Mural on Indian Red Ground
Mural on Indian Red Ground is a 1950 abstract expressionist drip painting by American artist Jackson Pollock in the collection of the Tehran Museum of Contemporary Art. It is considered one of Pollock's greatest works; the collection of the Tehran Museum of Contemporary Art was bought during Iran's 1970s oil boom under the supervision of queen Farah Diba. The museum was established in 1977 but the collection was displayed for only a short period. After the 1979 revolution, the paintings were stored in the basement of the museum and looked after for about 30 years. In a 2005 exhibition Mural on Indian Red Ground and many other paintings were displayed for the first time after the revolution. Today, Mural on Indian Red Ground is considered one of the Tehran Museum of Contemporary Art's prize pieces; the painting was loaned to Japan in 2012 and was displayed in an exhibition in the National Museum of Modern Art, Tokyo celebrating the 100th anniversary of the birth of Jackson Pollock. In return to Iran on 11 May 2012, the painting was seized in the Tehran Imam Khomeini International Airport by Iran's customs service.
The service said it confiscated the work over money owed by the Ministry of Culture, which ran the museum. After more than two weeks, the painting was released and returned to the museum; the painting was, around 2010, valued by Christie's at $250 million. Vogel, Carol. "INSIDE ART". The New York Times. Retrieved 2015-09-27. Dehghan, Saeed Kamali. "Former queen of Iran on assembling Tehran's art collection". The Guardian. Retrieved 2015-09-27. Tait, Robert. "The art no one sees: Tehran's basement masterpieces". The Guardian. Retrieved 2015-09-27. Hammond, Jeff. "Looking beyond the giant canvases". The Japan Times. Retrieved 2015-09-27. "Masterpiece Basement". The New York Times - Breaking News, World News & Multimedia. 2007-12-02. Retrieved 2015-09-27. "Jackson Pollock art returned to Iran museum". BBC News. 2012-05-29. Retrieved 2015-09-27. Olsen, Kelly. "Jackson Pollock's Splashes of Paint From Iran". WSJ. Retrieved 2015-09-27
Alfonso A. Ossorio
Alfonso Angel Yangco Ossorio was a Filipino American abstract expressionist artist, born in Manila in 1916 to wealthy Filipino parents from the province of Negros Occidental. His heritage was Hispanic and Chinese. Between the ages of eight and thirteen, he attended school in England. At age fourteen, he moved to the United States. Ossorio attended Portsmouth Priory in Rhode Island, graduating in 1934. From 1934 to 1938, he studied fine art at Harvard University and continued his studies at the Rhode Island School of Design, he became an American citizen in 1933 and served as a medical illustrator in the United States Army during World War II. Ossorio's early work was surrealist, he was an admirer and early collector of the paintings of Jackson Pollock who counted him as a good friend, whose works influenced and were influenced by Ossorio. In the early 1950s, Ossorio was pouring oil and enamel paints onto canvas in the style of the first abstract expressionist movement in the US. In 1950, he was commissioned by the parish of St. Joseph in Victorias City, Negros Occidental in the Philippines to do a mural which would be known as "The Angry Christ" to complete the reconstruction of the church built by the Czech architect Antonín Raymond.
Ossorio had this to say in a 1968 interview. " is a continual last judgment with the sacrifice of the mass, the continual reincarnation of God coming into this world. And it worked out beautifully because the services take place very early because of the heat and the church had been oriented so that the sun would come in and strike the celebrant as he stood at the altar with this enormous figure behind him, it worked. And although they loathed it at the time it was done it is now a place of pilgrimage." Ossorio traveled to Paris to meet Jean Dubuffet in 1950. Dubuffet's interest in art brut opened up new vistas for Ossorio, who found release from society's preconceptions in the unstudied creativity of insane asylum inmates and children. On the advice of Pollock, Ossorio purchased an expansive 60-acre estate, "The Creeks", in East Hampton in 1951, lived there for more than forty years, he arranged to display Dubuffet's art brut collection there. In the 1950s, Ossorio began to create works resembling Dubuffet's assemblages.
