Nobel Prize in Literature
The Nobel Prize in Literature is a Swedish literature prize, awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction". Though individual works are sometimes cited as being noteworthy, the award is based on an author's body of work as a whole; the Swedish Academy decides. The academy announces the name of the laureate in early October, it is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895. On some occasions the award has been postponed to the following year, it was not awarded in 2018, but two names will be awarded in 2019. Although the Nobel Prize in Literature has become the world's most prestigious literature prize, the Swedish Academy has attracted significant criticism for its handling of the award. Many authors who have won the prize have fallen into obscurity, while others rejected by the jury remain studied and read.
The prize has "become seen as a political one – a peace prize in literary disguise", whose judges are prejudiced against authors with different political tastes to them. Tim Parks has expressed skepticism that it is possible for "Swedish professors... compar a poet from Indonesia translated into English with a novelist from Cameroon available only in French, another who writes in Afrikaans but is published in German and Dutch...". As of 2016, 16 of the 113 recipients have been of Scandinavian origin; the Academy has been alleged to be biased towards European, in particular Swedish, authors. Nobel's "vague" wording for the criteria for the prize has led to recurrent controversy. In the original Swedish, the word idealisk translates as "ideal"; the Nobel Committee's interpretation has varied over the years. In recent years, this means a kind of idealism championing human rights on a broad scale. Alfred Nobel stipulated in his last will and testament that his money be used to create a series of prizes for those who confer the "greatest benefit on mankind" in physics, peace, physiology or medicine, literature.
Though Nobel wrote several wills during his lifetime, the last was written a little over a year before he died, signed at the Swedish-Norwegian Club in Paris on 27 November 1895. Nobel bequeathed 94% of his total assets, 31 million Swedish kronor, to establish and endow the five Nobel Prizes. Due to the level of scepticism surrounding the will, it was not until 26 April 1897 that the Storting approved it; the executors of his will were Ragnar Sohlman and Rudolf Lilljequist, who formed the Nobel Foundation to take care of Nobel's fortune and organize the prizes. The members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee that were to award the Peace Prize were appointed shortly after the will was approved; the prize-awarding organisations followed: the Karolinska Institutet on 7 June, the Swedish Academy on 9 June, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on 11 June. The Nobel Foundation reached an agreement on guidelines for how the Nobel Prize should be awarded. In 1900, the Nobel Foundation's newly created statutes were promulgated by King Oscar II.
According to Nobel's will, the Royal Swedish Academy was to award the Prize in Literature. Each year, the Swedish Academy sends out requests for nominations of candidates for the Nobel Prize in Literature. Members of the Academy, members of literature academies and societies, professors of literature and language, former Nobel literature laureates, the presidents of writers' organizations are all allowed to nominate a candidate, it is not permitted to nominate oneself. Thousands of requests are sent out each year, as of 2011 about 220 proposals are returned; these proposals must be received by the Academy by 1 February, after which they are examined by the Nobel Committee. By April, the Academy narrows the field to around twenty candidates. By May, a short list of five names is approved by the Committee; the subsequent four months are spent in reading and reviewing the works of the five candidates. In October, members of the Academy vote and the candidate who receives more than half of the votes is named the Nobel laureate in Literature.
No one can get the prize without being on the list at least twice, thus many of the same authors reappear and are reviewed over the years. The academy is master of thirteen languages, but when a candidate is shortlisted from an unknown language, they call on translators and oath-sworn experts to provide samples of that writer. Other elements of the process are similar to that of other Nobel Prizes; the judges are composed of an 18 member committee who are elected for life and up until 2018, not technically permitted to leave. On 2 May 2018, King Carl XVI Gustaf amended the rules of the academy and made it possible for members to resign; the new rules state that a member, inactive in the work of the academy for more than two years can be asked to resign. The award is announced in October. Sometimes, the award has been announced the year after the nominal year, the latest being the 2018 award. In the midst of controversy surrounding claims of sexual assault, conflict of interest, resignations by officials, on 4 May 2018, the Swedish Academy announced that the 2018 laureate would be announced in 2019 along with the 2019 laureate.
A Literature Nobel Prize laureate earns a gold medal, a diploma bearing a citation, a sum of money. The amount of money awarded depends on the income of the Nobel Foundation tha
A. M. Harun-ar-Rashid
A. M. Harun-ar-Rashid is a Bangladeshi physicist and Bose Professor of Physics at the University of Dhaka, he is the nephew of actor-writer Shamsuddin Abul Kalam. Rashid was born in a village of Barisal district, his father Moksud Ali was the first person to have received postgraduate education in science. Rashid earned his MSc in Physics from University of Dhaka in 1953 and 1954 respectively, he completed his PhD from University of Glasgow in Theoretical Physics in 1960. Rashid joined the University of Dhaka as a lecturer of the Department of Physics, he became Professor in 1972. He is the founder and chairman of the Department of Theoretical Physics in the University of Dhaka in 1975, he became Chairman of the department in 1979. In 1993, he was named Bose Professor of Physics, he served as a Professor of Theoretical Physics and director of Institute of Physics, University of Islamabad during 1967–1971. He served as the Director of Computer Center in the University of Dhaka, he was a Visiting Professor in Institute für Theoretische Kernphysik, International Center for Theoretical Physics, Imperial College London, University of Texas and University of California, Los Angeles.
