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Node (networking)

In telecommunications networks, a node is either a redistribution point or a communication endpoint. The definition of a node depends on the protocol layer referred to. A physical network node is an electronic device, attached to a network, is capable of creating, receiving, or transmitting information over a communications channel. A passive distribution point such as a distribution frame or patch panel is not a node. In data communication, a physical network node may either be data communication equipment such as a modem, bridge or switch. If the network in question is a local area network or wide area network, every LAN or WAN node that participates on the data link layer must have a network address one for each network interface controller it possesses. Examples are xDSL modems and wireless LAN access points. Equipment, such as a hub, repeater or PSTN modem with serial interface, that operates only below the data link layer does not require a network address. If the network in question is the Internet or an intranet, many physical network nodes are host computers known as Internet nodes, identified by an IP address, all hosts are physical network nodes.

However, some data link layer devices such as switches and wireless access points do not have an IP host address, are not considered to be Internet nodes or hosts, but as physical network nodes and LAN nodes. In the fixed telephone network, a node may be a public or private telephone exchange, a remote concentrator or a computer providing some intelligent network service. In cellular communication, switching points and databases such as the Base station controller, Home Location Register, Gateway GPRS Support Node and Serving GPRS Support Node are examples of nodes. Cellular network base stations are not considered to be nodes in this context. In cable television systems, this term has assumed a broader context and is associated with a fiber optic node; this can be defined as those homes or businesses within a specific geographic area that are served from a common fiber optic receiver. A fiber optic node is described in terms of the number of "homes passed" that are served by that specific fiber node.

If the network in question is a distributed system, the nodes are servers or peers. A peer may sometimes serve as client, sometimes server. In a peer-to-peer or overlay network, nodes that route data for the other networked devices as well as themselves are called supernodes. Distributed systems may sometimes use virtual nodes so that the system is not oblivious to the heterogeneity of the nodes; this issue is addressed with special algorithms, like consistent hashing, as it is the case in Amazon's Dynamo. Within a vast computer network, the individual computers on the periphery of the network, those that do not connect other networks, those that connect transiently to one or more clouds are called end nodes. Within the cloud computing construct, the individual user or customer computer that connects into one well-managed cloud is called an end node. Since these computers are a part of the network yet unmanaged by the cloud's host, they present significant risks to the entire cloud; this is called the end node problem.

There are several means to remedy this problem but all require instilling trust in the end node computer. Communication endpoint End system Networking hardware Terminal

Um Hong-gil

Um Hong-gil is a South Korean mountaineer. He has led many South Korean summer expeditions to Mt Aconcagua in Argentina, where he has climbed South America's highest mountain many times. In 2000, he climbed K2, which means his team completed the whole mission to go up 14 peaks higher than 8,000 meters in altitude within 12 years, he failed. He tried again 3 years and his attempt was successful, he carried out a mission on Kangchenjunga. Um Hong-gil has reached the summit of all 14 eight-thousand meters peaks in the world. In fact he is the first person in climbing the 16 highest points on Earth, he was awarded the Himalayan Crown when he completed the 14 highest peaks in 2001. He is the first South Korean and the eleventh climber in the world to hold this distinction, he led successful expeditions up Everest in 1988, 2002 and 2003. He has climbed both the South Sides of the Everest. Um Hong-gil has stood on top of Everest three times. On December 13, 2007, he succeeded in reaching the summit of Vinson Massif, the highest peak of Antarctica.

The film 히말라야/The Himalayas was released on December 16, 2015. It starred Hwang Jung-min in the role of Um; the film is based on Um's real life focusing on his mentorship of two other climbers who died during an ascent. The film beat the box office battle with Star Wars: The Force Awakens, released the same weekend in South Korea. Um Hong-gil invested his time with The Beautiful Foundation in his native South Korea, he helped start the program "Gil Sarang Fund" in order to support cultural activities for handicapped people. List of climbers and mountaineers List of Mount Everest summiters by number of times to the summit