He affixed shells, driftwood, dolls' eyes, cabinet knobs, costume jewelry, mirror shards, children's toys to the panel surface. Ossorio called these assemblages congregations, with the term's obvious religious connotation. Ossorio was represented alongside Dubuffet and nearly 140 other artists in the Museum of Modern Art's 1961 exhibition The Art of Assemblage, which introduced the practice to a broad public. Ossorio died in New York City in 1990. Half his ashes were scattered at his grand estate The Creeks and the other half came to rest nine years at Green River Cemetery alongside the remains of many other famous artists and critics. After his death, his partner Edward "Ted" Dragon arranged for the sale of The Creeks selling it to Ronald Perelman complete with many of Ossorio's brightly colored found object art sculptures placed in among the groves of exotic evergreens that Ossorio had planted in his final 20 years of life. Outside of The Creeks, Harvard Art Museum, the Honolulu Museum of Art, the Housatonic Museum of Art and the Smithsonian American Art Museum are among the public collections holding work by Alfonso A. Ossorio.
The centerpiece of the St. Joseph the Worker Parish Church in Victorias City, Negros Occidental, is the 60-square-meter liturgical mural entitled "The Angry Christ". In 1958, Alfonso Ossorio began to experiment, incorporating found objects into his oil paintings, he introduced these items discreetly, but by 1959, shards, fake gems and other miscellaneous objects covered his surfaces. Oil had been replaced by plastic as the primary matrix, soon after, painting was rejected for gathering. While artists like friend Jean Dubuffet refer to their low-relief composites as assemblages, Ossorio coined the term “congregation,” a word with obvious ecclesiastical associations and that resonated with the artist’s lifelong engagement with Catholicism. While “assemblage” emphasizes the cohesiveness of a group of elements, “congregation” conveys the multiplicity of unique entities within the work as a whole; such a shift in focus complements Ossorio’s own understanding of religion: “Religion must aim to inspire awe, to awe man with the splendor of his existence.
By a set of unexpected juxtapositions, it must put you in a state of realization of how splendid things can be if they are horrible.” In his congregations, Ossorio created the unexpected by synthesizing forms of beauty with those of decay, by contrasting refinement with crudeness. For Ossorio, all objects had life, bringing together disparate, ordinary elements, he found a way to fuse art and spirituality. Ossorio continued to create daring congregations until his death in 1990. Alfonso Ossorio interview, 1968 Nov. 19, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Dallow and Colleen Thomas, From the Molecular to the Galactic, The Art of Max Ernst and Alfonso Ossorio, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, Ackland Art Museum, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2000. Friedman, Bernard Harper, Alfonso Ossorio, New York, H. N. Abrams, 1972; the Harvard Art Museum Archives holds the personal papers of Alfonso Ossorio and Edward Dragon Young. Kertess, Ellen G. Landau and Leslie Rose Close, Alfonso Ossorio, Southampton, N.
Y. Parrish Art Museum, 1997. O
Lenore "Lee" Krasner was an American abstract expressionist painter, with a strong speciality in collage, married to Jackson Pollock. This somewhat overshadowed her contribution at the time, though there was much cross-pollination between their two styles. Krasner’s training, influenced by George Bridgman and Hans Hofmann, was the more formalized in the depiction of human anatomy, this enriched Pollock’s more intuitive and unstructured output. Krasner is now seen as a key transitional figure within abstraction, who connected early-20th-century art with the new ideas of postwar America, her work fetches high prices at auction, she is one of the few female artists to have had a retrospective show at the Museum of Modern Art. Krasner was born as Lena Krassner on October 27, 1908 in New York. Krasner was the daughter of Joseph Krasner, her parents were Russian-Jewish immigrants, from a Jewish community in what is now Ukraine. Her parents fled to the United States to escape the Russo-Japanese War, her mother Chane changed her name to Anna.
Lee was the fourth of five children, including her sister and the first, born in America. She was the only one of her siblings to be born in the United States. From an early age, Krasner knew. Krasner's career as an artist began, she sought out enrollment at Washington Irving High School for Girls since they offered an art major. After graduating from high school, she attended the Women's Art School of Cooper Union on a scholarship. Here, she completed the course work required for a teaching certificate in art. Krasner pursued yet more art education at the illustrious National Academy of Design, completing her course load there in 1932. By 1928, she enrolled in the National Academy of Design. By attending a technical art school, Krasner was able to gain an extensive and thorough artistic education as illustrated through her knowledge of the techniques of the Old Masters, she became skilled in portraying anatomically correct figures. There are few works that survive from this time period apart from a few self-portraits and still lifes since most of the works were burned in a fire.