He was a Senior scientific officer and principle scientific officer, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission during 1962–1967. He served as the Vice president of Asiatic Society of Bangladesh during 1992–1993. Ekushey Padak Independence Day Award Raja Kalinarayan Scholarship awarded by the University of Dhaka Best Science Writer Award by the Government of Bangladesh Star Lifetime Award on Physics
Prof Karl Manne Georg Siegbahn FRS HFRSE was a Swedish physicist, awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1924 "for his discoveries and research in the field of X-ray spectroscopy". Siegbahn was born in Örebro, the son of Georg Siegbahn and his wife, Emma Zetterberg, he began his studies at Lund University in the same year. During his education he was secretarial assistant to Johannes Rydberg. In 1908 he studied at the University of Göttingen, he obtained his doctorate at the Lund University in 1911, his thesis was titled Magnetische Feldmessungen. He became acting professor for Rydberg when his health was failing, succeeded him as full professor in 1920. However, in 1922 he left Lund for a professorship at the Uppsala University. In 1937, Siegbahn was appointed Director of the Physics Department of the Nobel Institute of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. In 1988 this was renamed the Manne Siegbahn Institute; the institute research groups have been reorganized since, but the name lives on in the Manne Siegbahn Laboratory hosted by Stockholm University.
Manne Siegbahn began his studies of X-ray spectroscopy in 1914. He used the same type of spectrometer as Henry Moseley had done for finding the relationship between the wavelength of some elements and their place at the periodic system. Shortly thereafter he developed improved experimental apparatus which allowed him to make accurate measurements of the X-ray wavelengths produced by atoms of different elements, he found that several of the spectral lines that Moseley had discovered consisted of more components. By studying these components and improving the spectrometer, Siegbahn got an complete understanding of the electron shell, he developed a convention for naming the different spectral lines that are characteristic to elements in X-ray spectroscopy, the Siegbahn notation. Siegbahn's precision measurements drove many developments in atomic physics. Siegbahn was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1924, he won the Hughes Medal 1934 and Rumford Medal 1940. In 1944, he patented the Siegbahn pump.
Siegbahn was elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society in 1954. Siegbahn married Karin Högbom in 1914, they had two children: Bo Siegbahn, a diplomat and politician, Kai Siegbahn, a physicist who received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1981 for his contribution to the development of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
Ål Mats Arne Larsson is a Swedish cross-country skier who has raced since 1999. He won a bronze medal in the 4×10 km relay and finished 20th in the 15 km event at the 2006 Winter Olympics in Turin. Larsson won a silver medal in the individual sprint event at the 2007 FIS Nordic World Ski Championships in Sapporo, his only career win came in a 15 km event in 2002 in Italy. In May 2013, he was appointed as a coach for the Swedish national cross-country ski team, his father Gunnar was an Olympic cross-country skier. All results are sourced from the International Ski Federation. 4 podiums – 1 victory – 7 podiums – Mats Larsson at the International Ski Federation Official website at the Wayback Machine Mats Larsson at the International Olympic Committee
Ernst Joseph Nordgren, born November 16, 1947 in Örebro, is a Swedish physicist. Nordgren graduated as a B. Sc. from Uppsala University in 1971 and received his Ph. D. in physics in 1977. In 1979 he was made docent and since 1988, he is a professor of soft X-ray physics at Uppsala. Since July 1, 2008, Nordgren is vice rector for the area of science and engineering at Uppsala university. Nordgren is a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences since 1996, was a member of the Nobel Committee for Physics from 2001 to 2009, the Committee's chairman in 2008 and 2009, he is a member of the Royal Society of Sciences and Letters in Uppsala since 1981 and of the Royal Society of Sciences in Uppsala since 2005. Joseph Nordgren's web page at Uppsala University
Nobel Peace Prize
The Nobel Peace Prize is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Swedish industrialist and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature. Since March 1901, it has been awarded annually to those who have "done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses". Per Alfred Nobel's will, the recipient is selected by the Norwegian Nobel Committee, a five-member committee appointed by the Parliament of Norway. Since 1990, the prize is awarded on 10 December in Oslo City Hall each year; the prize was awarded in the Atrium of the University of Oslo Faculty of Law, the Norwegian Nobel Institute, the Parliament. Due to its political nature, the Nobel Peace Prize has, for most of its history, been the subject of numerous controversies. According to Nobel's will, the Peace Prize shall be awarded to the person who in the preceding year "shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses".
