Donner Pass is a mountain pass in the northern Sierra Nevada, above Donner Lake about 9 miles west of Truckee, California. Like the Sierra Nevada mountains themselves, the pass has a steep approach from the east and a gradual approach from the west; the pass has been used by the California Trail, First Transcontinental Railroad, Overland Route, Lincoln Highway and Victory Highway, as well as indirectly by Interstate 80. The pass gets its name from the ill-fated Donner Party who overwintered there in 1846. Today the area is home to a thriving recreational community with several alpine lakes and ski resorts; the permanent communities in the area include Kingvale and Soda Springs, as well as the larger community below the pass surrounding Donner Lake. To reach California from the east, pioneers had to get their wagons over the Sierra Nevada mountain range. In 1844 the Stephens-Townsend-Murphy Party followed the Truckee River into the mountains. At the head of what is now called Donner Lake, they found a low notch in the mountains and became the first overland settlers to use the pass.
The pass was named after a group of California-bound settlers. In early November 1846 the Donner Party found the route blocked by snow and was forced to spend the winter on the east side of the mountains. Of the 81 settlers, only 45 survived to reach California. On January 13, 1952, 222 passengers and crew aboard a train became stranded about 17 miles west of Donner Pass at Yuba Pass, on Track #1 adjacent to Tunnel 35, at about MP 176.5. Southern Pacific Railroad's passenger train City of San Francisco was en route westbound through the gap when a blizzard dumped so much snow the train was unable to move forward or reverse; the passengers and crew were stranded for three days until the nearby highway could be plowed sufficiently for a caravan of automobiles to carry them the few miles to Nyack Lodge. In the spring of 1868, the Sierra Nevada were "conquered" by the Central Pacific Railroad, after five years of sustained construction effort, with the successful completion at Donner Pass of its 1,659-foot Tunnel #6 and associated grade, thus permitting the establishment of commercial transportation en masse of passengers and freight over the Sierra for the first time.
Following a route first surveyed and proposed by CPRR's original Chief Engineer, Theodore D. Judah, the construction of the four tunnels, several miles of snowsheds and two "Chinese Walls" necessary to breach Donner Summit constituted the most difficult engineering and construction challenge of the original Sacramento-Ogden CPRR route. Principally designed and built under the personal on-site direction of CPRR's Chief Assistant Engineer, Lewis M. Clement, the original summit grade remained in daily use from June 18, 1868, when the first CPRR passenger train ran through the Summit Tunnel, until 1993 when the Southern Pacific Railroad abandoned the 6.7 mile section of Track #1 over the summit running between the Norden complex and the covered crossovers in Shed #47, one mile east of the old flyover at Eder. All traffic has since operated over the Track #2 grade crossing the summit 1 mile south of Donner Pass through the 10,322-foot -long Tunnel #41 running under Mount Judah between Soda Springs and Eder.
SP made this change because the railroad considered Track 2 and Tunnel 41 to be easier and less expensive to maintain during in the harsh Sierra winters than the Track 1 tunnels and snow sheds over the summit. In conjunction with major ongoing upgrades and expansions being made to the Port of Oakland in order to better accommodate the growing North American trade with Asia and the Pacific, the cooperation of UP, the Port's principal rail partner, has been sought to "construct a second track and raise tunnel clearances over Donner Pass for container trains linking California with the rest of the country." This would require either a new parallel tunnel next to Tunnel 41 or the replacement of the summit section of Track 1 between the Norden complex and Shed 47. Improvements were completed on the Sierra grade in November 2009, including increasing 18,000 lineal feet of tunnel clearances in 15 restricted tunnels between Rocklin and Truckee and upgrading 30 miles of signals to CTC, although the original Donner Pass grade was not restored.