One of the images that still exists from this time period is her "Self Portrait" painted in 1930. She submitted it to the National Academy in order to enroll in a certain class, but the judges could not believe that the young artist produced a self-portrait en plein air. In it, she depicts herself with a defiant expression surrounded by nature, she briefly enrolled in the Art Students League of New York in 1928. Here, she took a class led by George Bridgman. Krasner was influenced by the opening of the Museum of Modern Art in 1929, she was affected by post-impressionism and grew critical of the academic notions of style she had learned at the National Academy. In the 1930s, she began studying modern art through learning the components of composition and theory; this initial investigation into modern art formed her work throughout the rest of her career. She began taking classes from Hans Hofmann in 1937, which modernized her approach to the nude and still life, he emphasized the two-dimensional nature of the picture plane and usage of color to create spatial illusion, not representative of reality through his lessons.
Throughout her classes with Hofmann, Krasner worked in an advanced style of cubism known as neo-cubism. During the class, a human nude or a still life setting would be the model from which Krasner and other students would have to work, she created charcoal drawings of the human models and oil on paper color studies of the still life settings. She illustrated female nudes in a cubist manner with tension achieved through the fragmentation of forms and the opposition of light and dark colors; the still lifes illustrated her interest in fauvism since she suspended brightly colored pigment on white backgrounds. Hans Hofmann "was negative" she said "but one day he stood before my easel and he gave me the first praise I had received as an artist from him, he said,'This is so good, you would never know it was done by a woman". She received praise from Piet Mondrian who once told her "You have a strong inner rhythm, it became too difficult for Krasner to support herself as a waitress due to the Great Depression.
In order to provide for herself, she joined the Works Progress Administration's Federal Art Project in 1935. She worked on the mural division as an assistant to Max Spivak, her job was to enlarge other artists' designs for large-scaled public murals. Since murals were created to be understood and appreciated by the general public, the abstract art Krasner produced was undesirable for murals. While Krasner was happy to have a job, she was dissatisfied since she did not like working with figurative images created by other artists. Throughout the late 1930s and early 1940s, she created gouache sketches in the hopes of one day creating an abstract mural; as soon as one of her proposals for a mural was approved for the WYNC radio station, the Works Progress Administration turned into War Services and all art had to be created for war propaganda. She continued working for War Services by creating collages for the war effort which were displayed in the windows of nineteen department stores in Brooklyn and Manhattan.
She was involved with the Artists Union during her employment with the WPA but was one of the first to quit the organization when she realized the communists were taking it over. By being part
In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in the general price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time. When the general price level rises, each unit of currency buys services; the measure of inflation is the inflation rate, the annualized percentage change in a general price index the consumer price index, over time. The opposite of inflation is deflation. Inflation affects economies in various negative ways; the negative effects of inflation include an increase in the opportunity cost of holding money, uncertainty over future inflation which may discourage investment and savings, if inflation were rapid enough, shortages of goods as consumers begin hoarding out of concern that prices will increase in the future. Positive effects include reducing unemployment due to nominal wage rigidity, allowing the central bank more leeway in carrying out monetary policy, encouraging loans and investment instead of money hoarding, avoiding the inefficiencies associated with deflation.
Economists believe that the high rates of inflation and hyperinflation are caused by an excessive growth of the money supply. Views on which factors determine low to moderate rates of inflation are more varied. Low or moderate inflation may be attributed to fluctuations in real demand for goods and services, or changes in available supplies such as during scarcities. However, the consensus view is that a long sustained period of inflation is caused by money supply growing faster than the rate of economic growth. Today, most economists favor a steady rate of inflation. Low inflation reduces the severity of economic recessions by enabling the labor market to adjust more in a downturn, reduces the risk that a liquidity trap prevents monetary policy from stabilizing the economy; the task of keeping the rate of inflation low and stable is given to monetary authorities. These monetary authorities are the central banks that control monetary policy through the setting of interest rates, through open market operations, through the setting of banking reserve requirements.
Rapid increases in the quantity of money or in the overall money supply have occurred in many different societies throughout history, changing with different forms of money used. For instance, when gold was used as currency, the government could collect gold coins, melt them down, mix them with other metals such as silver, copper, or lead, reissue them at the same nominal value. By diluting the gold with other metals, the government could issue more coins without increasing the amount of gold used to make them; when the cost of each coin is lowered in this way, the government profits from an increase in seigniorage. This practice would increase the money supply but at the same time the relative value of each coin would be lowered; as the relative value of the coins becomes lower, consumers would need to give more coins in exchange for the same goods and services as before. These goods and services would experience a price increase. Song Dynasty China introduced the practice of printing paper money to create fiat currency.
