Dubai is the largest and most populous city in the United Arab Emirates. On the southeast coast of the Persian Gulf, it is the capital of the Emirate of Dubai, one of the seven emirates that make up the country. Dubai is a global business hub of the Middle East, it is a major global transport hub for passengers and cargo. Oil revenue helped accelerate the development of the city, a major mercantile hub, but Dubai's oil reserves are limited and production levels are low: today, less than 5% of the emirate's revenue comes from oil. A growing centre for regional and international trade since the early 20th century, Dubai's economy today relies on revenues from trade, aviation, real estate, financial services. Dubai has attracted world attention through large construction projects and sports events, in particular the world's tallest building, the Burj Khalifa; as of 2012, Dubai was the most expensive city in the Middle East. In 2014, Dubai's hotel rooms were rated as the second most expensive in the world.
Many theories have been proposed as to the origin of the word "Dubai". One theory suggests the word was used to describe the souq, similar to the souq in Ba. An Arabic proverb says "Daba Dubai", meaning "They came with a lot of money." According to Fedel Handhal, a scholar on the UAE's history and culture, the word Dubai may have come from the word daba, referring to the slow flow of Dubai Creek inland. The poet and scholar Ahmad Mohammad Obaid traces it to the same word, but to its alternative meaning of "baby locust" due to the abundant nature of locusts in the area before settlement; the history of human settlement in the area now defined by the United Arab Emirates is rich and complex, points to extensive trading links between the civilisations of the Indus Valley and Mesopotamia, but as far afield as the Levant. Archaeological finds in the emirate of Dubai at Al-Ashoosh, Al Sufouh and the notably rich trove from Saruq Al Hadid show settlement through the Ubaid and Hafit periods, the Umm Al Nar and Wadi Suq periods and the three Iron Ages in the UAE.
The area was known to the Sumerians as Magan, was a source for metallic goods, notably copper and bronze. The area was covered with sand about 5,000 years ago as the coast retreated inland, becoming part of the city's present coastline. Pre-Islamic ceramics have been found from the 4th centuries. Prior to the introduction of Islam to the area, the people in this region worshiped Bajir. After the spread of Islam in the region, the Umayyad Caliph of the eastern Islamic world invaded south-east Arabia and drove out the Sassanians. Excavations by the Dubai Museum in the region of Al-Jumayra found several artefacts from the Umayyad period; the earliest recorded mention of Dubai is in 1095 in the Book of Geography by the Andalusian-Arab geographer Abu Abdullah al-Bakri. The Venetian pearl merchant Gasparo Balbi visited the area in 1580 and mentioned Dubai for its pearling industry. Dubai is thought to have been established as a fishing village in the early 18th century and was, by 1822, a town of some 7–800 members of the Bani Yas tribe and subject to the rule of Sheikh Tahnun bin Shakhbut of Abu Dhabi.
In 1833, following tribal feuding, members of the Al Bu Falasah tribe seceded from Abu Dhabi and established themselves in Dubai. The exodus from Abu Dhabi was led by Obeid bin Saeed and Maktoum bin Butti, who became joint leaders of Dubai until Ubaid died in 1836, leaving Maktum to establish the Maktoum dynasty. Dubai signed the General Maritime Treaty of 1820 along with other Trucial States, following the British punitive expedition against Ras Al Khaimah of 1819, which led to the bombardment of the coastal communities of the Persian Gulf; this led to the 1853 Perpetual Maritime Truce. Dubai – like its neighbours on the Trucial Coast – entered into an exclusivity agreement in which the United Kingdom took responsibility for the emirate's security in 1892. In 1841, a smallpox epidemic broke out in the Bur Dubai locality, forcing residents to relocate east to Deira. In 1896, fire broke out in Dubai, a disastrous occurrence in a town where many family homes were still constructed from barasti - palm fronds.
The conflagration consumed half the houses of Bur Dubai, while the district of Deira was said to have been destroyed. The following year, more fires broke out. A female slave was subsequently put to death. In 1901, Maktoum bin Hasher Al Maktoum established Dubai as a free port with no taxation on imports or exports and gave merchants parcels of land and guarantees of protection and tolerance; these policies saw a movement of merchants not only directly from Lingeh, but those who had settled in Ras Al Khaimah and Sharjah to Dubai. An indicator of the growing importance of the port of Dubai can be gained from the movements of the steamer of the Bombay and Persia Steam Navigation Company, which from 1899 to 1901 paid five visits annually to Dubai. In 1902 the company's vessels made 21 visits to Dubai and from 1904 on, the steamers called fortnightly – in 1906, trading seventy thousand tonnes of cargo; the frequency of these vessels only helped to accelerate Dubai's role as an emerging port and trading hub of preference.