Alfred Nobel's will further specified that the prize be awarded by a committee of five people chosen by the Norwegian Parliament. Nobel died in 1896 and he did not leave an explanation for choosing peace as a prize category; as he was a trained chemical engineer, the categories for chemistry and physics were obvious choices. The reasoning behind the peace prize is less clear. According to the Norwegian Nobel Committee, his friendship with Bertha von Suttner, a peace activist and recipient of the prize, profoundly influenced his decision to include peace as a category; some Nobel scholars suggest. His inventions included dynamite and ballistite, both of which were used violently during his lifetime. Ballistite was used in war and the Irish Republican Brotherhood, an Irish nationalist organization, carried out dynamite attacks in the 1880s. Nobel was instrumental in turning Bofors from an iron and steel producer into an armaments company, it is unclear why Nobel wished the Peace Prize to be administered in Norway, ruled in union with Sweden at the time of Nobel's death.
The Norwegian Nobel Committee speculates that Nobel may have considered Norway better suited to awarding the prize, as it did not have the same militaristic traditions as Sweden. It notes that at the end of the 19th century, the Norwegian parliament had become involved in the Inter-Parliamentary Union's efforts to resolve conflicts through mediation and arbitration; the Norwegian Parliament appoints the Norwegian Nobel Committee, which selects the Nobel Peace Prize laureate. Each year, the Norwegian Nobel Committee invites qualified people to submit nominations for the Nobel Peace Prize; the statutes of the Nobel Foundation specify categories of individuals who are eligible to make nominations for the Nobel Peace Prize. These nominators are: Members of national assemblies and governments and members of the Inter-Parliamentary Union Members of the Permanent Court of Arbitration and the International Court of Justice at the Hague Members of Institut de Droit International University professors of history, social sciences, philosophy and theology, university presidents, directors of peace research and international affairs institutes Former recipients, including board members of organizations that have received the prize Present and past members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee Former permanent advisers to the Norwegian Nobel Institute Nominations must be submitted to the Committee by the beginning of February in the award year.
Nominations by committee members can be submitted up to the date of the first Committee meeting after this deadline. In 2009, a record 205 nominations were received, but the record was broken again in 2010 with 237 nominations; the statutes of the Nobel Foundation do not allow information about nominations, considerations, or investigations relating to awarding the prize to be made public for at least 50 years after a prize has been awarded. Over time, many individuals have become known as "Nobel Peace Prize Nominees", but this designation has no official standing, means only that one of the thousands of eligible nominators suggested the person's name for consideration. Indeed, in 1939, Adolf Hitler received a satirical nomination from a member of the Swedish parliament, mocking the nomination of Neville Chamberlain. Nominations from 1901 to 1956, have been released in a database. Nominations are considered by the Nobel Committee at a meeting where a short list of candidates for further review is created.
This short list is considered by permanent advisers to the Nobel institute, which consists of the Institute's Director and the Research Director and a small number of Norwegian academics with expertise in subject areas relating to the prize. Advisers have some months to complete reports, which are considered by the Committee to select the laureate; the Committee seeks to achieve a unanimous decision. The Nobel Committee comes to a conclusion in mid-September, but the final decision has not been made until the last meeting before the official announcement at the beginning of October; the Chairman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee presents the Nobel Peace Prize in the presence of the King of Norway on 10 December each year. The Peace Pri
Oskar Benjamin Klein was a Swedish theoretical physicist. Klein was born in Danderyd outside Stockholm, son of the chief rabbi of Stockholm, Gottlieb Klein from Humenné in Kingdom of Hungary, now Slovakia and Antonie Levy, he became a student of Svante Arrhenius at the Nobel Institute at a young age and was on the way to Jean-Baptiste Perrin in France when World War I broke out and he was drafted into the military. From 1917, he worked a few years with Niels Bohr in the University of Copenhagen and received his doctoral degree at the University College of Stockholm in 1921. In 1923, he received a professorship at University of Michigan in Ann Arbor and moved there with his wedded wife, Gerda Koch from Denmark. Klein returned to Copenhagen in 1925, spent some time with Paul Ehrenfest in Leiden became docent at Lund University in 1926 and in 1930 accepted the offer of the professorial chair in physics at the Stockholm University College, held by Erik Ivar Fredholm until his death in 1927. Klein was awarded the Max Planck Medal in 1959.
He retired as professor emeritus in 1962. Klein is credited for inventing the idea, part of Kaluza–Klein theory, that extra dimensions may be physically real but curled up and small, an idea essential to string theory / M-theory. In 1938, he proposed a boson-exchange model for charge-charging weak interactions, a few years after a similar proposal by Hideki Yukawa, his model was based on a local isotropic gauge symmetry and anticipated the successful theory of Yang-Mills. The Oskar Klein Memorial Lecture, held annually at the University of Stockholm, has been named after him; the Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics in Stockholm, Sweden is in his honor. Oskar Klein is the grandfather of Helle Klein. O'Connor, John J..