During the Mongol Yuan Dynasty, the government spent a great deal of money fighting costly wars, reacted by printing more money, leading to inflation. Fearing the inflation that plagued the Yuan dynasty, the Ming Dynasty rejected the use of paper money, reverted to using copper coins. Large infusions of gold or silver into an economy led to inflation. From the second half of the 15th century to the first half of the 17th, Western Europe experienced a major inflationary cycle referred to as the "price revolution", with prices on average rising sixfold over 150 years; this was caused by the sudden influx of gold and silver from the New World into Habsburg Spain. The silver spread throughout a cash-starved Europe and caused widespread inflation. Demographic factors contributed to upward pressure on prices, with European population growth after depopulation caused by the Black Death pandemic. By the nineteenth century, economists categorized three separate factors that cause a rise or fall in the price of goods: a change in the value or production costs of the good, a change in the price of money, a fluctuation in the commodity price of the metallic content in the currency, currency depreciation resulting from an increased supply of currency relative to the quantity of redeemable metal backing the currency.
Following the proliferation of private banknote currency printed during the American Civil War, the term "inflation" started to appear as a direct reference to the currency depreciation that occurred as the quantity of redeemable banknotes outstripped the quantity of metal available for their redemption. At that time, the term inflation referred to the devaluation of the currency, not to a rise in the price of goods; this relationship between the over-supply of banknotes and a resulting depreciation in their value was noted by earlier classical economists such as David Hume and David Ricardo, who would go on to examine and debate what effect a currency devaluation has on the price of goods. The adoption of fiat currency by many countries, from the 18th century onwards, made much larger variations in the supply of money possible. Rapid increases in the money supply have taken place a number of times in countries experiencing political crises, produ
Grace Hartigan was a second-generation American Abstract Expressionist painter and a member of the New York School. Born in Newark, New Jersey, of Irish-English descent, Hartigan was the oldest of four children. Encouraging her romantic fantasies, her father and grandmother sang songs and told her stories, her mother, disapproved. At seventeen she was married to Robert Jachens. A planned move to Alaska, where the young couple planned to live as pioneers, ended in California, where Hartigan began painting with her husband's encouragement. After her husband was drafted in 1942, Hartigan returned to New Jersey to study mechanical drafting at the Newark College of Engineering, she worked as a draftsman in an airplane factory to support herself and her son. During this time, she studied painting with Isaac Lane Muse. Through him, she was introduced to the work of Henri Matisse and Kimon Nicolaïdes’s The Natural Way to Draw, which influenced her work as a painter. Said Hartigan of her foray into painting, “I didn’t choose painting.
It chose me. I didn’t have any talent. I just had genius.” In 1945, Hartigan moved to New York City, became a member of the downtown artistic community. Her friends included Jackson Pollock, Larry Rivers, Helen Frankenthaler, Willem de Kooning and Elaine de Kooning, Frank O'Hara, Knox Martin, many other painters, artists and writers. Hartigan gained her reputation as part of the New York School of artists and painters that emerged in New York City during the 1940s and 1950s. Hartigan was selected by Clement Greenberg and Meyer Schapiro for the New Talent exhibition at Koontz Gallery in New York in 1950, she was thought of as a “second generation Abstract Expressionist”, being influenced by her colleagues of the time. Her early career was characterized by experiments with total abstraction, as seen in the work Six by Six in the collection of the Frances Lehman Loeb Art Center in Poughkeepsie, NY. Beginning the early fifties Hartigan began to incorporate more recognizable motifs and characters into her paintings.
During this time, she exhibited under the name George Hartigan in an attempt to achieve greater recognition for her work. Paintings from the Old Masters: In the early 1950s Grace Hartigan began painting figuratively from old master paintings. Clement Greenberg, an influential art critic in New York during the mid 20th century, enthusiastically supported Hartigan's Abstract Expressionist works, but opposed her painting figuratively; this discord resulted in her break from Greenberg. Painting from the old masters fostered Hartigan's growth in depicting space, light and structure; some examples of these paintings are Hartigan's River Bathers, Knight and Devil, The Tribute Money, working after Matisse and Rubens, respectively. Brides: In 1949, Hartigan rented a studio on Grand Street in lower Manhattan. Inspired by the display windows of the numerous bridal shops concentrated on the street, Hartigan began to paint groups of mannequins dressed in bridal gowns. Grand Street Brides, based on Goya's Carlos IV of Spain and His Family, was one of several works that drew the attention of critics and collectors and established her reputation.
