A NoSQL database provides a mechanism for storage and retrieval of data, modeled in means other than the tabular relations used in relational databases. Such databases have existed since the late 1960s, but the name "NoSQL" was only coined in the early 21st century, triggered by the needs of Web 2.0 companies. NoSQL databases are used in big data and real-time web applications. NoSQL systems are sometimes called "Not only SQL" to emphasize that they may support SQL-like query languages, or sit alongside SQL databases in polyglot persistent architectures. Motivations for this approach include: simplicity of design, simpler "horizontal" scaling to clusters of machines, finer control over availability and limiting the object-relational impedance mismatch; the data structures used by NoSQL databases are different from those used by default in relational databases, making some operations faster in NoSQL. The particular suitability of a given NoSQL database depends on the problem. Sometimes the data structures used by NoSQL databases are viewed as "more flexible" than relational database tables.
Many NoSQL stores compromise consistency in favor of availability, partition tolerance, speed. Barriers to the greater adoption of NoSQL stores include the use of low-level query languages, lack of standardized interfaces, huge previous investments in existing relational databases. Most NoSQL stores lack true ACID transactions, although a few databases have made them central to their designs. Instead, most NoSQL databases offer a concept of "eventual consistency" in which database changes are propagated to all nodes "eventually" so queries for data might not return updated data or might result in reading data, not accurate, a problem known as stale reads. Additionally, some NoSQL systems may exhibit lost writes and other forms of data loss; some NoSQL systems provide concepts such as write-ahead logging to avoid data loss. For distributed transaction processing across multiple databases, data consistency is an bigger challenge, difficult for both NoSQL and relational databases. Relational databases "do not allow referential integrity constraints to span databases".
Few systems maintain both ACID transactions and X/Open XA standards for distributed transaction processing. Interactive relational databases share conformational relay analysis techniques as a common feature. Limitations within the interface environment are overcome using semantic virtualization protocols, such that NoSQL services are accessible to most operating systems; the term NoSQL was used by Carlo Strozzi in 1998 to name his lightweight Strozzi NoSQL open-source relational database that did not expose the standard Structured Query Language interface, but was still relational. His NoSQL RDBMS is distinct from the circa-2009 general concept of NoSQL databases. Strozzi suggests that, because the current NoSQL movement "departs from the relational model altogether, it should therefore have been called more appropriately'NoREL', referring to'No Relational'. Johan Oskarsson a developer at Last.fm, reintroduced the term NoSQL in early 2009 when he organized an event to discuss "open source distributed, non relational databases".
The name attempted to label the emergence of an increasing number of non-relational, distributed data stores, including open source clones of Google's Bigtable/MapReduce and Amazon's DynamoDB. There are various ways to classify NoSQL databases, with different categories and subcategories, some of which overlap. What follows is a basic classification by data model, with examples: Wide column: Accumulo, Scylla, HBase. Document: Apache CouchDB, ArangoDB, BaseX, Couchbase, Cosmos DB, eXist-db, IBM Domino, MarkLogic, MongoDB, OrientDB, RethinkDB Key-value: Aerospike, Apache Ignite, ArangoDB, Berkeley DB, Dynamo, FoundationDB, InfinityDB, MemcacheDB, MUMPS, Oracle NoSQL Database, OrientDB, Riak, SciDB, SDBM/Flat File dbm, ZooKeeper Graph: AllegroGraph, ArangoDB, InfiniteGraph, Apache Giraph, MarkLogic, Neo4J, OrientDB, VirtuosoA more detailed classification is the following, based on one from Stephen Yen: Correlation databases are model-independent, instead of row-based or column-based storage, use value-based storage.
Key-value stores use the associative array as their fundamental data model. In this model, data is represented as a collection of key-value pairs, such that each possible key appears at most once in the collection; the key-value model is one of the simplest non-trivial data models, richer data models are implemented as an extension of it. The key-value model can be extended to a discretely ordered model that maintains keys in lexicographic order; this extension is computationally powerful, in that it can efficiently retrieve selective key ranges. Key-value stores can use consistency models ranging from eventual consistency to serializability; some databases support ordering of keys. There are various hardware implementations, some users maintain data in memory, while others employ solid-state drives or rotating disks; the central concept of a document store is the notion of a "document". While each document-oriented database implementation differs on the details of this definition, in general, they all assume that documents encapsulate and encode data in some standard formats or encodings.
