were upgraded to 1H specification during the 1970s
A cargo aircraft is a fixed-wing aircraft that is designed or converted for the carriage of cargo rather than passengers. Such aircraft usually do not incorporate passenger amenities and generally one or more large doors for loading cargo. Freighters may be operated by passenger or cargo airlines, by private individuals or by the armed forces of individual countries. Cargo aircraft represent a small proportion of the air freight market. The majority is carried in special ULD containers in the holds of normal passenger aircraft. Aircraft were put to use carrying cargo in the form of air mail as early as 1911, although the earliest aircraft were not designed primarily as cargo carriers, by the mid-1920s aircraft manufacturers were designing and building dedicated cargo aircraft. The Vickers Vernon, a development of the Vickers Vimy Commercial, in February 1923 this was put to use by the RAFs Iraq Command who flew nearly 500 Sikh troops from Kingarban to Kirkuk in the first ever strategic airlift of troops.
The Victorians helped to pioneer air routes for Imperial Airways Handley Page HP.42 airliners, the World War II German design, the Arado Ar 232 was the first purpose built cargo aircraft. The Ar 232 was intended to supplant the earlier Junkers Ju 52 freighter conversions, most other forces used freighter versions of airliners in the cargo role as well, most notably the C-47 Skytrain version of the Douglas DC-3, which served with practically every Allied nation. This aircraft, like most of its era, used tail-dragger landing gear caused the aircraft to have a decided rearward tilt when landed. A similar rear loading ramp even appeared in a different form on the nosewheel gear-equipped. Postwar Europe served to play a role in the development of the modern air cargo. To rapidly supply the numbers of aircraft, many older types. In operation it was found that it took as long or longer to unload these older designs as the much larger tricycle landing gear Douglas C-54 Skymaster which was easier to move about in when landed.
The C-47s were quickly removed from service, and from on flat-decks were a requirement of all new cargo designs, in the years following the war era a number of new custom-built cargo aircraft were introduced, often including some experimental features. For instance, the USs C-82 Packet featured a cargo area. Although larger and faster designs have been proposed for many years and these designs offer the ability to carry the heaviest loads, even main battle tanks, at global ranges. The Boeing 747 was originally designed to the specification as the C-5
A quill pen is a writing implement made from a moulted flight feather of a large bird. Quills were used for writing with ink before the invention of the dip pen, the pen, the fountain pen, eventually. The hand-cut goose quill is rarely used as a tool, because many papers are now derived from wood pulp. However, it is still the tool of choice for a few professionals, in a carefully prepared quill the slit does not widen through wetting and drying with ink. It will retain its shape adequately and only requires infrequent sharpening, the hollow shaft of the feather acts as an ink reservoir and ink flows to the tip by capillary action. The strongest quills come from the flight feathers discarded by birds during their annual moult. Generally the left wing is favored by the majority of writers because the feather curves away from the sight line. The quill barrel is cut to six or seven inches in length, writing with the left-hand in the long era of the quill was discouraged, and quills were never sold as left and right-handed, only by their size and species.
Goose feathers are most commonly used, more expensive swan feathers are used for larger lettering, on a true quill the barbs are always stripped off completely on the trailing edge. Later a fashion developed for stripping partially and leaving a decorative top of a few barbs, the fancy, fully plumed quill is mostly a Hollywood invention and has little basis in reality. Most, if not all, manuscript illustrations of scribes show a quill devoid of decorative barbs, quill pens were used to write the vast majority of medieval manuscripts, the Magna Carta and the Declaration of Independence. Quill pens are used today mainly by professional scribes and calligraphers. Quills are used as the material in string instruments. Quills were the writing instrument in the Western World from the 6th to the 19th century. The best quills were usually made from goose, quills went into decline after the invention of the metal pen, mass production beginning in Great Britain as early as 1822 by John Mitchell of Birmingham.
Quill pens were the instrument of choice during the medieval era due to their compatibility with parchment, prior to this the reed pen had been used, but a finer letter was achieved on animal skin using a cured quill. Other than written text, they were used to create figures, decorations. The variety of different strokes in formal hands was accomplished by good penmanship as the tip was square cut and rigid and this has been done since the earliest sessions of the Court