In her career, Hartigan said, " bridal theme is one of my empty ritual ideas... it just seems ludicrous to me to go through all that fuss." Additionally, she stated, "I paint things that I'm against to try to make them wonderful... often." Oranges: In November 1952, Hartigan and close friend Frank O'Hara began a collaborative project: Oranges. O'Hara had written a collection of fourteen poems while a student at Harvard. Hartigan created a painting in response to each of the fourteen poems, incorporating text from each poem into every image. Memorials: Over the course of her career, Hartigan painted abstract compositions commemorating the deaths of friends and family members, including Martha Jackson, Franz Kline, Frank O'Hara, her father, Winston Price. Marilyn: In the year of the actress' death, Hartigan painted an image of Marilyn Monroe, her painterly, expressive treatment of the subject differs from the impersonal manner of such pop artists as Andy Warhol. Working from several photographs, Hartigan felt that her fragmented, semi-abstract picture represented Monroe more than her glamorous, public image.
Reisterstown Mall: Grace returned to her lifetime fascination with shop windows with an updated, modern vision. She began working her way back to more recognizable imagery, though keeping the objects floating in an abstract, circular composition. Though she includes a plethora of recognizable objects, this is not Pop Art. Grace was "always too passionately involved with her subject matter to accept the deadpan perspective of Pop." Modern Cycle: This painting captures the American fascination and worship of machines in the 1960s. It was this spirit that Hartigan parodied in Modern Cycle, a humor that recurs in her work. Autobiography: Autobiography is present in all of Grace Hartigan’s work, but it took on a more central role in the 1970s. I the late 1950s, Hartigan began to experience a high level of exposure. In 1956, her paintings were included in the 12 Americans at the Museum of Modern Art in New York, as well as in The New American Painting, which traveled throughout Europe from 1958 to 1959.
Hartigan received significant press coverage as she was one of few women at this time to receive this level of exposure. Subsequently, she was featured in Life magazine in 1957 and Newsweek in 1959. Life magazine referred to Hartigan as “the most celebrated of the young American women
The Card Players
The Card Players is a series of oil paintings by the French Post-Impressionist artist Paul Cézanne. Painted during Cézanne's final period in the early 1890s, there are five paintings in the series; the versions vary in size, the number of players, the setting in which the game takes place. Cézanne completed numerous drawings and studies in preparation for The Card Players series. One version of The Card Players was sold in 2011 to the Royal Family of Qatar for a price variously estimated at between $250 million, it was thought to be sold to the Davis family out of Florida in the United States for a estimated $225 million usd. and as high as $300 million, either price signifying a new mark for highest price for a painting, not surpassed until November 2017. The series is considered by critics to be a cornerstone of Cézanne's art during the early-to-mid 1890s period, as well as a "prelude" to his final years, when he painted some of his most acclaimed work; each painting depicts Provençal peasants immersed in playing cards.
The subjects, all male, are displayed as studious within their card playing, eyes cast downward, intent on the game at hand. Cézanne adapted a motif from 17th-century Dutch and French genre painting which depicted card games with rowdy, drunken gamblers in taverns, replacing them instead with stone-faced tradesmen in a more simplified setting. Whereas previous paintings of the genre had illustrated heightened moments of drama, Cézanne's portraits have been noted for their lack of drama and conventional characterization. Other than an unused wine bottle in the two-player versions, there is an absence of drink and money, which were prominent fixtures of the 17th century genre. A painting by one of the Le Nain brothers, hung in an Aix-en-Provence museum near the artist's home, depicts card players and is cited as an inspiration for the works by Cézanne; the models for the paintings were local farmhands, some of whom worked on the Cézanne family estate, the Jas de Bouffan. Each scene is depicted as one of still concentration.
One critic described the scenes as "human still life", while another speculated that the men's intense focus on their game mirrors that of the painter's absorption in his art. While there are, in total, five paintings of card players by Cézanne, the final three works were similar in composition and number of players, causing them to sometimes be grouped together as one version; the exact dates of the paintings are uncertain, but it is long believed Cézanne began with larger canvases and pared down in size with successive versions, though research in recent years has cast doubt on this assumption. The largest version, painted between the years 1890–1892, is the most complex, with five figures on a 134.6 x 180.3 cm canvas. It features three card players at the forefront, seated in a semi-circle at a table, with two spectators behind. On the right side of the painting, seated behind the second man and to the right of the third, is a boy, eyes cast downward a fixed spectator of the game. Further back, on the left side between the first and second player is a man standing, back to the wall, smoking a pipe and awaiting his turn at the table.
