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No true Scotsman

No true Scotsman, or appeal to purity, is an informal fallacy in which one attempts to protect a universal generalization from counterexamples by changing the definition in an ad hoc fashion to exclude the counterexample. Rather than denying the counterexample or rejecting the original claim, this fallacy modifies the subject of the assertion to exclude the specific case or others like it by rhetoric, without reference to any specific objective rule – "no true Scotsman would do such a thing". Philosophy professor Bradley Dowden explains the fallacy as an "ad hoc rescue" of a refuted generalization attempt; the following is a simplified rendition of the fallacy: The essayist David P. Goldman, writing under his pseudonym "Spengler" compared distinguishing between "mature" democracies, which never start wars, "emerging democracies", which may start them, with the "No true Scotsman" fallacy. Spengler alleges that political scientists have attempted to save the "US academic dogma" that democracies never start wars against other democracies from counterexamples by declaring any democracy which does indeed start a war against another democracy to be flawed, thus maintaining that no true democracy starts a war against a fellow democracy.

The introduction of the term is attributed to British philosopher Antony Flew, because the term appeared in Flew's 1971 book An Introduction to Western Philosophy. In his 1975 book Thinking About Thinking, he wrote: Imagine some Scottish chauvinist settled down one Sunday morning with his customary copy of The News of the World, he reads the story under the headline,'Sidcup Sex Maniac Strikes Again'. Our reader is, as he confidently expected, agreeably shocked:'No Scot would do such a thing!' Yet the next Sunday he finds in that same favourite source a report of the more scandalous on-goings of Mr Angus McSporran in Aberdeen. This constitutes a counter example, which definitively falsifies the universal proposition put forward. Allowing that this is indeed such a counter example, he ought to withdraw, but an imaginary Scot is, like the rest of us, human. So what he is in fact saying is:'No true Scotsman would do such a thing!' Ad hoc hypothesis Begging the question Epistemic commitment Equivocation List of fallacies Loaded language Moving the goalposts Persuasive definition Reification Republican In Name Only Special pleading Tautology

Fiasco (role-playing game)

Fiasco is a role-playing game by Jason Morningstar, independently published by Bully Pulpit Games. It is marketed as a "GM-less game for 3–5 players, designed to be played in a few hours with six-sided dice and no preparation", it is billed as "A game of powerful ambition and poor impulse control" and "inspired by cinematic tales of small time capers gone disastrously wrong—films like Blood Simple, The Way of the Gun, Burn After Reading, A Simple Plan."Fiasco was the winner of the eleventh Diana Jones Award and has been one of the featured games on Tabletop. Fiasco is designed to simulate the caper-gone-wrong subgenre of film, it shares creative control of the story among the players when determining who each player's character is. Themes of the game include black comedy, poor impulse control. Although there is no one standard setting, each game of Fiasco uses a "playset" that indicates the setting of that specific game; the core rulebook contains playsets for Main Street, Tales from Suburbia, The Ice.

Bully Pulpit Games released a free Playset of the Month on their website. These, many more, are available for free online on the Bully Pulpit Games website, with many fan-made playsets available online, as well; the Fiasco Companion provides additional advice on creating playsets. Each playset consists of a basic description of the setting and: six groups of six relationships between two characters in the setting six groups of six needs to be shared by two of the characters six groups of six notable objects six groups of six notable locationsEach group and each element within that group is numbered from one to six. Fiasco is a role-playing game with the game being set up before the action starts; the game is for three to five players, takes between one and three hours, including two acts and an aftermath. The things required to play are: four ordinary dice per player of two different colors a Fiasco Playset a copy of the Fiasco Tilt Table and the Fiasco Aftermath Table pen and paper The players first select the playset and roll dice.

The players go around the table, taking turns to choose a die. Using the value of the die, the player selects a group, or an element of a selected group, from a list provided by the playset to establish relationships, needs and locations; each pair of adjacent players has one other element. After all dice have been used, they are all returned to a central pool to be used as the game progresses. After all dice values have been used, each player will share with each neighbor: One relationship One need, object, or locationThe players discuss who their characters are, what they are called, how they relate to each other, the objects and locations their characters share. Once this is decided Act One is ready to begin. In Act One, for each player's turn, she or he may choose either to Resolve. Should the player choose to Establish, the content of the scene—people, conflict—is determined by the player. Doing this allows the player to set up the scene as they wish. However, the resolution of the scene or conflict is determined by the other players, who will choose a light die or a dark die to give to the player in the middle of the scene.

