Naval Air Station Patuxent River
Naval Air Station Patuxent River known as NAS Pax River, is a United States naval air station located in St. Mary's County, Maryland, on the Chesapeake Bay near the mouth of the Patuxent River, it is home to Headquarters, Naval Air Systems Command, the U. S. Naval Test Pilot School, the Atlantic Test Range, serves as a center for test and evaluation and systems acquisition relating to naval aviation. Commissioned on April 1, 1943, on land acquired through eminent domain, the air station grew in response to World War II and continued to evolve through the Cold War to the present. Situated on a peninsula between the Potomac River and the Chesapeake Bay at the mouth of the Patuxent River, NAS Patuxent River is located on 6,400 acres of what was once prime farmland, consisting of several large plantations, Mattapony and Cedar Point, as well as numerous tenant and sharecropper properties and a few clusters of vacation homes; the Cedar Point community included several churches, a post office, a gas station.
Some of the old homes now serve. In 1937, the Navy's Bureau of Aeronautics sought to consolidate aviation test programs being conducted at several stations, including Dahlgren and Norfolk, the Washington Navy Yard, Naval Air Station Anacostia in Washington, D. C. and the Naval Aircraft Factory in Pennsylvania. Cedar Point was selected due to its remote location on the coastline, well removed from air traffic congestion, with ample space for weapons testing; the onset of American involvement in World War II spurred establishment of the new air station. Rear Admiral John Henry Towers, Chief of Bureau of Aeronautics, requested approval and authorization to begin construction on December 22, 1941. Secretary of the Navy, Frank Knox, gave approval on 7 January 1942 and construction began on 4 April 1942; the original civilian residents had about a month, until 1 March 1942, to relocate as the federal government purchased all the land at a cost of $712,287 for 6,412 acres, which in 2013 dollars would be the equivalent of being paid $1,261 per acre.
Many residents were forced to sell land, in their families for generations. Some families had roots in the area going back 300 years; these included traditional farming and fishing families and there were protests. National wartime urgency was however felt in Washington at the time to take precedence, the process of eminent domain went through. A lack of transportation in Saint Mary's County led the Navy to acquire and revitalize a branchline called the Washington and Point Lookout Railroad from Brandywine to Mechanicsville, Maryland, in June 1942 and build an extension south from Mechanicsville to the air station. Known as the U. S. Government Railroad, the rail line was steam-powered and operated south of Brandywine for exclusive official use until 1954, when the Pennsylvania Railroad assumed operation of the line. Rail service ended in 1965, the line was subsequently scrapped, although the right-of-way is still visible. A highway extension to the new air station was required by the project—250,000 tons of material were transported by either truck or water routes during a year of construction.
Employing some 7,000 at its peak of construction, the area had a Gold Rush "boom town" feel as local residents were joined by workers from all over the country, eager to get on the high-paying jobs on station. On 20 October 1942, U. S. Marines first took over security. Today, the station utilizes Navy Masters-At-Arms and Navy Civilian Police Department of Defense Police for standard local law enforcement and the Naval Criminal Investigative Service for high-profile criminal investigations. During construction, housing needs far outstripped supply, barracks were built for workers on the station. Several housing areas were erected off station for workers and their families in Lexington Park Jarboesville, named in honor of the USS Lexington, the Navy's second aircraft carrier, lost during the Battle of the Coral Sea on 8 May 1942; the town's expansion had begun. The station was formally commissioned "U. S. Naval Air Station, Patuxent River, Maryland" on 1 April 1943. In a ceremony presided over by RADM John S. McCain, Sr. chief of the Bureau of Aeronautics, Patuxent River was referred to as "the most needed station in the Navy."