It has been speculated Cézanne added the standing man to provide depth to the painting, as well as to draw the eye to the upper portion of the canvas. As with the other versions, it displays a suppressed storytelling of peasant men in loose-fitting garments with natural poses focused on their game. Writer Nicholas Wadley described a "tension in opposites", in which elements such as shifts of color and shadow, shape of hat, crease of cloth create a story of confrontation through opposition. Others have described an "alienation" displayed in the series to be most pronounced in this version; the painting is displayed by the Barnes Foundation museum in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. A more condensed version of this painting with four figures, long thought to be the second version of The Card Players, is in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. At 65.4 x 81.9 cm, it is less than half the size of the Barnes painting. Here the composition remains the same, minus the boy, with viewers' perspective closer to the game, but with less space between the figures.
In the previous painting, the center player as well as the boy were hatless, whereas this version has all the men hatted. Gone are the shelf to the left with vase and lower half of a picture frame in the center of the wall, leaving only the four pipes and hanging cloth to join the smoking man behind the card players; the painting is brighter, than the larger version. X-ray and infrared studies of this version of The Card Players have shown layers of "speculative" graphite underdrawing, as well as heavy layers of worked oil paint suggesting it was the preliminary of Cézanne's two largest versions of the series, rather than the second version as believed; the underdrawing has led analysts to believe Cézanne had difficulty transferring the men painted individually in studies, onto one canvas. It has been speculated that Cézanne solved this "spatial conundrum" in the final three versions of The Card Players, by eliminating spectators and other "unnecessary detail" while displaying only the "absolute essentials": two players immersed in their game.
The scene has been described as balanced but asymmetrical, as well as symmetrical with the two players being each other's "partner in an agreed opposition". The man on the left is smoking a pipe
Autumn Rhythm (Number 30)
Autumn Rhythm is an abstract expressionist painting by American artist Jackson Pollock in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. The work is a distinguished example of Pollock's 1947-52 poured-painting style, is considered one of his most notable works. Autumn Rhythm was made in the fall of 1950 at Pollock's studio in Springs, New York, as part of a group of paintings he first exhibited at the Betty Parsons Gallery in November–December, 1951. Pollock's technique in the painting, like others made during this part of his career, involved working on unprimed canvas laid on the floor of his studio, pouring paint from cans or using sticks loaded brushes and other implements to control a stream of paint as he dripped and flung it onto the canvas. At 17 feet wide and 8 feet high, Autumn Rhythm is among Pollock's largest pictures; the creation of Autumn Rhythm was documented by Hans Namuth, who photographed Pollock at work over several months in 1950. According to art historian Monica Bohm-Duchen, Namuth's photographs lend insight to the sequence in which Pollock filled in the canvas, the order in which paint colors were applied to the work.
Pollock began by painting the right third of the canvas, laying down a skein of thin black lines, adding other colors of paint using several methods of dripping and pouring to create a variety of types of lines and puddled areas of paint until the section began to resemble its finished state. He moved on to the center section, the left-hand section using the same process. Throughout the making of the work, he painted from all sides of the canvas. Pollock gave the painting the title Number 30, it was exhibited under that name at the Betty Parsons Gallery in 1951, at the Museum of Modern Art as part of its 15 Americans exhibition in 1952. From 1947 to 1952, Pollock gave his works numbers rather than titles in order not to distract viewers with implied meanings; the numbered titles do not appear to correspond to the sequence. When the picture was shown at the Sidney Janis Gallery in 1955, it carried the title Autumn Rhythm with no reference to the number. Pollock did not record. In 1957, the Metropolitan Museum of Art acquired the painting from Pollock's estate for $20,000 plus a trade of a work in the Met collection, Number 17, 1951.
Met curator Robert Beverly Hale supervised the acquisition. Since the work has been exhibited as Autumn Rhythm. Researchers looking at the underlying fractal geometry of Pollock's work have estimated the fractal dimension of the drip patterns in Autumn Rhythm at 1.67. The following have extended discussion of Autumn Rhythm. Geldzahler, Henry. American Painting in the Twentieth Century. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art. OCLC 878548108. Rubin, William. "Jackson Pollock and the Modern Tradition, Part II". Artforum. 5: 28–37. ISSN 0004-3532. Johnson, Ellen H.. "Jackson Pollock and Nature" in Modern Art and the Object: A Century of Changing Attitudes. New York: Icon Editions. ISBN 0064302261. Varnedoe, with Karmel, Pepe. Jackson Pollock. New York: Abrams. ISBN 9780810961937