Worthington is a city in and the county seat of Nobles County, United States. The population was 12,764 at the 2010 census; the city's site was first settled in the 1870s as Okabena Station on a line of the Chicago, St. Paul and Omaha Railway the Chicago and North Western Railway where steam engines would take on water from adjacent Lake Okabena. More people entered along with one A. P. Miller of Toledo, under a firm called the National Colony Organization. Miller named the new city after his wife's maiden name; the first European to have visited the Nobles County area of southwestern Minnesota was French explorer Joseph Nicollet. Nicollet mapped the area between the Missouri Rivers in the 1830s, he called the region “Sisseton Country” in honor of the Sisseton band of Dakota Indians living there. It was a rolling sea of wide open prairie grass. One small lake in Sisseton Country was given the name “Lake Okabena” on Nicollet’s map, “Okabena” being a Dakota word meaning “nesting place of the herons.”The town of Worthington was founded by "Yankees".
In 1871, the St. Paul & Sioux City Railway Company began connecting its two namesake cities with a rail line; the steam engines of that time required a large quantity of water, resulting in water stations being needed every eight to twelve miles along their routes. One of these stations, at the site of present-day Worthington, was designated as “The Okabena Railway Station.”Meanwhile, in that same year, Professor Ransom Humiston of Cleveland, Dr. A. P. Miller, editor of the Toledo Blade, organized a company to locate a colony of New England settlers who had settled in Northern Ohio along the tracks of the Sioux City and St. Paul Railway; these people were "Yankee" settlers whose parents had moved to the region of Northeast Ohio known as the Connecticut Western Reserve from the six New England states. These settlers were members of the Congregational Church, though due to the Second Great Awakening, many of them had converted to Methodism and Presbyterianism, some had become Baptists before coming to what is now Minnesota.
This colony – the National Colony – was to be a village of temperance, a place where evangelical Methodists, Congregationalists, Baptists could live free of the temptations of alcohol. A town was plotted, the name was changed from the Okabena Railway Station to Worthington - Worthington being the maiden name of Dr. Miller’s mother-in-law. On April 29, 1872, regular passenger train service to Worthington was started, on that first train were the first of the National Colony settlers. One early arrival described the scene: We were among the first members of the colony to arrive at the station of an unfinished railroad… There was a good hotel and comfortably furnished, one or two stores neatly furnished and stocked with goods, several other in process of erection… The streets, scarcely to be defined as such, were full of prairie schooners, containing families waiting until masters could suit themselves with “claims,” the women pursuing their housewifely avocations meanwhile – some having cooking stoves in their wagons, others using gypsy fires to do their culinary work.
Some settlers from New England were however, drinking men, most of whom were civil war veterans from Massachusetts and Maine, who came into conflict with the temperance movement. A curious event took place on Worthington’s first Fourth of July celebration. Hearing that there was a keg of beer in the Worthington House Hotel, Professor Humiston entered the hotel, seized the keg, dragged it outside, destroyed it with an axe. A witness described what happened next:"Upon seeing this, the young men of the town thought it to be rather an imposition, collected together, procured the services of the band, under the direction of a military officer marched to the rear of the hotel, with a wheelbarrow and shovel took the empty keg, broken open, playing the dead march with flag at half staff marched to the flagpole in front of Humiston’s office where they dug a grave and gave the empty keg a burial with all the honors attending a soldier’s funeral, they with flag at full mast and with lively air, marched back to the ice house, procured a full keg of beer, returning to the grave, resting the keg thereon.