Lorimer notes the transfer from Lingeh'bids fair to become complete and permanent', that the town had by 1906 supplanted Lingeh as the chief entrepôt of the Trucial States. The'great storm' of 1908 struck the pearling boats of Dubai and the coastal emirates t
Gamla stan, until 1980 Staden mellan broarna, is the old town of Stockholm, Sweden. Gamla stan consists of the island Stadsholmen, but not colloquially, Gamla stan includes the surrounding islets Riddarholmen and Strömsborg. The town dates back to the 13th century, consists of medieval alleyways, cobbled streets, archaic architecture. North German architecture has had a strong influence in the Old Town's construction. Stortorget is the name of the scenic large square in the centre of Gamla Stan, surrounded by old merchants' houses including the Stockholm Stock Exchange Building; the square was the site of the Stockholm Bloodbath, where Swedish noblemen were massacred by the Danish King Christian II in November, 1520. The following revolt and civil war led to the dissolution of the Kalmar Union and the subsequent election of King Gustav I; as well as being home to the Stockholm Cathedral, the Nobel Museum, the Riddarholm church, Gamla stan boasts Kungliga slottet, Sweden's baroque Royal Palace, built in the 18th century after the previous palace Tre Kronor burned down.
The House of Nobility is on the north-western corner of Gamla stan. The restaurant Den gyldene freden is located on Österlånggatan, it has been in business, since 1722 and according to the Guinness Book of Records is the longest operated restaurant with an unchanged environment and is one of the oldest restaurants in the world. It is now owned by the Swedish Nobel Academy. A statue of St. George and the Dragon can be found in the Stockholm Cathedral, while Riddarholmskyrkan is the royal burial church. Bollhustäppan, a small courtyard at Slottsbacken behind the Finnish Church, just south of the main approach to the Royal Palace, is home to one of the smallest statues in Sweden, a little boy in wrought iron; the plaque just below the statue says its name "Järnpojken". It was created by Liss Eriksson in 1967. From the mid-19th century to the early-mid 20th century Gamla stan was considered a slum, many of its historical buildings left in disrepair, just after World War II, several blocks together five alleys were demolished for the enlargement of the Riksdag.
From the 1970s and 80s, however, it has become a tourist attraction as the charm of its medieval, Renaissance architecture and additions have been valued by generations. While the archaeology of the 370 properties in Gamla stan remains poorly documented, recent inventories done by volunteers have shown many buildings dated to the 17th and 18th centuries, can be up to 300 years older; the name Stockholm referred to Gamla Stan only, but as the city expanded, the name now refers several suburban areas and the metro region. The name Stockholm means "log island" in Swedish; the previous capital of Sweden was located in Sigtuna. A thousand years ago Sigtuna had problems with armed gangs attacking the city; the situation became untenable and there was a need to find a new location for the capital city of Sweden. According to legend the leaders in Sigtuna took a log of wood, cut out all the wood inside, filled it with gold, let it float on the water; the log was floating on the water for several days and hit land on the island where Gamla Stan today is located.
The island was named log island, meaning the place where the log had hit ground. This is; the island of Stockholm had the advantage that it was an island, easy to defend from armed gangs that could be thought to want to attack the city. It had the advantage from a trade point of view, that it was situated just at the inlet of Lake Mälaren, a big lake important to contemporary trade, from the Baltic. A sculpture symbolizing the old log is today found at the Stockholm City Hall; until the mid 19th century Gamla stan was referred to as själva staden, which must have made sense since the areas surrounding it were still rural in character and referred to as malmarna. On maps and in literature from the mid 19th century it started to be called staden mellan broarna or staden inom broarna, a name which remained official until 1980, from 1934 included the islets Helgeandsholmen and Strömsborg; the name Gamla stan dates back to the early 20th century used colloquially. "Gamla" means "old." The word stan is a contraction of the word staden, meaning "the town."