Alyssa Wong is an American speculative fiction author of Chinese and Filipino descent. She has published short fiction and poetry, studied fiction at North Carolina State University, graduating in 2017 with a Master of Fine Arts. In July 2018, she was hired by Blizzard Entertainment as a writer on Overwatch. A Fist of Permutations in Lightning and Wildflowers "The Fisher Queen" "Scarecrow" "Santos de Sampaguitas" "Hungry Daughters of Starving Mothers" "A Fist of Permutations in Lightning and Wildflowers" "You'll Surely Drown Here If You Stay" "Rabbit Heart" "Natural Skin" "The White Dragon" "Your Bones Will Not Be Unknown" "God Product" "A Clamor of Bones" "All the Time We've Left to Spend" "What My Mother Left Me" "Olivia's Table" "What you left Behind" "For the Gardener's Daughter" "Here's How It Goes" "Buzzword" "The H Word: The Darkest, Truest Mirrors" "They Love Me Not: How Fictional Villains Saved My Life" 2014 Nebula Award for Best Short Story, 2014 Shirley Jackson Award, 2015 World Fantasy Award for Best Short Story, for "The Fisher Queen".
2015 Nebula Award for Best Short Story, 2016 World Fantasy Award for Best Short Story, 2015 Shirley Jackson Award, 2016 Locus Award for Best Short Story, 2015 Bram Stoker Award for Short Fiction, for "Hungry Daughters of Starving Mothers". 2016 John W. Campbell Award for Best New Writer 2017 Locus Award for Best Novelette, 2016 Nebula Award for Best Novelette, 2017 Hugo Award for Best Novelette for "You'll Surely Drown Here If You Stay". 2017 Locus Award for Best Short Story, 2016 Nebula Award for Best Short Story, 2017 Hugo Award for Best Short Story for "A Fist of Permutations in Lightning and Wildflowers". Official website Alyssa Wong at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database
Most mammals are viviparous, giving birth to live young. However, the five species of monotreme, the platypuses and the echidnas, lay eggs; the monotremes have a sex determination system different from that of most other mammals. In particular, the sex chromosomes of a platypus are more like those of a chicken than those of a therian mammal; the mammary glands of mammals are specialized to produce milk, a liquid used by newborns as their primary source of nutrition. The monotremes branched early from other mammals and do not have the teats seen in most mammals, but they do have mammary glands; the young lick the milk from a mammary patch on the mother's belly. Viviparous mammals are in the subclass Theria. A marsupial has a short gestation period shorter than its estrous cycle, gives birth to an underdeveloped newborn that undergoes further development; some placentals, e.g. guinea pig, give birth to developed young after long gestation periods, while some others, e.g. mouse, give birth to underdeveloped young.
The mammalian male reproductive system contains two main divisions, the penis and the testicles, the latter of, where sperm are produced. In humans, both of these organs are outside the abdominal cavity, but they can be housed within the abdomen in other animals. For instance, a dog's penis is covered by a penile sheath except when mating. Having the testicles outside the abdomen best facilitates temperature regulation of the sperm, which require specific temperatures to survive; the external location may cause a reduction in the heat-induced contribution to the spontaneous mutation rate in male germinal tissue. Sperm are the smaller of the two gametes and are very short-lived, requiring males to produce them continuously from the time of sexual maturity until death; the produced sperm are stored in the epididymis until ejaculation. The sperm cells are motile and they swim using tail-like flagella to propel themselves towards the ovum; the sperm follows temperature gradients and chemical gradients to locate the ovum.
The mammalian female reproductive system contains two main divisions: the vagina and uterus, which act as the receptacle for the sperm, the ovaries, which produce the female's ova. All of these parts are always internal; the vagina is attached to the uterus through the cervix, while the uterus is attached to the ovaries via the Fallopian tubes. At certain intervals, the ovaries release an ovum, which passes through the fallopian tube into the uterus. If, in this transit, it meets with sperm, the egg selects sperm with; the fertilization occurs in the oviducts, but can happen in the uterus itself. The zygote implants itself in the wall of the uterus, where it begins the processes of embryogenesis and morphogenesis; when developed enough to survive outside the womb, the cervix dilates and contractions of the uterus propel the fetus through the birth canal, the vagina. The ova, which are the female sex cells, are much larger than the sperm and are formed within the ovaries of the fetus before its birth.
They are fixed in location within the ovary until their transit to the uterus, contain nutrients for the zygote and embryo. Over a regular interval, in response to hormonal signals, a process of oogenesis matures one ovum, released and sent down the Fallopian tube. If not fertilized, this egg is released through menstruation in humans and other great apes, reabsorbed in other mammals in the estrus cycle. Gestation, called pregnancy in humans, is the period of time during which the fetus develops, dividing via mitosis inside the female. During this time, the fetus receives all of its nutrition and oxygenated blood from the female, filtered through the placenta, attached to the fetus' abdomen via an umbilical cord; this drain of nutrients can be quite taxing on the female, required to ingest higher levels of calories. In addition, certain vitamins and other nutrients are required in greater quantities than normal creating abnormal eating habits; the length of gestation, called the gestation period, varies from species to species.