A general invitation was given to all who desired to partake, which many did until the keg was emptied… In the evening they reassembled, burning Prof. Humiston in effigy about 10 p.m. Thus ended the glorious Fourth at Worthington, Minn. —Sibley Gazette July 5, 1872In spite of tensions between pro-temperance and anti-temperance factions, the town grew rapidly. By the end of summer in 1872, eighty-five buildings had been constructed where just one year before there had been nothing but a field of prairie grass. Settlers poured into the region. At first they came exclusively from the six New England states due to issues of overpopulation combined with land shortages, which led to a stream of "Yankee" immigrants leaving that region; some had come from Upstate New York and had parents and grandparents who had moved to that region from New England during the early 1800s and late 1700s. Due to the large number of New Englanders and New England transplants from upstate New York the town of Worthington, like much of Minnesota at this time, was culturally continuous with early New England culture for much of its early history.
It was the age of the Homestead Act when 160 acres of government land could be claimed
Fort Ridgely was a United States Army outpost near the Dakota reservation in southwestern Minnesota. Built between 1853–1854, it was named for three officers named Ridgely who were killed in the Mexican–American War; the fort played an important role in the Dakota War of 1862. The Battle of Fort Ridgely was fought there in two engagements over August 20–22, 1862 between Army volunteers and refugees from the Minnesota River valley, Dakota forces; the Army moved westward. Civilians occupied the remaining buildings and dismantled the structures for their own use. Today the building foundations are preserved by the Nicollet County Historical Society and owned by the Minnesota Historical Society within the boundaries of Fort Ridgely State Park; the old commissary building now houses the museum. The fort was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1970, while much of the park was added in 1989. Barnes, Jeff. Forts of the Northern Plains: Guide to Historic Military Posts of the Plains Indian Wars.
Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books, 2008. Media related to Fort Ridgely at Wikimedia Commons Fort Ridgely State Park from the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources Minnesota Historical Society: Fort Ridgely Nicollet County Historical Society
Rushmore is a city in Nobles County, United States. The population was 342 at the 2010 census. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.25 square miles, all of it land. Rushmore is located in section 19 of Minnesota, it is situated on the Buffalo Ridge, a drainage divide between the Mississippi River and Missouri River systems. Main highways include: Interstate 90 Nobles County Road 35 Nobles County Road 13 The founding of Rushmore: The city was named for S. M. Rushmore, an early pioneer; the town owes its existence to the construction of the Worthington and Sioux Falls Railway, the desire of a New York capitalist to establish a land colonization scheme in southwestern Minnesota. When the Worthington and Sioux Falls Railway was surveyed, it was decided to construct a station house in section 19 of Dewald Township; the station house was Named Miller Station, in honor of ex-governor Stephen Miller, for two years it had no inhabitants. In 1878, George I. Seney, a New York capitalist, secured control of large plots of railroad land in Dewald and Olney Townships.
He began the process of colonizing the lands, bringing out settlers from New York City and other eastern points. On May 27, 1878, a Mr. S. M. Rushmore arrived in Worthington along with his family, took a train for Miller Station. There he established a store to serve Mr. Seney's flood of colonists. A railroad depot was constructed, the town was surveyed and platted. In August 1878, the town was renamed Rushmore in honor of the pioneer shopkeeper, the community grew rapidly. Indeed, a business directory from the fall of 1879 shows that Rushmore had a general store, a feed mill, an elevator, a hotel, a hardware store, a grocer, a lumber agent, a tinware dealer, a notion store, a jeweler, two blacksmiths; the town had a new church and a new school. On March 27, 1900, with a population of 204, was incorporated. Village government promptly began under President S. B. Bedford; as of the census of 2010, there were 342 people, 154 households, 87 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,368.0 inhabitants per square mile.
There were 173 housing units at an average density of 692.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 90.6% White, 0.9% African American, 3.8% Asian, 2.3% from other races, 2.3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 9.6% of the population. There were 154 households of which 27.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.6% were married couples living together, 11.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.8% had a male householder with no wife present, 43.5% were non-families. 37.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 22.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.22 and the average family size was 2.83. The median age in the city was 41.5 years. 22.8% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 54.1% male and 45.9% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 376 people, 154 households, 97 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,484.9 people per square mile.