Since trains of full-height double-stack container cars have run over Donner Pass. The Lincoln Highway, the first road across America, crosses Donner Pass. Interstate 80 was built through this area in the early 1960s. I-80 parallels the route of US 40 through the Sierra Nevada, but it crosses the Sierra crest at the Euer Saddle, about 2 miles north of Donner Pass. Euer Saddle is referred to by CalTrans as "Donner Summit"
National Register of Historic Places listings in Alabama
This is a list of buildings, sites and objects listed on the National Register of Historic Places in Alabama. This National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019. There are 1,200 properties and districts listed on the National Register of Historic Places in Alabama; the numbers of properties and districts in Alabama or in any of its 67 counties are not directly reported by the National Register. Following are tallies of current listings from lists of the specific properties and districts. There are no sites listed on the National Register of Historic Places in Geneva County. List of National Historic Landmarks in Alabama List of bridges on the National Register of Historic Places in Alabama
National Register of Historic Places listings in Lassen Volcanic National Park
This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Lassen Volcanic National Park. This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Lassen Volcanic National Park, United States; the locations of National Register properties and districts for which the latitude and longitude coordinates are included below, may be seen in a Google map. There are 9 districts listed on the National Register in the park; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 5, 2019. National Register of Historic Places listings in Shasta County, California National Register of Historic Places listings in Tehama County, California National Register of Historic Places listings in Plumas County, California National Register of Historic Places listings in California Emmons, Ann. National Register of Historic Places Multiple Property Documentation Form: Lassen Volcanic National Park Multiple Property Listing.
National Park Service February 2004 https://npgallery.nps.gov/NRHP/GetAsset/NRHP/64500949_text
National Register of Historic Places listings in Arizona
This is a directory of properties and districts listed on the National Register of Historic Places in Arizona. There are about fourteen hundred listed sites in the state, each of its fifteen counties has at least ten listings on the National Register. Forty-five of the state's sites are further designated as National Historic Landmarks; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019. The following are approximate tallies of current listings in Arizona on the National Register of Historic Places; these counts are based on entries in the National Register Information Database as of April 24, 2008 and new weekly listings posted since on the National Register of Historic Places web site. There are frequent additions to the listings and occasional delistings, the counts here are not official; the counts in this table exclude boundary increase and decrease listings which modify the area covered by an existing property or district and which carry a separate National Register reference number.
List of National Historic Landmarks in Arizona List of bridges on the National Register of Historic Places in Arizona
California Historical Landmark
California Historical Landmarks are buildings, sites, or places in the U. S. state of California that have been determined to have statewide historical landmark significance. Historical significance is determined by meeting at least one of the criteria listed below: The first, only, or most significant of its type in the state or within a large geographic region. California Historical Landmarks of number 770 and above are automatically listed in the California Register of Historical Resources. By contrast, a site, feature, or event, of local significance may be designated as a California Point of Historical Interest. List of California Historical Landmarks by county National Historic Sites National Register of Historic Places listings in California Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument List of San Francisco Designated Landmarks Johnson, Marael. Why Stop? A Guide to California Roadside Historical Markers. Houston, TX: Gulf Publishing Company. P. 213. ISBN 9780884159230. OCLC 32168093. Official OHP—California Office of Historic Preservation website OHP: California Historical Sites searchpage — links to lists by county
Nevada is a state in the Western United States. It is bordered by Oregon to the northwest, Idaho to the northeast, California to the west, Arizona to the southeast and Utah to the east. Nevada is the 7th most extensive, the 32nd most populous, but the 9th least densely populated of the U. S. states. Nearly three-quarters of Nevada's people live in Clark County, which contains the Las Vegas–Paradise metropolitan area where three of the state's four largest incorporated cities are located. Nevada's capital, however, is Carson City. Nevada is known as the "Silver State" because of the importance of silver to its history and economy, it is known as the "Battle Born State", because it achieved statehood during the Civil War. Nevada is desert and semi-arid, much of it within the Great Basin. Areas south of the Great Basin are within the Mojave Desert, while Lake Tahoe and the Sierra Nevada lie on the western edge. About 86% of the state's land is managed by various jurisdictions of the U. S. federal government, both civilian and military.