In 1957 a station of the Stockholm metro was opened here with the name Gamla stan. Though the official name was changed to Gamla stan in 1980, modern Stockholm is called "The city between the bridges". Stockholm derives its mythological origin from a dwelling place called Agnefit; as the second element fit means'moist meadow', this place was located on the western shore of today's Stadsholmen. The first element of this name is, explains the historian Snorri Sturluson, derived from King Agne, a mythological king who, in a dim and distant past, encamped here after having raided Finland, his intentions were to marry the daughter of the defeated Finnish chieftain. The young woman, tricked him to arrange a celebration including prominent guests which turned into a boozing party, while Agne slept in a drunken stupor, Skjalf had him hanged in his gold necklace before escaping. Wh
Maritime Museum (Stockholm)
The Maritime Museum in Stockholm, Sweden is a museum for naval history, merchant shipping and shipbuilding. Located in the Gärdet section of the inner-city district Östermalm, the museum offers a panoramic view of the bay Djurgårdsbrunnsviken; the building was designed by architect Ragnar Östberg and built in 1933–36. The museum houses about 900,000 photos, 50,000 objects and 45,000 drawings, all related to the sea, coast and boats, past and present. A major part of the collection, the boats, are housed in Boat Hall 2 at Galärvarvet in Stockholm; the boat collection ranges from canoes to Skerry cruisers. On the bottom floor there are, among other things, exhibits on naval history including several detailed models of 18th century ships; the second floor includes exhibits on Swedish commercial fleets. In the basement is a replica of a cabin in King Gustav III's ship Amphion, along with the original stern from the ship; the Maritime Museum is responsible for the listing of historical ships in Sweden.
Both ships and pleasure boats of historical significance can be listed. While the listing offers no legal protection or obligations, it gives the owner of the craft certain privileges; the curved building, inspired by the neoclassicist design of Olof Tempelman, acts as a background for the surrounding park where open-air concerts are held each year. It was the last major commission of Ragnar Östberg and was built on the location for the Stockholm Exhibition; as the exhibition was an important Functionalism manifestation, the museum mark the point of view of the architect in the debate the introduction of Functionalist style caused in Sweden. The central cupola is built of brick; the building houses a model workshop, wood shop, photo studio, archives and a library. In the 1970s, a film and lecture hall was added and in the 1990s a café. Outside of the museum is a bronze statue called The Sailor, a memorial to the Swedish sailors who died during World War II; the statue was made by artist Nils Sjögren in 1952.
The statue was inaugurated in 1953. Starting in 1975, open-air conserts and music festivals are held in the park in front of the museum; the annual concerts arranged by the newspaper Dagens Nyheter with the Royal Stockholm Philharmonic Orchestra are compared with, inspired by, The Proms in the Royal Albert Hall. Among the other artists who have performed at events held at the museum are Lisa Nilsson, Pearl Jam, Sarah Dawn Finer and Per Gessle. Culture in Stockholm Pictures of ship models in the museum, from visit in June 2011 High resolution photos
A fullerene is an allotrope of carbon whose molecule consists of carbon atoms connected by single and double bonds so as to form a closed or closed mesh, with fused rings of five to seven atoms. The molecule may be a hollow sphere, tube, or many other shapes and sizes. Graphene, a flat mesh of regular hexagonal rings, can be seen as an extreme member of the family. Fullerenes with a closed mesh topolgy are informally denoted by their elemental formula Cn written Cn, where n is the number of carbon atoms. However, for some values of n there maybe more than one isomer; the family is named after buckminsterfullerene, the most famous member, which in turn is named after Buckminster Fuller. The closed fullerenes C60, are informally called buckyballs for their obvious resemblance to the standard ball of association football. Nested closed. Cylindrical fullerenes are called carbon nanotubes or buckytubes; the bulk solid form of pure or mixed fullerenes is called fullerite. Fullerenes had been predicted for some time, but only after their accidental synthesis in 1985 were they detected in nature and outer space.
The discovery of fullerenes expanded the number of known allotropes of carbon, limited to graphite and amorphous carbon such as soot and charcoal. They have been the subject of intense research, both for their chemistry and for their technological applications in materials science and nanotechnology; the icosahedral C60H60 cage was mentioned in 1965 as a possible topological structure. Eiji Osawa of Toyohashi University of Technology predicted the existence of C60 in 1970, he noticed that the structure of a corannulene molecule was a subset of the shape of a soccer ball, hypothesised that a full ball shape could exist. Japanese scientific journals reported his idea, but neither it nor any translations of it reached Europe or the Americas. In 1970, R. W. Henson proposed the C60 structure and made a model of it; the evidence for that new form of carbon was weak at the time, so the proposal and was met with skepticism, was never published. It was acknowledged only in 1999. In 1973, independently from Henson, a group of scientists from the USSR made a quantum-chemical analysis of the stability of C60 and calculated its electronic structure.