2008 World Monuments Watch

The World Monuments Watch is a flagship advocacy program of the New York-based private non-profit organization World Monuments Fund that calls international attention to cultural heritage around the world, threatened by neglect, conflict, or disaster. Every two years, it publishes a select list known as the Watch List of 100 Most Endangered Sites that are in urgent need of preservation funding and protection; the sites are nominated by governments, conservation professionals, site caretakers, non-government organizations, concerned individuals, others working in the field. An independent panel of international experts select 100 candidates from these entries to be part of the Watch List, based on the significance of the sites, the urgency of the threat, the viability of both advocacy and conservation solutions. For the succeeding two-year period until a new Watch List is published, these 100 sites can avail grants and funds from the WMF, as well as from other foundations, private donors, corporations by capitalizing on the publicity and attention gained from the inclusion on the Watch List.

Since the Watch List was launched in 1996, more than 75 percent of the enlisted threatened sites have been saved. The 2008 World Monuments Watch List of 100 Most Endangered Sites was announced on June 6, 2007 by WMF President Bonnie Burnham; the 2008 Watch List highlights three critical man-made threats affecting the world's cultural heritage: political conflict, unchecked urban and industrial development, global climate change. The following countries/territories have multiple sites entered on the 2008 Watch List, listed by the number of sites: Official website of the World Monuments Fund World Monuments Watch home page The 2008 WMF Watch List


Ritterswerder was a short-lived wooden castle built by the Teutonic Order in fall 1391. It was located on an island in the Neman River near Lampėdžiai, now part of the city of Kaunas; the Order built the castle after they failed to capture Vilnius, capital of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, in a five-week siege in September–October 1390. It became the headquarters of Vytautas, future Grand Duke of Lithuania, while he fought in the Lithuanian Civil War against his cousin Jogaila, King of Poland. In spring 1392, Henry of Masovia, Bishop of Płock, arrived to the castle to secretly negotiate an agreement between Vytautas and Jogaila. Here, about three weeks Henry married Rymgajla, Vytautas' sister, prompting many rumors and speculations; when the cousins reconciled, Vytautas turned against the Teutonic Order and burned Ritterswerder and two other Teutonic castles on the Neman River before returning to Vilnius. During a campaign in 1394, the Order attempted to rebuild the castle but did not complete it as they were attacked by the Lithuanians.

The Order decided to abandon the besiege Vilnius for the second time. When in 1404, Vytautas confirmed the Peace of Raciąż in Kaunas, the Grand Master issued several documents from the island but did not mention the castle; the island has since disappeared. It is believed that the island is now a hill on the right bank of the Neman River in Lampėdžiai

Vincenzo Lunardi

Vicenzo Lunardi was a pioneering Italian aeronaut, born in Lucca. Vincenzo Lunardi's family were of minor Neapolitan nobility, his father had married late in life. Vicenzo was one of three children, he travelled in France in his early years before being called home, where he was put into the diplomatic service. Vincenzo Lunardi came to England as Secretary to the Neapolitan Ambassador. There was a flying craze in France and Scotland with James Tytler, Scotland's first aeronaut and the first Briton to fly, but so and after a year since the invention of the balloon, the English were still skeptical, so George Biggin and'Vincent' Lunardi, "The Daredevil Aeronaut", together decided to demonstrate a hydrogen balloon flight at the Artillery Ground of the Honourable Artillery Company in London on 15 September 1784. However, because the 200,000 strong crowd had grown impatient, the young Italian had to take off without his friend Biggin, with a bag, not inflated, but he was accompanied by a dog, a cat and a caged pigeon.

The flight from the Artillery Ground travelled in a northerly direction towards Hertfordshire, with Lunardi making a stop in Welham Green, where the cat was set free as it seemed airsick, before bringing the balloon to rest in Standon Green End. The road junction in Welham Green near to the site Lunardi made his first stop is called Balloon Corner to this day to commemorate the landing. Lunardi's balloon was exhibited at the Pantheon in Oxford Street; the 24 mile flight brought Lunardi fame and began the ballooning fad that inspired fashions of the day—Lunardi skirts were decorated with balloon styles, in Scotland, the Lunardi Bonnet was named after him, is mentioned by Scotland's national poet, Robert Burns, in his poem'To a Louse', written about a young woman called Jenny, who had a louse scampering in her Lunardi bonnet, "But Miss's fine Lunardi, fye". Lunardi published An Account of the First Aërial Voyage in England, written as a series of letters to his guardian, Gherardo Campagni. Doubt about the experiment still remained in England, however, at least in some circles.

