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No man's land

No man's land is land, unoccupied or is under dispute between parties who leave it unoccupied due to fear or uncertainty. The term was used to define a contested territory or a dumping ground for refuse between fiefdoms. In modern times it is associated with World War I to describe the area of land between two enemy trench systems, which neither side wished to cross nor seize due to fear of being attacked by the enemy in the process; the term is used to refer to ambiguity, an anomalous, or indefinite area, in regards to an application, situation, or jurisdiction. According to Alasdair Pinkerton, an expert in human geography at the Royal Holloway University of London, the term is first mentioned in Domesday Book in the 11th century, to describe parcels of land that were just beyond the London city walls; the Oxford English Dictionary contains a reference to the term dating back to 1320, spelled nonesmanneslond, to describe a territory, disputed or involved in a legal disagreement. The same term was used as the name for the piece of land outside the north wall of London, assigned as the place of execution.

The term was applied to a little-used area on ships called the forecastle, where various ropes, tackle and other supplies were stored. In the United Kingdom, several places called No Man's Land denoted "extra-parochial spaces that were beyond the rule of the church, beyond the rule of different fiefdoms that were handed out by the king … ribbons of land between these different regimes of power"; the British Army did not employ the term when the Regular Army arrived in France in August 1914, soon after the outbreak of the Great War. The terms used most at the start of the war to describe the area between the trench lines included'between the trenches' or'between the lines'; the term'no man's land' was first used in a military context by soldier and historian Ernest Swinton in his short story "The Point of View". Swinton used the term in war correspondence on the Western Front, with specific mention of the terms with respect to the Race to the Sea in late 1914; the Anglo-German Christmas truce of 1914 brought the term into common use, thereafter it appeared in official communiqués, newspaper reports, personnel correspondences of the members of the British Expeditionary Force.

In World War I, no man's land ranged from several hundred yards to in some cases less than 10 yards. Defended by machine guns, mortars and riflemen on both sides, it was extensively cratered, was riddled with barbed wire, rudimentary improvised land mines, as well as corpses and wounded soldiers who were unable to make it through the hail of bullets and flames; the area was sometimes contaminated by chemical weapons. It was open to fire from the opposing trenches and hard going slowed down any attempted advance. Not only were soldiers forced to cross no man's land when advancing, as the case might be when retreating, but after an attack the stretcher bearers had to enter it to bring in the wounded. No man's land remained a regular feature of the battlefield until near the end of World War I, when mechanised weapons made entrenched lines less of an obstacle. Effects from World War I no man's lands persist today, for example at Verdun in France, where the Zone Rouge contains unexploded ordnance, is poisoned beyond habitation by arsenic and phosgene.

The zone is sealed off and still deemed too dangerous for civilians to return: "The area is still considered to be poisoned, so the French government planted an enormous forest of black pines, like a living sarcophagus", comments Alasdair Pinkerton, a researcher at Royal Holloway University of London, who compared the zone to the nuclear disaster site at Chernobyl encased in a "concrete sarcophagus". During the Cold War, one example of "no man's land" was the territory close to the Iron Curtain; the territory belonged to the Eastern Bloc countries, but over the entire Iron Curtain there were several wide tracts of uninhabited land, several hundred meters in width, containing watch towers, unexploded bombs, other such debris. The U. S. Naval Base at Guantánamo Bay, Cuba is separated from Cuba proper by an area called the Cactus Curtain. In late 1961, Cuba had its troops plant an 8-mile barrier of Opuntia cactus along the northeastern section of the 28-kilometre fence surrounding the base to prevent economic migrants fleeing from Cuba from resettling in the United States.

This was dubbed the "Cactus Curtain", an allusion to Europe's Iron Curtain and the Bamboo Curtain in East Asia. U. S. and Cuban troops placed some 55,000 land mines across the no man's land, creating the second-largest minefield in the world, the largest in the Americas. On 16 May 1996, the President of the United States, ordered their removal; the U. S. land mines have since been replaced with sound sensors to detect intruders. The Cuban government has not removed the corresponding minefield on its side of the border; the 1949 Armistice Agreements between Israel and Jordan were signed in Rhodes with the help of UN mediation on 3 April 1949. Armistice lines were determined in November 1948. Between the lines territory was left, defined as no man's land; such areas existed in Jerusalem, in the area between the western and southern parts of the Walls of Jerusalem and Musrara. A strip of land north and south of Latrun was known as "no man's land" because it was not controlled by either Israel or Jordan in 1948–1967.