There were 173 housing units at an average density of 683.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.74% White, 0.27% Native American, 0.27% Asian, 3.19% from other races, 0.53% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.99% of the population. There were 154 households out of which 29.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.2% were married couples living together, 3.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.4% were non-families. 30.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 20.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 3.08. In the city, the population was spread out with 27.7% under the age of 18, 8.0% from 18 to 24, 25.8% from 25 to 44, 19.4% from 45 to 64, 19.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.3 males. The median income for a household in the city was $33,750, the median income for a family was $40,000.
Males had a median income of $26,667 versus $20,208 for females. The per capita income for the city was $14,216. About 2.8% of families and 5.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.2% of those under age 18 and 10.9% of those age 65 or over. Is located in Minnesota's 1st congressional district, represented by Mankato educator Tim Walz, a Democrat. At the state level, Rushmore is located in Senate District 22, represented by Republican Doug Magnus, in House District 22A, represented by Republican Joe Schomacker; the mayor of Rushmore is Gregg Harberts. City council members are Andrew Noble, Bruce Boltjes, Shirley Vis, Carol Hieronimus. Rushmore is represented by Nobles County Commissioner Matt Widboom. Rushmore Booster Club and Community Guide
Graham Lakes (Minnesota)
The Graham Lakes are a pair of lakes located in the northeastern corner of Nobles County, Minnesota. The lakes are known as East Graham Lake. West Graham Lake is an oval shaped body of water that extends east-to-west more than one mile; the north-to-south width of the lake is 3/4 of a mile. The area of West Graham Lake is 519.28 acres, the average depth is 5 feet, the maximum depth is 8 feet. The elevation of West Graham Lake is 438.52 meters. East Graham Lake is a longer, narrower lake that extends from northeast-to-southwest for 11⁄2 miles, its width is less than 1/2 mile. The area of East Graham Lake is 511.32 acres, the average depth is 5 feet, the maximum depth is 8 feet. The elevation of East Graham Lake is 437.41 meters. A small creek runs from empties into East Graham Lake. Another creek runs from East Graham Lake, flows into the Des Moines River. In the month of May, 1867, a pioneer named Stephen Muck pushed out into the unsettled Graham Lakes region and squatted on land on the bank of West Graham Lake.
When surveyed, this land proved to be on section 22 of Graham Lakes Township. There he built a log structure from timber growing near the lake, the first house of wood in the county. In the fall of 1867, Muck brought his family from Minnesota, he earned his livelihood by trapping for a few years turned to farming. He lived continuously on his farm from 1867 until the time of his death in 1897. Stephen Muck was the first permanent resident of Nobles County; the first town to appear on any map of Nobles County was a curious place called Gretchtown. According to an 1856 map - a map drawn 11 years before the arrival of Stephen Muck - Gretchtown was located on the south bank of West Graham Lake near to Muck's claim. Rumors of a railroad to be built through southwestern Minnesota had circulated in the 1850s, though no survey had been taken for the railroad, the town of Gretchtown had been created - at least on paper - to serve as a stopping point; when Nobles County was formally created by the Minnesota legislature on May 23, 1857, Gretchtown was designated as the county seat of Nobles County, an imaginary county seat for a county that, at that time, had no residents.
When a route for the St. Paul and Sioux City Railway was surveyed in 1871, it was located far south of the Graham Lakes region. No towns or villages existed in Graham Lakes Township until 1879 when Kinbrae and Dundee were established. Neither town grew beyond a few hundred residents. Thus, the Graham Lakes region has remained rural, the lake shores of both East Graham Lake and West Graham Lake remain undeveloped; these lakes were first noted on Joseph Nicollet's 1842 map based upon his explorations of the late 1830s and early 1840s. Nicollet named the lakes after Joseph Duncan Graham. Graham served as a commissioner for the survey of the northeast segment of the boundary between the United States and Canada from 1840 until 1843. Graham Lakes are known as exceptionally good fishing lakes. East Graham is managed for walleye and northern pike and secondarily for black crappie and yellow perch. A population assessment was conducted during the week of June 4, 2007 using 3 gill nets and 8 trap nets. Black Crappies ranged from 7.4 inches to 13.0 inches, their numbers were the highest since sampling of the lake has been conducted.