The player must accept the resolution, narrating events accordingly. Alternatively, should the player choose to Resolve, the other players dictate the circumstances of the scene: the characters with whom the player's character will interact, where it happens, what the conflict within the scene is. Choosing this option gives the player control of the resolution, unlike the Establish option. In Act One, at the conclusion of a player's scene, she or he selects another player and gives that person the Resolution die. After each player has had two scenes, half the dice are exhausted and Act One ends. Between Act One and Act Two is the "Tilt"—the incident, the heart of the story. To determine who selects the Tilt elements, all players roll their dice. Same-colored die values are added together and the lower total is subtracted from the greater; the player with the highest total for dark dice and the player with highest total for light dice roll all unassigned dice. As when setting up the game, these two players each select one group on the Tilt Table using the values from the rolled, unassigned dice.

Using the remaining die values, the two players choose an element from the other's chosen group, thus establishing the "tilt" element of the story. After the Tilt has been established, Act Two progresses in the same way as Act One, with each player deciding whether to Establish or Resolve scenes in the same order as Act One; the selected Tilt elements will come into play but this is not always the case. In some games, the Tilt elements will not show up until the climax of the story, where they will alter the fates of the characters. Along with the new Tilt elements introduced, the biggest difference in Act Two is that instead of giving away the Resolution die, the player keeps it. If there were positive resolutions in Act One, there will, by necessity, be negative resolutions in Act Two. After all the dice are exhausted—each player having had four scenes—everyone rolls the dice they have collected, just like when determining who chooses the Tilt element, consults the Aftermath table to determine whether their characters has a positive

Jerry Stovall

Jerry Lane Stovall is a former American football player and college athletics administrator. He played college football at Louisiana State University, where he was a unanimous selection to the 1962 College Football All-America Team as a halfback. Stovall played professionally as a defensive back and punter in the National Football League with the St. Louis Cardinals from 1963 to 1971. Stovall served as the head football coach at his alma mater, LSU, from 1980 to 1983, compiling a record of 22–21–2 in four seasons and leading the 1982 team to an appearance in the 1983 Orange Bowl, he was the athletic director at Louisiana Tech University from 1990 to 1993. He is the only player in LSU history to be named a Unanimous All-American, be selected to the college football hall of fame, be selected as a first round pick, to be selected to the pro bowl. Born and raised in West Monroe, Stovall graduated from West Monroe High School in 1959, he played college football at Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge, succeeding Heisman Trophy winner Billy Cannon as the Tigers' halfback.

Stovall served a multitude of roles for the Tigers, including running back, defensive back, return specialist, punter. His primary position was left halfback, which in the days of one-platoon football was both a running back and defensive back, his 57-yard run in 1961 helped LSU defeat arch-rival Ole Miss by a score of 10–7 in a major upset. Stovall was a unanimous choice for the All-America team of 1962 at halfback, he won the Walter Camp Memorial Trophy as the nation's best back, was named SEC Player of the Year, was the runner-up for the Heisman Trophy. He finished 89 votes behind Oregon State's Terry Baker. Stovall was the second overall pick in the 1963 NFL draft, selected by the St. Louis Cardinals, he was the third overall pick of the 1963 American Football League draft. The Cardinals converted him to full-time defensive back, he was regarded as one of the top rookies in the league in 1963. During his nine seasons with St. Louis, Stovall had 18 interceptions in 97 games, was selected to the Pro Bowl after the 1966, 1967, 1969 seasons.

After his NFL career, Stovall became a college football assistant coach. He returned to LSU, as an assistant for head coach Charlie McClendon. Stovall became LSU's head coach as an emergency hire after new head coach Bo Rein died when his plane depressurized and disappeared over the Atlantic Ocean. In Stovall's four years with the Tigers, LSU finished 7–4, 3–7–1, 8–3–1, 4–7. Only one of Stovall's teams appeared in the final AP Poll: the 1982 team; that team finished the season ranked No. 11 after it beat No. 4 Florida, No. 8 Alabama, No. 7 Florida State and earned a spot in the Orange Bowl, where LSU lost, 21–20, to a No. 3 Nebraska team led by Tom Osborne. As a result of his performance in 1982, Stovall was named the national coach of the year by the Walter Camp Football Foundation, as well as the SEC Coach of the Year. In 1983, Stovall's success of 1982 came unraveled; the Tigers went 0–6 in the SEC, including a 45–26 loss at home to Mississippi State, leaving Stovall 0–4 for his career against the Bulldogs.