In 1885, the United States Interior Department ruled that what was called "The Neutral Strip" was public land and that squatter homesteads were invalid. The Strip began to be called

Bukit Lanjan (state constituency)

Bukit Lanjan is a state constituency in Selangor, represented in the Selangor State Legislative Assembly since 1995. The state constituency was created in the 1994 redistribution and is mandated to return a single member to the Selangor State Legislative Assembly under the first past the post voting system. Since 2008, the State Assemblyman for Bukit Lanjan is Elizabeth Wong Keat Ping from the Parti Keadilan Rakyat, part of the state's ruling coalition, Pakatan Harapan. 2004–2016: The constituency contains the polling districts of Desa Jaya, Damansara Damai, Bandar Sri Damansara, Damansara Perdana, Mutiara Damansara, Bandar Utama, Bukit Lanjan and Kayu Ara. 2016–present: The constituency contains the polling districts of Desa Jaya, Damansara Damai, Bandar Sri Damansara, Damansara Perdana, Mutiara Damansara, Bandar Utama, Bukit Lanjan, Kayu Ara, Sunway Damansara PJU 3. "Keputusan Pilihan Raya Suruhanjaya Pilihan Raya". Election Commission of Malaysia. Archived from the original on 2016-04-24. Retrieved 2016-05-21

Mama Fiina

Sophia Namutebi known as Sofia Namutebi, Sylvia Namutebi, Maama Fiina, is a Ugandan businesswoman, traditional healer, community leader. She was listed in 2013 as one of the wealthiest people in Uganda. Namutebi was born in Mukono District circa 1979 in a family with modest means, she dropped out of school at an early age and while still a teenager, gave birth to her daughter Safina. She worked as a maid to support her daughter; when she was 16 years old, she relocated to Kampala, the country's capital city, where she began hawking merchandise on the streets. In 1995, she bought a consignment of polythene bags to hawk on the streets, she grew her capital to UGX:3 million in a short time. She bought a commuter taxi, recycling the profits over time. In 1998, she began importing cloth from Dubai to make the women's attire called gomesi or busuuti, worn in Uganda. Namutebi recalls that in 1999, she had four commuter taxis plying the Kampala–Jinja Highway, each valued at UGX:8.5 million, representing 1,000 fold what she had borrowed in 1995.

With the commuter taxis and the gomesi business continuing to bring in income, she diversified into the motorcycles taxi business. She would buy a motorcycle at UGX:720,000 each and lease to a rider-operator with payments totaling UGX:1,400,000 by the end of the lease-purchase. Starting with 20 motorcycles, her business grew to 500 vehicles, her other investments include garment shops in downtown Kampala and Mityana. She owns secondary schools in Mityana, she has real estate investments in residential and commercial property in various locations in the country. She is involved in the importation of used cars from Japan for sale to retail customers. Maama Fiina says. In September 2017, Namutebi was married to a businessman; the wedding took place at Kololo Mosque. She has been married in the past, to the late Major Major Muhammad Kiggundu, assassinated in November 2016, she was married to Ali Kyonjo, her husband in 2014. Maama Fina ties the knot again


HistoAtlas is a free collection of historic geographic information of the human culture all over the world. This is achieved. All information can be used and edited and is intended to be a resource for education, archaeologists and others. HistoAtlas provides a system to maintain historical information derived from historical records and check if it is consistent, it is not meant for the discovery of new historical facts but to put everything together so it can be presented as one whole story. It is an open project making sure everyone benefits from it. Everyone can collaborate on the project, its main audience is the general public but it should have enough historical details so historians should be able to enjoy it. HistoAtlas is not only able to visualize the changes in extent of different countries, but the events that caused this change altogether, because these things are more important than just the change of a border; the atlas has information about different aspects of history. A few examples.

Political boundaries based on archeological research. Historical events like wars, discoveries and journeys that shaped the course of time. Facts about historical figures and their families that played an important role in history; the evolution of cultural aspects like languages and religions. HistoAtlas aims to be a free, multilingual historical encyclopedia, intended as the most precise open content global historical reference. In concept there are some similarities to what online encyclopedia like Wikipedia are doing, with differences on how data is stored and used, it is a history oriented geographic information system. Information is structured more transparently so it can be searched more efficiently and presented in different ways. Wikipedia and other encyclopedia are focused on articles and are not able to create maps efficiently because they are not meant to do this, but like Wikipedia the information and application will be made available under an open license, meaning it will be maintained by volunteers who want to share their knowledge.