Northern Pike ranged from 17.6 inches to 30 inches. Walleye were abundant, 59% of those sampled were 14 inches or greater. Most fish from East Graham Lake are safe to eat. However, pregnant women, women who may become pregnant and children under age 15 are advised to refrain from eating walleye more than once per week due to mercury levels. West Graham is managed for walleye with black crappie and channel catfish as secondary species. Walleye fry and fingerlings are stocked with the third year left blank. A population assessment conducted on June 4, 2007 found that walleye range from 6.9 to 20 inches in length. Black crappies range from 5.8 inches to 11.9 inches. The average black crappie swimming in West Graham Lake is thought to be nearly 1/2 pound. Channel catfish average 13.3 inches. There are no advisories for consumption of fish from West Graham Lake. Fury Island and Maka-Oicu County Parks are located on West Graham Lakes. Maka-Oicu County Park is located on the northeast shore of West Graham Lake and provides for camping, lake access, natural areas, swimming beach, picnic areas, historic site and general park activities.
The park has a large picnic shelter for reunions and gatherings. Maka-Oicu Park has a one-room cabin with four padded bunks, a table inside and a small refrigerator. Campers have access to a water supply. Maka-Oicu Park consists of 46 acres of developed land. Fury's Island County Park is located on the west side of East Graham Lake, provides for camping, natural areas, lake access, showers, a large picnic shelter for gatherings, has a playground for the little ones. Fury's Island Park is one mile south of Maka-Oicu County Park and consists of 10 acres of developed land
Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, St George's Channel. Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, the twentieth-largest on Earth. Politically, Ireland is divided between the Republic of Ireland, which covers five-sixths of the island, Northern Ireland, part of the United Kingdom. In 2011, the population of Ireland was about 6.6 million, ranking it the second-most populous island in Europe after Great Britain. Just under 4.8 million live in the Republic of Ireland and just over 1.8 million live in Northern Ireland. The island's geography comprises low-lying mountains surrounding a central plain, with several navigable rivers extending inland, its lush vegetation is a product of its mild but changeable climate, free of extremes in temperature. Much of Ireland was woodland until the end of the Middle Ages. Today, woodland makes up about 10% of the island, compared with a European average of over 33%, most of it is non-native conifer plantations.
There are twenty-six extant mammal species native to Ireland. The Irish climate is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean and thus moderate, winters are milder than expected for such a northerly area, although summers are cooler than those in continental Europe. Rainfall and cloud cover are abundant; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC. Gaelic Ireland had emerged by the 1st century AD; the island was Christianised from the 5th century onward. Following the 12th century Norman invasion, England claimed sovereignty. However, English rule did not extend over the whole island until the 16th–17th century Tudor conquest, which led to colonisation by settlers from Britain. In the 1690s, a system of Protestant English rule was designed to materially disadvantage the Catholic majority and Protestant dissenters, was extended during the 18th century. With the Acts of Union in 1801, Ireland became a part of the United Kingdom. A war of independence in the early 20th century was followed by the partition of the island, creating the Irish Free State, which became sovereign over the following decades, Northern Ireland, which remained a part of the United Kingdom.
Northern Ireland saw much civil unrest from the late 1960s until the 1990s. This subsided following a political agreement in 1998. In 1973 the Republic of Ireland joined the European Economic Community while the United Kingdom, Northern Ireland, as part of it, did the same. Irish culture has had a significant influence on other cultures in the field of literature. Alongside mainstream Western culture, a strong indigenous culture exists, as expressed through Gaelic games, Irish music and the Irish language; the island's culture shares many features with that of Great Britain, including the English language, sports such as association football, horse racing, golf. The names Éire derive from Old Irish Eriu; this in turn comes from the Proto-Celtic *Iveriu, the source of Latin Hibernia. Iveriu derives from a root meaning'fat, prosperous'. During the last glacial period, up until about 10,000 BC, most of Ireland was periodically covered in ice. Sea levels were lower and Ireland, like Great Britain, formed part of continental Europe.