The paper was published in 1973, but the scientific community did not gave much importance to this theoretical prediction. Around 1980, Sumio Iijima identified the molecule of C60 from an electron microscope image of carbon black, where it formed the core of a particle with the structure of a "bucky onion". In 1985 Harold Kroto of the University of Sussex, working with James R. Heath, Sean O'Brien, Robert Curl and Richard Smalley from Rice University, discovered fullerenes in the sooty residue created by vaporising carbon in a helium atmosphere. In the mass spectrum of the product, discrete peaks appeared corresponding to molecules with the exact mass of sixty or seventy or more carbon atoms, namely C60 and C70; the team identified their structure as the now familiar "buckyballs". The name "buckminsterfullerene" was chosen for C60 by the discoverers as an homage to American architect Buckminster Fuller for the vague similarity of the structure to the geodesic domes which he popularized; the "ene" ending was chosen to indicate that the carbons are unsaturated, being connected to only three other atoms instead of the normal four.
The shortened named "fullerene" came to be applied to the whole family. Kroto and Smalley were awarded the 1996 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their roles in the discovery of this class of molecules. Kroto and the Rice team discovered other fullerenes besides C60, the list was much expanded in the following years. Carbon nanotubes were first discovered and synthesized in 1991. After their discovery, minute quantities of fullerenes were found to be produced in sooty flames, by lightning discharges in the atmosphere. In 1992, fullerenes were found in a family of minerals known as shungites in Karelia, Russia.. The production techniques were improved by many scientists, including Donald Huffman, Wolfgang Krätschmer, Lowell D. Lamb, Konstantinos Fostiropoulos. Thanks to their efforts, by 1990 it was easy to produce gram-sized samples of fullerene powder. Fullerene purification remains a challenge to chemists and to a large extent determines fullerene prices. In 2010, the spectral signatures of C60 and C70 were observed by NASA's Spitzer infrared telescope in a cloud of cosmic dust surrounding a star 6500 light years away.
Kroto commented: "This most exciting breakthrough provides convincing evidence that the buckyball has, as I long suspected, existed since time immemorial in the dark recesses of our galaxy." According to astronomer L. Stanghellini, "It’s possible that buckyballs from outer space provided seeds for life on Earth." There are two major families of fullerenes, with distinct properties and applications: the closed buckyballs and the open-ended cylindrical carbon nanotubes. However, hybrid structures exist between those two classes, such as carbon nanobuds — nanotubes capped by hemispherical meshes or larger "buckybuds". Buckminsterfullerene is the smallest fullerene molecule containing pentagonal and hexagonal rings in which no two pentagons share an edge, it is most common in terms of natural occurrence, as it can be found in soot. The structure of C60 is a truncated icosahedron, whic
Liljevalchs konsthall is an art gallery located on the Djurgården island in Stockholm, Sweden. Designed by architect Carl Bergsten and inaugurated in March 1916, it is today owned by the City of Stockholm. Behind the entrance on the north-western corner is a small vestibule. To the right of the latter is a large sculpture hall leading to two large galleries with skylights intended for paintings, flanked by series of smaller exhibition spaces; the eastern end of the building has a large-scale portico facing a small park surrounded by the large windows of a small restaurant. One of the most appreciated exhibition spaces in Sweden, Liljevalch is renowned for its well-proportioned spaces in a range of sizes and its restaurant Blå porten; the concrete pillars and beams forming the structural framework of the building are left exposed as pilasters and mouldings in the façade with brick walls and a horizontal row of windows filling the spaces between them. In front of and above the main entrance is a sculpture and a relief by Carl Milles.
Bergsten had attempted a career as an avant-gardist architect throughout the early 20th century, influenced by Austrian Art Nouveau architect Otto Wagner. After a trip through continental Europe in 1907, he instead became inspired by traditional architecture in Turkey and Denmark; when Bergsten won the competition for the art gallery in 1913, he had thus given up his early experimental style to embrace a Classicism which he combined with his preference for reduced volumes and modern concrete construction techniques. Bergsten always had a constructive approach to architecture and at Liljevalch his design used basic functional demands as a departure point to create series of multi-purpose spaces. Several details, including the large stairs of the sculpture hall, suggest an inspiration from Heinrich Tessenow's rational Classicism where light is used to emphasis simple sculptural volumes. While the indoor courtyard was used at this time by Ragnar Östberg at the "Blue Hall" in the Stockholm City Hall, at Liljevalch Bergsten managed to combine traditional details with the newest concrete construction technique, the art gallery was thus a forerunner to the modern architecture still to come.