Samuel Johnson, in a letter to Richard Brocklesby, dismissed ballooning as "a species of amusement": In amusement, mere amusement, I am afraid it must end, for I do not find that its course can be directed so as that it should serve any purposes of communication. Lunardi's next flight was made nearly a year on 29 June 1785 and left from St George's Fields on the south side of the Thames. Lunardi and Biggin, two invitees, Letitia Ann Sage and Colonel Hastings, were supposed to make the flight, but the balloon wouldn't take off because of the weight. Lunardi and Hastings stepped down, the balloon took off with Biggin and Mrs. Sage, making her the first English female in flight. 90 minutes they landed near Harrow, where the two aeronauts had to be rescued by a group of boys from Harrow School from the angry farmer whose crops were damaged. Lunardi made flights in Liverpool on 20 July and 9 August that year before moving onto Glasgow and Edinburgh. Vincenzo made five flights in Scotland in his Grand Air Balloon—which was made of 140m2 of green and yellow silk, and, exhibited,'suspended in its floating state' in the choir of St. Mungo's Cathedral in Glasgow for the admission charge of one shilling.

In October 1785, a large and excited crowd filled the grounds of George Heriot's School in Edinburgh to see Lunardi's first Scottish hydrogen-filled balloon take off. The 46-mile flight over the Firth of Forth ended at Coaltown of Callange in the parish of Ceres, Fife. There is today a commemorative plaque nearby. At the time, The Scots Magazine reported:'The beauty and grandeur of the spectacle could only be exceeded by the cool, intrepid manner in which the adventurer conducted himself; the Glasgow Mercury newspaper ran adverts the following month announcing Lunardi's intention to'gratify the curiosity of the public of Glasgow, by ascending in his Grand Air Balloon from a conspicuous place in the city'. The weather was fine at about 14:00 on 23 November 1785 when The Daredevil Aeronaut'ascended into the atmosphere with majestic grandeur, to the astonishment and admiration of the spectators' from St. Andrew's Square in Glasgow; the two-hour flight covered 110 miles, passed over Hamilton and Lanark before landing at the feet of'trembling shepherds' in Hawick near the border with England.

A couple of weeks in early December, a local'character' called Lothian Tam managed to get entangled in the ropes and as the balloon ascended—again from St. Andrew's Square in Glasgow, Tam was lifted 6 metres before being cut loose and falling—with no serious injury; the weather was worse on this flight—which had to end after just 20 minutes, with the Grand Balloon landing in Campsie Glen in Milton of Campsie—just over 10 miles from Glasgow. His landing, on 5 December 1785, is commemorated by a small plaque in the village. However, the next flight on 20 December 1785, was a disaster. Seventy minutes after the ascent from the grounds of Heriot's Hospital in Edinburgh, Lunardi was forced down in the sea, he spent a long time in the North Sea until rescued by a passing fishing boat which docked at North Berwick. The diary of the Rev John Mill from Shetland states:'A French man called Lunardi fled over th

MOL Presence

MOL Presence is a container ship, operated by Mitsui O. S. K. Lines; the cargo ship was built in 2008 at Koyo Dockyard in Japan. The ship has total capacity for 6,350 TEU at 16 rows with 500 reefer plugins; the container ship MOL Presence has overall length 293.2 m, beam 40 m, depth 24.3 m and summer draft 14.0 m. The deadweight of MOL Presence is 72,912 DWT and the gross tonnage is 71,776 GT. With this size the ship can carry total 6,350 TEU. MOL Presence has main engine MAN B&W 11K98MC; the total output power of the aggregate is 84,350 hp, achieved at 94 rpm. That power is enough for the ship to reach service speed of 26.0 kn. MOL Presence is owned and managed by the Mitsui O. S. K. Lines; the ship operated at the flag of Singapore. The IMO number is 9444273, the MMSI is 564803000 and the call sign is 9V8990. Hyundai Pride MOL Presence