By 16,000 BC, rising sea levels due to ice melting caused Ireland to become separated from Great Britain. Around 6000 BC, Great Britain itself became separated from continental Europe; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC, demonstrated by a butchered bear bone found in a cave in County Clare. It is not until about 8000 BC, that more sustained occupation of the island has been shown, with evidence for Mesolithic communities around the island; these Mesolithic communities lived as hunter-gatherers across the island until about 4000 BC. Some time before 4000 BC, Neolithic settlers arrived introducing cereal cultivars, domesticated animals such as cattle and sheep, large timber building, stone monuments; the earliest evidence for farming in Ireland or Great Britain is from Co.. Kerry, where a flint knife, cattle bones and a sheep's tooth were carbon-dated to c. 4350 BC. Field systems were developed in different parts of Ireland, including at the Céide Fields, preserved beneath a blanket of peat in present-day Tyrawley.
An extensive field system, arguably the oldest in the world, consisted of small divisions separated by dry-stone walls. The fields were farmed for several centuries between 3500 BC and 3000 BC. Wheat and barley were the principal crops; the Bronze Age – defined by the use of metal – began around 2500 BC, with technology changing people's everyday lives during this period through innovations such as the wheel. According to John T. Koch and others, Ireland in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading-network culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age that included Britain, western France and Iberia, that this is where Celtic languages developed; this contrasts with the traditional view that their origin lies in mainland Europe with the Hallstatt culture. During the Iron Age, a Celtic language and culture emerged in Ireland. How and when the island became Celtic has been debated for close to a century, with the migrations of the Celts being one of the more enduring themes of archaeological and linguistic studies.
The most recent genetic research s
Norway the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe whose territory comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The Antarctic Peter I Island and the sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island are dependent territories and thus not considered part of the kingdom. Norway lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land. Norway has a total area of 385,207 square kilometres and a population of 5,312,300; the country shares a long eastern border with Sweden. Norway is bordered by Finland and Russia to the north-east, the Skagerrak strait to the south, with Denmark on the other side. Norway has an extensive coastline, facing the Barents Sea. Harald V of the House of Glücksburg is the current King of Norway. Erna Solberg has been prime minister since 2013. A unitary sovereign state with a constitutional monarchy, Norway divides state power between the parliament, the cabinet and the supreme court, as determined by the 1814 constitution; the kingdom was established in 872 as a merger of a large number of petty kingdoms and has existed continuously for 1,147 years.
From 1537 to 1814, Norway was a part of the Kingdom of Denmark-Norway, from 1814 to 1905, it was in a personal union with the Kingdom of Sweden. Norway was neutral during the First World War. Norway remained neutral until April 1940 when the country was invaded and occupied by Germany until the end of Second World War. Norway has both administrative and political subdivisions on two levels: counties and municipalities; the Sámi people have a certain amount of self-determination and influence over traditional territories through the Sámi Parliament and the Finnmark Act. Norway maintains close ties with both the United States. Norway is a founding member of the United Nations, NATO, the European Free Trade Association, the Council of Europe, the Antarctic Treaty, the Nordic Council. Norway maintains the Nordic welfare model with universal health care and a comprehensive social security system, its values are rooted in egalitarian ideals; the Norwegian state has large ownership positions in key industrial sectors, having extensive reserves of petroleum, natural gas, lumber and fresh water.
The petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of the country's gross domestic product. On a per-capita basis, Norway is the world's largest producer of oil and natural gas outside of the Middle East; the country has the fourth-highest per capita income in the world on the World IMF lists. On the CIA's GDP per capita list which includes autonomous territories and regions, Norway ranks as number eleven, it has the world's largest sovereign wealth fund, with a value of US$1 trillion. Norway has had the highest Human Development Index ranking in the world since 2009, a position held between 2001 and 2006, it had the highest inequality-adjusted ranking until 2018 when Iceland moved to the top of the list. Norway ranked first on the World Happiness Report for 2017 and ranks first on the OECD Better Life Index, the Index of Public Integrity, the Democracy Index. Norway has one of the lowest crime rates in the world. Norway has two official names: Norge in Noreg in Nynorsk; the English name Norway comes from the Old English word Norþweg mentioned in 880, meaning "northern way" or "way leading to the north", how the Anglo-Saxons referred to the coastline of Atlantic Norway similar to scientific consensus about the origin of the Norwegian language name.
The Anglo-Saxons of Britain referred to the kingdom of Norway in 880 as Norðmanna land. There is some disagreement about whether the native name of Norway had the same etymology as the English form. According to the traditional dominant view, the first component was norðr, a cognate of English north, so the full name was Norðr vegr, "the way northwards", referring to the sailing route along the Norwegian coast, contrasting with suðrvegar "southern way" for, austrvegr "eastern way" for the Baltic. In the translation of Orosius for Alfred, the name is Norðweg, while in younger Old English sources the ð is gone. In the 10th century many Norsemen settled in Northern France, according to the sagas, in the area, called Normandy from norðmann, although not a Norwegian possession. In France normanni or northmanni referred to people of Sweden or Denmark; until around 1800 inhabitants of Western Norway where referred to as nordmenn while inhabitants of Eastern Norway where referred to as austmenn. According to another theory, the first component was a word nór, meaning "narrow" or "northern", referring to the inner-archipelago sailing route through the land.
The interpretation as "northern", as reflected in the English and Latin forms of the name, would have been due to folk etymology. This latter view originated with philologist Niels Halvorsen Trønnes in 1847; the form Nore is still used in placenames such as the village of Nore and lake Norefjorden in Buskerud county, still has the same meaning. Among other arguments in favour of the theor
Jackson County, Minnesota
Jackson County is a county in the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 10,266, its county seat is Jackson. The county was created on May 23, 1857, it was named for the first merchant in St. Paul. Jackson County lies on the south side of Minnesota, its south border abuts the north border of the state of Iowa. The Des Moines River flows south-southeasterly through the central part of the county, thence into Iowa; the county terrain is carved with drainages and gullies. The area is devoted to agriculture; the terrain slopes to the south and east. The county has a total area of 719 square miles, of which 703 square miles is land and 16 square miles is water; as of the 2000 United States Census, there were 11,268 people, 4,556 households, 3,116 families in the county. The population density was 16.0/sqmi. There were 5,092 housing units at an average density of 7.24/sqmi. The racial makeup of the county was 97.07% White, 0.09% Black or African American, 0.12% Native American, 1.38% Asian, 0.97% from other races, 0.38% from two or more races.
1.86% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 51.9 % were of 14.1 % Norwegian and 5.6 % American ancestry. There were 4,556 households out of which 29.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.00% were married couples living together, 5.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.60% were non-families. 28.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 2.95. The county population contained 24.50% under the age of 18, 7.00% from 18 to 24, 25.30% from 25 to 44, 22.60% from 45 to 64, 20.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 100.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $36,746, the median income for a family was $43,426. Males had a median income of $29,123 versus $20,860 for females.
The per capita income for the county was $17,499. About 5.20% of families and 8.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.00% of those under age 18 and 8.40% of those age 65 or over. Fish Lake Jackson County voters tended to vote Democratic in times past, but have selected the Republican Party candidate in every national election since 1996. National Register of Historic Places listings in Jackson County, Minnesota Jackson County government's web site