Once the fetus is sufficiently developing, chemical signals start the process of birth, which begins with contractions of the uterus and the dilation of the cervix. The fetus descends to the cervix, where it is pushed out into the vagina, out of the female; the newborn, called an infant in humans, should begin respiration on its own shortly after birth. Not long after, the placenta is passed as well. Monotremes, only five species of which exist, all from Australia and New Guinea, are mammals that lay eggs, they have one opening for reproduction called the cloaca. They hold the eggs internally for several weeks, providing nutrients, lay them and cover them like birds. Like marsupial "joeys", monotreme "puggles" are larval and fetus-like, as like them they cannot expand their torso due to the presence of epipubic bones, forcing them to produce undeveloped young. Marsupials' reproductive systems differ markedly from those of placental mammals, though it is the plesiomorphic condition found in viviparous mammals, including non-placental eutherians.
During embryonic development, a choriovitelline placenta forms in all marsupials. In bandicoots, an additional chorioallantoic placenta forms, although it lacks the chorionic villi found in eutherian placentas
The UK Albums Chart is one of many music charts compiled by the Official Charts Company that calculates the best-selling albums of the week in the United Kingdom. Before 2004, the chart was only based on the sales of physical albums; this list shows albums that peaked in the Top 10 of the UK Albums Chart during 1970, as well as albums which peaked in 1969 but were in the top 10 in 1970. The entry date is; the first new number-one album of the year was by Led Zeppelin II by Led Zeppelin. Overall, fourteen different albums peaked at number one in 1970, with Led Zeppelin having the most albums hit that position. Key 1970 in British music List of number-one albums from the 1970s General "Six decades of singles charts"; the Official Charts Company. Archived from the original on 3 March 2011. Retrieved 23 April 2017. Specific 1970 album chart archive at the Official Charts Company
Sentientist Politics: A Theory of Global Inter-Species Justice is a 2019 book by the English political theorist Alasdair Cochrane, published by Oxford University Press. In the book, Cochrane outlines and defends his political theory of "sentientist cosmpolitan democracy"; the approach is sentientist in. It was the first book to extend cosmopolitan theory to animals, was a contribution to the "political turn" in animal ethics – animal ethics informed by political philosophy. Sentientist Politics was inspired by Cochrane's hope to take discussions of animal rights beyond questions about how animals may be treated to how politics would have to change if animal rights were recognised. For him, the only previous substantial exploration of this question was in Sue Donaldson and Will Kymlicka's Zoopolis, of which Cochrane had earlier published a cosmopolitan critique. Research for Sentientist Politics was funded by a grant from the Leverhulme Trust, work on international intervention on behalf of animals was conducted with Steve Cooke.
Sentientist Politics was published on 30 October 2018, with a launch event at the University of Sheffield. For the book, Cochrane was awarded the 2019 Susan Strange Best Book Prize by the British International Studies Association. Sentientist Politics was the subject of a symposium in the journal Politics and Animals, praised by commentators for its readability, strength of argument, ambition, it provoked questions about methodology in animal-rights scholarship, aid to wild animals, the possibility of sentientist constitutionalism. Alasdair Cochrane's 2010 book An Introduction to Animals and Political Theory and his 2012 book Animal Rights Without Liberation became important texts in the "political turn" in animal ethics, a field of enquiry that explores the normative dimensions of human-animal relationships from the perspective of political philosophy, establishing Cochrane as a leading scholar in the area; the former work, a textbook, was one of the first books to explore the place of animals in political philosophy.
In the latter, Cochrane defended the interest-based rights approach, according to which some animals have rights on the basis of their strong interests, these rights must be protected as a matter of justice. Sentient animals, Cochrane argued have rights not to be made to suffer or to be killed, but the lack an interest in freedom. Another important work in the political turn in animal ethics was Sue Donaldson and Will Kymlicka's 2011 book Zoopolis. In Zoopolis and Kymlicka defended a vision of animal rights in which domesticated animals are conceived as citizens in mixed human/animal communities, wild animals are conceived as sovereign over their own spaces, "liminal" animals, who are neither wild nor domesticated, are offered the rights of "denizenship". In 2013, Cochrane published a paper in response to Donaldson and Kymlicka in which he forwarded a cosmopolitan case against the "group-differentiated" rights of Zoopolis, which he called "Cosmozoopolis". Further work on international dimensions of animal rights included a 2013 symposium in the journal Global Policy that Cochrane edited on protecting animals across borders.