However, the design was criticised for being "too new" and the simplicity was interpreted as a shortage of dignity and monumentality—in short a "slightly careless style applied to a earnest and permanent building". To Brunius, open to modern trends but thought they demanded an historical robe to attain the symbolic values architecture was supposed to deliver, Bergsten's reduction in the exterior thus meant a boundary was trespassed. In a modern perspective, Liljevalchs konsthall is interpreted as more timeless than any other contemporary architecture, a structure where modernity and tradition co-exist without conflict or contradiction; the building avoids the "style" of Neoclassicism but becomes "classical" by confining itself to simplicity and honesty as a constructive principle. Eriksson, Eva. Den moderna staden tar form - Arkitektur och debatt 1910-1935. Ordfront förlag. Pp. 118–122. ISBN 91-7324-768-5. Johansson, Bengt O H. Guide till Stockholms arkitektur. Arkitektur förlag. P. 55. ISBN 91-86050-41-9.
Artipelag is an art museum located in Stockholm's archipelago in Sweden. The art hall opened in June 2012; the building was designed by the late architect Johan Nyrén. The building covers an area of 10,000 square meters and includes 3,000 square meters of art galleries and has 22 acres of surrounding natural scenery; the art hall is founded on a donation by Björn Jakobson and owner of the baby product company Babybjörn. Notable exhibitions have included works by Candida Höfer; the artistic director of Artipelag is Bo Nilsson. The name of the museum is a pun on "arkipelag," the Swedish word for "archipelago." The legacy of Andy Warhol April 15, 2016 - September 25, 2016 The Monochrome Symphony – Single-coloured Constellations of Art, Fashion & Music October 16, 2015 – March 28, 2016 Land meets water – European and American photography from 1860 to the present May 29, 2015 – September 27, 2015 Mats Theselius – Urban Cowboy July 8, 2015 – August 23, 2015 Carouschka – The woman on the island April 29, 2015 – June 28, 2015 Earth Matters February 6, 2015 – May 3, 2015 HERE/NOW: A physical encounter in time and space October 17, 2014 – January 6, 2015 No man is an island – Artistic forays into the Stockholm archipelago May 23, 2014 – September 28, 2014 Reflections on mankind and the biosphere July 11, 2014 – August 17, 2014 The visible – Swedish contemporary photography February 7, 2014 – May 11, 2014 Blackboard – Teaching and learning from art October 11, 2013 – January 19, 2014 Hello Nature.
How to Draw, Paint and Find Your Way May 25, 2013 – September 29, 2013 One, tree! June 14, 2013 – August 21, 2013 Poul Gernes / Sidekick / Cosima von Bonin March 8, 2013 – May 12, 2013 Enlighted: Electric light as the fairy of art October 27, 2012 – February 17, 2013 Candida Höfer – Affinities, Affinitäten, Affiniteter June 30, 2012 – October 28, 2012 Genius Loci June 3, 2012 – September 30, 2012 Official website
Museum of Medieval Stockholm
The Museum of Medieval Stockholm, centrally located north of the Royal Palace, was constructed around old monuments excavated in an extensive archaeological dig in the late 1970s. Part of Stockholm's city wall, dating from the early 16th century, was found. In order to make the finds accessible to the general public, a planned subterranean garage had to give way to the Museum of Medieval Stockholm, inaugurated in 1986. Museum director Margareta Hallerdt created a visionary state-of-the-art museum, designed by artist Kerstin Rydh, that received both national and international acclaim and won the European Museum of the Year Award in 1986; the museum was closed from June 15, 2007 until early 2010 during the restoration of the bridge Norrbro. During this period, the exhibition was rebuilt while a minor temporary exhibition was available in Kulturhuset at Sergels torg; the museum enables visitors to experience medieval Stockholm, with its brick houses and booths, workshops and gallows. It relates the medieval history of the city from the 1250s to the 1520s.
In 2010, to celebrate 800 years since the birth of Birger Jarl, the founder of Stockholm, the museum opened an exhibition with a reconstruction of his face. The Museum of Medieval Stockholm produces theme exhibitions with a medieval emphasis and arranges lectures and programmes, it engages in broad educational activities, in which children and schools are a key target group. The museum has a shop that sells books relating to the Middle Ages, postcards and jewelry. Stockholm City Museum Stockholm County Museum The Museum of Medieval Stockholm