Before European contact, Native Americans of the Paiute and Washoe tribes inhabited the land, now Nevada. The first Europeans to explore the region were Spanish, they called the region Nevada because of the snow. The area formed part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, became part of Mexico when it gained independence in 1821; the United States annexed the area in 1848 after its victory in the Mexican–American War, it was incorporated as part of Utah Territory in 1850. The discovery of silver at the Comstock Lode in 1859 led to a population boom that became an impetus to the creation of Nevada Territory out of western Utah Territory in 1861. Nevada became the 36th state on October 31, 1864, as the second of two states added to the Union during the Civil War. Nevada has a reputation for its libertarian laws. In 1940, with a population of just over 110,000 people, Nevada was by far the least-populated state, with less than half the population of the next least-populated state. However, legalized gambling and lenient marriage and divorce laws transformed Nevada into a major tourist destination in the 20th century.
Nevada is the only U. S. state where prostitution is legal, though it is illegal in Clark County, Washoe County and Carson City. The tourism industry remains Nevada's largest employer, with mining continuing as a substantial sector of the economy: Nevada is the fourth-largest producer of gold in the world; the name "Nevada" comes from meaning "snow-covered", after the Sierra Nevada. Most Nevadans pronounce the second syllable of their state name using the TRAP vowel. Many from outside the Western United States pronounce it with the PALM vowel. Although the latter pronunciation is closer to the Spanish pronunciation, it is not the pronunciation preferred by most Nevadans. State Assemblyman Harry Mortenson proposed a bill to recognize the alternate pronunciation of Nevada, though the bill was not supported by most legislators and never received a vote; the Nevadan pronunciation is the de facto official one, since it is the one used by the state legislature. At one time, the state's official tourism organization, TravelNevada, stylized the name of the state as "Nevăda", with a breve mark over the a indicating the locally preferred pronunciation, available as a license plate design.
Nevada is entirely within the Basin and Range Province, is broken up by many north-south mountain ranges. Most of these ranges have endorheic valleys between them, which belies the image portrayed by the term Great Basin. Much of the northern part of the state is within the Great Basin, a mild desert that experiences hot temperatures in the summer and cold temperatures in the winter. Moisture from the Arizona Monsoon will cause summer thunderstorms; the state's highest recorded temperature was 125 °F in Laughlin on June 29, 1994. The coldest recorded temperature was −52 °F set in San Jacinto in 1972, in the northeastern portion of the state; the Humboldt River crosses the state from east to west across the northern part of the state, draining into the Humboldt Sink near Lovelock. Several rivers drain from the Sierra Nevada eastward, including the Walker and Carson rivers. All of these rivers are endorheic basins, ending in Walker Lake, Pyramid Lake, the Carson Sink, respectively. However, not all of Nevada is within the Great Basin.
Tributaries of the Snake River drain the far north, while the Colorado River, which forms much of the boundary with Arizona, drains much of southern Nevada. The mountain ranges, some of which have peaks above 13,000 feet, harbor lush forests high above desert plains, creating sky islands for endemic species; the valleys are no lower in elevation than 3,000 feet, while some in central Nevada are above 6,000 feet. The southern third of the state, where the Las Vegas area is situated, is within the Mojave Desert; the area is closer to the Arizona Monsoon in the summer. The terrain is lower below 4,000 feet, creating conditions for hot summer days and cool to chilly winter nights. Nevada and California have by far the longest diagonal line as a state boundary at just over 400 miles; this line begins in Lake Tahoe nearly
Cinder Cone and the Fantastic Lava Beds
Cinder Cone is a cinder cone volcano in Lassen Volcanic National Park, located in Redding, Northern California within the United States. It is located about 10 miles northeast of Lassen Peak and provides an excellent view of Brokeoff Mountain, Lassen Peak, Chaos Crags; the cone was built to a height of 750 feet above the surrounding area and spread ash over 30 square miles. Like many cinder cones, it was snuffed out when several basalt lava flows erupted from its base; these flows, called the Fantastic Lava Beds, spread northeast and southwest, dammed creeks, first creating Snag Lake on the south and Butte Lake to the north. Butte Lake is fed by water from Snag Lake seeping through the lava beds. Nobles Emigrant Trail follows the edge of the lava beds, its age has been controversial since the 1870s, when many people thought it was only a few decades old. The cone and associated lava flows were thought to have formed about 1700 or during a 300-year- long series of eruptions ending in 1851. Recent studies by U.