The vision that HistoAtlas wants to put forward is the one of a collaborative system. Scientists require. Making sure that data is correct will be a high priority of the system. For now only a basic system has been put in place. Everything developed for the project is licensed under an open license, it can be improved by anyone. All data published under the project is put under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Table of Historical Maps HistoAtlas official website Ian N. Gregory: A place in History A short introduction to HGIS by the lead developers of GBHGIS ISSN 1463-5194

Cascouia River

The Cascouia River is a tributary of Kenogami Lake, flowing in the municipality of Larouche in the Le Fjord-du-Saguenay Regional County Municipality and in the city of Saguenay, in the administrative region of Saguenay–Lac-Saint-Jean, in the province of Quebec, in Canada. The Cascouia river valley is served by the route 169 and the “route des Bâtisseurs” which bypasses the northern part of the lake; this valley is served by a few secondary forest roads for forestry and recreational tourism activities. Recreational and tourist activities are the main economic activity around Cascouia Bay vacationing around Lac du Camp; the surface of the Cascouia River is frozen from the beginning of December to the end of March, however the safe circulation on the ice is made from mid-December to mid-March. Following successive increases in the water level of Kenogami Lake in the early 20th century, Cascouia Bay expanded at the expense of the former Cascouia River, becoming a lake pass; the Cascouia River is located in the former municipality of lac-Kénogami.

The main watersheds neighboring the Cascouia River are: north side: Chamois lake, Potvin lake, Bruyère River, Dorval River, Dupéré brook, Saguenay River. The Cascouia river originates from a small unidentified lake in the shape of a V; this source is located at: 2.9 kilometres south-west of the village center of Larouche where the Canadian National railway passes. From its source, the Cascouia river flowed on 12.0 kilometres with a drop of 57 metres in the forest zone, according to the following segments: 4.0 kilometres towards the south-east by crossing the current Camp lake on 1.3 kilometres, until its mouth. The old course of the Cascouia River emptied into Epiphanes Bay on the north shore of Kenogami Lake; this former confluence was located at: 1.3 kilometres east of the rue des Bâtisseurs bridge. From the mouth of the Cascouia river, the current crosses the Kenogami Lake for 19.1 kilometres east to the barrage de Portage-des-Roches follows the course of the Chicoutimi river on 26.2 kilometres towards the east the northeast and the course of the Saguenay river on 114.6 kilometres towards the east up to Tadoussac where it merges with the Saint Lawrence estuary.

Cascouia Bay is called “Lac Cascouia”, due to its isolation from the central part of Kenogami Lake. One of the first known mentions of the Innu word "Cascaouia" is attributed to the surveyor Joseph-Laurent Normandin, in 1732, who wrote in his Journal: "... There is a large bay, bordered by jongs and grasses, that the Indians call Les Gachek8illaces de Quinongamingue ”. Normandin uses the form "Baye des Gachek8illasses". By modifying its primitive form in order to facilitate its use, the first explorers perpetuated this Amerindian term meaning "grasslands" or "rushes". For some, it is cattails. Several orthographic variants exist for this appellation, in particular: Kascouia, Kaskovia and Kashkouia. Other Amerindian spelling noted: Kashkouillasses; the toponym “rivière Cascouia” was formalized on December 5, 1968 at the Place Names Bank of the Commission de toponymie du Québec. Le Fjord-du-Saguenay Regional County Municipality Saguenay Kenogami Lake Chicoutimi River Saguenay River List of rivers of Quebec

2004 North Carolina judicial election

Several judges of the North Carolina Supreme Court and the North Carolina Court of Appeals, the state's two appellate courts, were elected on November 2, 2004. The U. S. Presidential election, 2004, U. S. House election, 2004, U. S. Senate election, 2004, North Carolina Council of State election, 2004 and North Carolina General Assembly election, 2004 were held on the same day. Appellate judges in North Carolina are elected to eight-year terms in statewide judicial elections. In 2004, for the first time, all these elections were non-partisan. If more than two candidates filed for a given seat, a non-partisan primary would be held, the two highest vote-getters, regardless of party, would advance to the general election; the only 2004 race in which more than two candidates filed for the primary was the Thornburg Court of Appeals seat. Associate Justice Sarah Parker, the incumbent, was challenged by Court of Appeals Judge John M. Tyson; the resignation of Associate Justice Robert F. Orr, too late for a primary election to be held, led to a situation in which there was no primary election to eliminate candidates, but rather, the winner was determined by plurality.

Eight candidates filed: Assistant U. S. Attorney Paul Newby, North Carolina Superior Court Judge Howard Manning, Pre-Paid Legal Services attorney and former judicial law clerk Rachel Hunter, Administrative Law Judge Fred Morrison, attorney Ronnie Ansley, former appeals court judge Betsy McCrodden, current appeals court judge Jim Wynn, attorney Marvin Schiller. Incumbent Judge Linda McGee was challenged by attorney Bill Parker. Incumbent Judge Wanda G. Bryant had been appointed to the Court by the Governor following her 2002 defeat for a different seat, she was challenged by Wake County District Court Judge Alice Stubbs. Incumbent Judge Alan Thornburg had been appointed to the court by the Governor. Three candidates filed to challenge Thornburg for a full term: Barbara Jackson, general counsel at the N. C. Department of Labor, along with attorneys Marcus W. Williams and Marvin Schiller. Jackson and Thornburg finished first and second in the July primary, thereby qualifying them to compete in the general election