Stovall had a 2–2 record against Tulane. To date, the Tigers have only lost to Tulane on two other occasions since 1948, both under McClendon. After the Tigers had secured the Orange Bowl berth in 1982, they suffered their only home loss to Tulane since 1948; the Tigers have won 18 in a row in the series since but has only played the Green Wave six times since 1994 winning by comfortable margins. Stovall's dismissal by athletic director Bob Brodhead was approved by the LSU Board of Supervisors on December 2, 1983. After his head coaching stint at LSU, Stovall went on to take a job in banking before becoming athletic director at Louisiana Tech University from 1990 to 1994. Afterwards, Stovall became the president and CEO of the Baton Rouge Area Sports Foundation, an organization dedicated to securing sporting events for the Baton Rouge area

Jimmy Kelly (footballer, born 1954)

Jimmy Kelly is a Northern Irish former professional footballer who played in the Football League and in the North American Soccer League during the 1970s and early 1980s. After beginning his career in his native Northern Ireland with Glentoran and Cliftonville, he moved to English First Division side Wolverhampton Wanderers in December 1971. Kelly had to wait until 5 February 1974 to make his club debut, in a 0–1 defeat at Sheffield United, was not selected again for two further years, he gained playing time by joining NASL side Portland Timbers in 1975, managed a run of nine of Wolves' final ten fixtures of the 1975–76 season as they unsuccessfully battled relegation. After only a handful of further appearances for Wolves during the following two seasons he signed for nearby Walsall in 1978. In 1981, he returned to North America to again play for the Portland Timbers. Matthews, Tony. Wolverhampton Wanderers: The Complete Record. Derby: Breedon Books. ISBN 978-1-85983-632-3. "Kelly's Eye still on Molineux". 19 May 2010. "Profile: Jimmy Kelly". NASL Jerseys


Sainte-Cécile-d'Andorge is a commune in the Gard department in southern France. The commune or Sainte Cécile d'Andorge is sparsely populated, it lies at the extreme north of the department of Gard. Its river, the Andorge here joins the larger Gardon d'Alès whose sources lie further up the valley in Lozère; the waters flow through this long cevenol valley through the former mining village of la Grand-Combe and down to the flatter land at Alès. This was a coal mining area, with important collieries of high-grade coal both in this valley and at Portes; these mines closed in 1973. There are three notable railways in the commune, one in operation, one under reconstruction and one defunct; the waters of the Gardon d'Alès have been tamed by two dams forming two reservoirs. The first, the Barrage de Camboix, was a hydro-electric scheme designed to supplement the power for the coal mines at Grand-Combe, the second, the barrage de Sainte Cécile, was designed as a holding reservoir to control the violent'crue' the area suffers when violent storms in the hills send an uncontrolled surge of water down the river flooding low-lying houses and agricultural land.

The area has been depopulating since 1900. The commune of Sainte Cécile d'Andorge has a long history. There are some prehistoric remains to be found such as tumuli and some paintings in the hamlet of Ponchets; the current houses have been protected from modern development. They are built from the local stone. Unusually for a village in the fiercely Protestant Cévennes, Sainte Cecile remained Catholic. During the Guerre des Camisards, it was the scene of violent action. On 11 October 1703 the villages of Sainte Cécile d’Andorge and Saint Julien des Points were set alight by Rolland et Jouanny; the residents took refuge in their fortified church but 9 were too slow and were slaughtered. Several days Abbé Vidal, curé de Sainte Cécile, lead a revenge attack on the neighbouring reformed parish of Blannaves; the church tower dates from the 13th century. The principal line, part of the PLM Transcévenol, threads its way along the Gardon valley from Alès to Génolhac to Mende, this section of the line was approved in 1861 and opened 5 May 1870, provided the link between Languedoc, Alès and Issoire and Paris.

It hosted three express trains. There is still a twice daily local service. From the station at Sainte-Cécile-d'Andorge there is a 1-metre gauge railway to Florac, it is 49 km long. This is known as the TAC. Authorised in 1859, the line was built by the Chemins de Fer Départementaux to bring wooden pit props down to Alés, with some passenger traffic; this amounted to two trains a day. The track is winding, climbs to 1024 m to cross the Col de Jalcreste, it closed in 1968. Enthuiasts are restoring it, they run a passenger pulling diesel locomotive on the first section, which includes the Viaduct d'Andorge. Between 1859 and 1867 there was a gravity driven rail line from the mainline at Le Levade, La Grand-Combe to Portes et Sénéchas; this was to serve the mines at La Vernarède. The full wagons descending to the river pulled up the empty wagons by a system of cables, it was the idea of the engineer Paul-Adrien Bourdaloue. Communes of the Gard department INSEE Sainte-Cécile-d'Andorge on Quid

Linaria bipartita

Linaria bipartita is a species of flowering plant in the plantain family known by the common name clovenlip toadflax. It is native to Morocco, but it can be found elsewhere as an introduced species and it is cultivated as an ornamental plant, it is an annual herb growing 10 to 30 centimeters tall with linear leaves 3 to 5 centimeters in length. The inflorescence is a raceme of flowers occupying the top of the stem; the flower is about 2 centimeters long with five lobes arranged into two lips with a spur at the end. The flower is reddish purple in color, but flowers of many different colors are bred for the garden; the fruit is a spherical capsule about 2 millimeters wide. Jepson Manual Treatment Photo gallery Plant symbolism