Cochrane was inspired to write Sentientist Politics by the question of what animal rights would mean for politics. Thus, he wanted to take discussions of animal rights beyond debates about what they entail in terms of eating and experimenting on animals – the kind of work that he and others had done previously. Human rights, Cochrane said, are understood to justify and shape politics, animal rights should too, it is this thought with which Cochrane begins the book, an attempt to explore what that would mean. While work like this had been done before, it had, he argued, only been addressed at length in Zoopolis; the biggest departure of his approach in Sentientist Politics from that of Zoopolis is that his approach, unlike Donaldson and Kymlicka's, is grounded in cosmopolitanism. Thus, unlike Donaldson and Kymlicka, Cochrane places little importance on where an animal lives, pre-existing human relationships to the animals, state borders. Though Cochrane sees cosmopolitanism and animal rights as natural bedfellows, few theorists of animal rights had considered obligations to animals across borders, few cosmopolitan theorists had considered what their approach means for human/animal relationships.
Though Sentientist Politics was not the first scholarly work extending cosmomopolitan theory to animals, it was the first monograph dedicated to doing so. The initial research and writing for Sentientist Politics was supported by a 2014 research fellowship Cochrane was awarded by the Leverhulme Trust. At the time, the working title for Sentientist Politics was Beastly Cosmopolitanism: A Theory of Global Inter-Species Justice. Research on the issue of intervention on behalf of animals was conducted with the philosopher Steve Cooke; as well as discussion in Sentientist Politics, this resulted in a co-authored paper in the Journal of Global Ethics. In 2016, the year in which Cochrane's paper with Cooke was published, Cochrane discussed what would become Sentientist Politics on an episode of Siobhan O'Sullivan's Knowing Animals podcast. Cochrane said that he was “writing a book on global justice and animal rights”. In this book, he said, he would address “what we owe to animals across borders” and “what we owe to animals internationally”, exploring “what a system of global
Ali Hashem is a columnist for Al-Monitor and BBC Arabic's bilingual Iran affairs correspondent. He served as Al Mayadeen news network's chief correspondent; until March 2012, he was Al Jazeera's war correspondent, prior to that he was a senior journalist at the BBC. Ali has written for several international Institutes and media outlets, such as the Guardian, the Sunday Times, the Middle East Institute, the Century Foundation, among others. In the Arab world Ali wrote for Lebanese daily As Safir, the Egyptian dailies Al-Masry Al-Youm and Aldostor and the Jordanian daily Alghad. Hashem resigned from the Qatari channel only one year after joining its office in Beirut in protest over "bias" reporting of the Syrian crisis, accusing the Qatari government of pushing Al Jazeera towards "media suicide". On March 9, 2012, he announced his resignation on Twitter but didn't give reasons, but Lebanese daily Al-Akhbar published a story about the resignation. Ali was born to a family of Lebanese immigrants in the West African state of Sierra Leone.
With the civil war in Lebanon coming to an end in 1990, the start of the rebel war in Sierra Leone, his family relocated to Lebanon where he completed his studies. He holds a BA in journalism from the American University of Science and Technology in Beirut, pursuing MRes in politics from Royal Holloway, University of London. On his Linkedin page, Hashem describes himself as follows "for the past 15 years, I worked in several news outlets with varying editorial guidelines, some with conflicting agendas, this alone provided me with vast experience on how to practice journalism in a politicized sphere while adhering to my journalistic values." He started his career in 2002 with Hezbollah affiliated TV station Al Manar. in 2007 he left to BBC Arabic and in 2011 to Aljazeera. Ali resigned from AlJazeera in 2012 to join the newly established AlMayadeen. In 2017, Ali announced that he'll be leaving AlMayadeen to return back to the BBC. With Al Manar TV, Ali Hashem reported the 2006 war between Israel.
He was based in the South Lebanese city of Tyre and covered several events that took place during the war. After the war, Hashem returned to Beirut where he was shot by a sniper in 2007 during what's known as the Arab University events, he survived, though one of the cameramen was injured. In 2007 Ali joined BBC after a couple of months with newly launched Al Jazeera English language channel. At BBC Hashem reported from various locations and covered several stories on he produced and presented a weekly flagship program named the commission. After joining Al Jazeera in Beirut, Hashem was dispatched to Libya to cover the revolution Libya that erupted on Feb. 17, 2011. He was stationed in Benghazi where he covered the NATO strikes and the battles fought between the rebels and Gaddafi's forces. After Libya, he returned to Lebanon, where he had to cover Lebanese politics and tension related to the Syrian uprising on the Syrian Lebanese borders. Ali travelled to Somalis to cover drought there. In 2012 he announced his resignation from AlJazeera claiming that the channel's agenda in Syria and Bahrain was the reason.
At AlMaydeen Ali played a vital role in building the channel's assignment desk during the launch period, he went back to the field, covering stories from Syria, Gaza, Venezuela and Sierra Leone. He's now the channel's bureau chief in Tehran. Ali rejoined BBC in 2018 to become the channel's Iran affairs correspondent, he was the first BBC reporter to gain access to Iran since the organisation was expelled amid the 2009 uprising. He claims in an interview with Mehr News that Iran is going to be a superpower in the Middle East