S. Geological Survey scientists, working in cooperation with the National Park Service to better understand volcanic hazards in the Lassen area, have established that Cinder Cone was formed during two eruptions that occurred in the 1650s. Cinder Cone lies in Shasta counties, in Northern California, within the United States. Located 1.5 miles southwest of Butte Lake and 2.2 miles southeast of Prospect Peak, it is sometimes referred to as Black Butte or Cinder Butte. The volcano lies in the northeastern corner of Lassen Volcanic National Park. Nearby Snag Lake formed when lava known as the Painted Dunes flows dammed the Grassy Creek stream, fed by water from the central plateau of the national park area. Water from this lake feeds Butte Lake, located 2 miles to the north. Butte Lake is the sole remaining fragment of a much larger body of water filled with lava during Cinder Cone's eruptive period. Diatomite sediment, formed from the aggregation of diatoms on the lake's floor, run along the edges of the Fantastic Lava Beds and mark the margins of this former lake.
A volcanic cone of loose scoria, Cinder Cone reaches an elevation of 700 ft. The youngest mafic volcano in the Lassen volcanic center, it is surrounded by unvegetated block lava and has concentric craters at its summit, which have diameters of 1,050 feet and 590 feet. Cinder Cone is comprised by five basaltic andesite and andesite lava flows, it has two cinder cone volcanoes, with two scoria cones, the first of, destroyed by lava flows from its base. Cinder cone volcanoes are monogenetic, meaning that they only undergo one eruptive period before ceasing activity forever; these eruptions consist of the ejection of tephra, though they may generate lava flows, which originate from vents near the base rather than the summit of the volcanic edifice. The summit of Cinder Cone has a crater with a double rim created by two different phases of one eruptive period; the cone has a widespread ash deposit identifiable for 8 to 10 miles from the cone. Blocks of red, cemented scoria within the Painted Dunes lava flows are pieces of this earlier cone, which were carried away by the flowing lava.
When Cinder Cone formed, the magma feeding the eruption changed composition, shifting from basaltic andesite to andesite before returning to basaltic andesite with increased titanium content. While basaltic andesites are volcanic rocks containing 53 to 57% silica, andesites are those containing 57 to 63% silica; the lava flows and scorias at the volcano resemble each other despite distinct chemical compositions, forming dark, fine-grained rocks, with a few visible crystals of the minerals olivine and quartz. The early group of volcanic deposits at Cinder Cone, which have little titanium, include older scoria cone, the Old Bench flow, the two Painted Dunes flows, the lower part of the widespread ash layer; the second group and comparatively rich in titanium, consists of the large, younger scoria cone, the upper part of the ash layer, the two Fantastic Lava Beds flows. The second Fantastic Lava Beds flow that all scientists but Diller thought had been erupted in 1851. At the Old Bench and Painted Dunes lava flows, the volcanic ash is brightly oxidized because it interacted with the lava flows when they were still hot.
It shares its compositional group with the Fantastic Lava Beds flows, which represent the last flows erupted at Cinder Cone. The eruptive sequence at Cinder Cone took place over the course of several months. An unusual characteristic of the Fantastic Lava Beds is the presence of anomalous quartz crystal xenocrysts. Geologists think that they were picked up from wall rocks by the lava as it moved toward the surface. After traveling through Northern California in the spring of 1851, two gold prospectors reported seeing an erupting volcano that "threw up fire to a terrible height" and that they had walked for 10 miles over rocks that burned through their boots; this narrative complemented several accounts of activity at the volcano across 1850 and 1851, which all claimed to observe the eruptions from at least 40 miles away. During the early 1870s, medical doctor and amateur scientist H. W. Harkness from San Francisco, visited the Cinder Cone area. Intrigued by the "apparent youthfulness" of the area's volcanic landmarks, he observed several features to argue that Cinder Cone was only about 25 years old.
He presented his conclusions at a meeting of the California Academy of Sciences, was contacted by Academy member Henry Chapman, who