The unofficial name had been Cedar Point or the Naval Air Station at Cedar Point, but officials were concerned about possible confusion with the Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina, so the new facility was named for the adjacent river. In 1945 the Test Pilot School was established with the Navy's Flight Test Group transferred from Naval Air Station Anacostia, Washington, DC to NAS Patuxent River; the base became a centre for testing as several facilities were constructed throughout the 1950s and 1960s. The base served as the testing facility for the V-22 Osprey. In addition to its role in testing naval aircraft, during the 1950s to 1970s Patuxent River served as an operational base for a Transport Squadron - VR-1, a TACAMO squadron - VQ-4, Airborne Training Unit Atlantic - AEWTULANT, VW-11, VW-13 AN VW-15 and a number of Patrol Squadrons including VP-8, VP-44, VP-49, VP-24, VP-30 and VP-68. By 1965, reconnaissance Squadron VQ-4, based at NAS Patuxent River, began using Lockheed C-130s equipped with special communications equipment to perform their around-the-clock Take Charge and Move Out mission.
VQ-4 provided long-range, very-low-frequen
Director of the National Security Agency
The Director of the National Security Agency is the highest-ranking official of the National Security Agency, a Defense Agency within the U. S. Department of Defense; the Director of the NSA concurrently serves as Chief of the Central Security Service and as Commander of U. S. Cyber Command; as DIRNSA/CHCSS the officeholder reports through the Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence, as CDRUSCYBERCOM, to the Secretary of Defense. According to 10 U. S. C. § 201 of the United States Code, the Director of the NSA is recommended by the Secretary of Defense and nominated for appointment by the President. The nominee must be confirmed via majority vote by the Senate. In accordance with Department of Defense Directive 5100.20, dated 23 December 1971, the Director of the NSA must always be a commissioned officer of the military services. Because the assignment is part of a tri-hatted position, the Director of the NSA is appointed to the grade of a four-star general or admiral during the period of his incumbency.
The Deputy Director is always a technically experienced civilian. The Armed Forces Security Agency was the predecessor to the National Security Agency and existed from 1949 to 1952. List of former NSA directors
Nuclear disarmament is the act of reducing or eliminating nuclear weapons. It can be the end state of a nuclear-weapons-free world, in which nuclear weapons are eliminated; the term denuclearization is used to describe the process leading to complete nuclear disarmament. Nuclear disarmament groups include the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, Peace Action, Soka Gakkai International, International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, Mayors for Peace, Global Zero, the International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons, the Nuclear Age Peace Foundation. There have been protests. On June 12, 1982, one million people demonstrated in New York City's Central Park against nuclear weapons and for an end to the cold war arms race, it was the largest political demonstration in American history. In recent years, some U. S. elder statesmen have advocated nuclear disarmament. Sam Nunn, William Perry, Henry Kissinger, George Shultz have called upon governments to embrace the vision of a world free of nuclear weapons, in various op-ed columns have proposed an ambitious program of urgent steps to that end.
The four have created the Nuclear Security Project to advance this agenda. Organisations such as Global Zero, an international non-partisan group of 300 world leaders dedicated to achieving nuclear disarmament, have been established. Proponents of nuclear disarmament say that it would lessen the probability of nuclear war occurring accidentally. Critics of nuclear disarmament say. In 1945 in the New Mexico desert, American scientists conducted "Trinity," the first nuclear weapons test, marking the beginning of the atomic age. Before the Trinity test, national leaders debated the impact of nuclear weapons on domestic and foreign policy. Involved in the debate about nuclear weapons policy was the scientific community, through professional associations such as the Federation of Atomic Scientists and the Pugwash Conference on Science and World Affairs. On August 6, 1945, towards the end of World War II, the "Little Boy" device was detonated over the Japanese city of Hiroshima. Exploding with a yield equivalent to 12,500 tonnes of TNT, the blast and thermal wave of the bomb destroyed nearly 50,000 buildings and killed 70,000–80,000 people outright, with total deaths being around 90,000–146,000.
Detonation of the "Fat Man" device exploded over the Japanese city of Nagasaki three days on 9 August 1945, destroying 60% of the city and killing 35,000–40,000 people outright, though up to 40,000 additional deaths may have occurred over some time after that. Subsequently, the world’s nuclear weapons stockpiles grew. Operation Crossroads was a series of nuclear weapon tests conducted by the United States at Bikini Atoll in the Pacific Ocean in the summer of 1946, its purpose was to test the effect of nuclear weapons on naval ships. Pressure to cancel Operation Crossroads came from diplomats. Manhattan Project scientists argued that further nuclear testing was unnecessary and environmentally dangerous. A Los Alamos study warned "the water near a recent surface explosion will be a'witch's brew' of radioactivity". To prepare the atoll for the nuclear tests, Bikini's native residents were evicted from their homes and resettled on smaller, uninhabited islands where they were unable to sustain themselves.
Radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons testing was first drawn to public attention in 1954 when a hydrogen bomb test in the Pacific contaminated the crew of the Japanese fishing boat Lucky Dragon. One of the fishermen died in Japan seven months later; the incident caused widespread concern around the world and "provided a decisive impetus for the emergence of the anti-nuclear weapons movement in many countries". The anti-nuclear weapons movement grew because for many people the atomic bomb "encapsulated the worst direction in which society was moving". Peace movements emerged in Japan and in 1954 they converged to form a unified "Japanese Council Against Atomic and Hydrogen Bombs". Japanese opposition to the Pacific nuclear weapons tests was widespread, "an estimated 35 million signatures were collected on petitions calling for bans on nuclear weapons". In the United Kingdom, the first Aldermaston March organised by the Direct Action Committee and supported by the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament took place on Easter 1958, when several thousand people marched for four days from Trafalgar Square, London, to the Atomic Weapons Research Establishment close to Aldermaston in Berkshire, England, to demonstrate their opposition to nuclear weapons.
CND organised Aldermaston marches into the late 1960s when tens of thousands of people took part in the four-day events. On November 1, 1961, at the height of the Cold War, about 50,000 women brought together by Women Strike for Peace marched in 60 cities in the United States to demonstrate against nuclear weapons, it was the largest national women's peace protest of the 20th century. In 1958, Linus Pauling and his wife presented the United Nations with the petition signed by more than 11,000 scientists calling for an end to nuclear-weapon testing; the "Baby Tooth Survey," headed by Dr Louise Reiss, demonstrated conclusively in 1961 that above-ground nuclear testing posed significant public health risks in the form of radioactive fallout spread via milk from cows that had ingested contaminated grass. Public pressure and the research results subsequently led to a moratorium on above-ground nuclear weapons testing, followed by the Partial Test Ban Treaty, signed in 1963 by John F. Kennedy and Nikita Khrushchev.
On the day that the treaty went into force, the Nobel Prize Com
The Cold War was a period of geopolitical tension between the Soviet Union with its satellite states, the United States with its allies after World War II. A common historiography of the conflict begins between 1946, the year U. S. diplomat George F. Kennan's "Long Telegram" from Moscow cemented a U. S. foreign policy of containment of Soviet expansionism threatening strategically vital regions, the Truman Doctrine of 1947, ending between the Revolutions of 1989, which ended communism in Eastern Europe, the 1991 collapse of the USSR, when nations of the Soviet Union abolished communism and restored their independence. The term "cold" is used because there was no large-scale fighting directly between the two sides, but they each supported major regional conflicts known as proxy wars; the conflict split the temporary wartime alliance against Nazi Germany and its allies, leaving the USSR and the US as two superpowers with profound economic and political differences. The capitalist West was led by the United States, a federal republic with a two-party presidential system, as well as the other First World nations of the Western Bloc that were liberal democratic with a free press and independent organizations, but were economically and politically entwined with a network of banana republics and other authoritarian regimes, most of which were the Western Bloc's former colonies.
Some major Cold War frontlines such as Indochina and the Congo were still Western colonies in 1947. The Soviet Union, on the other hand, was a self-proclaimed Marxist–Leninist state led by its Communist Party, which in turn was dominated by a totalitarian leader with different titles over time, a small committee called the Politburo; the Party controlled the state, the press, the military, the economy, many organizations throughout the Second World, including the Warsaw Pact and other satellites, funded communist parties around the world, sometimes in competition with communist China following the Sino-Soviet split of the 1960s. The two worlds were fighting for dominance in low-developed regions known as the Third World. In time, a neutral bloc arose in these regions with the Non-Aligned Movement, which sought good relations with both sides. Notwithstanding isolated incidents of air-to-air dogfights and shoot-downs, the two superpowers never engaged directly in full-scale armed combat. However, both were armed in preparation for a possible all-out nuclear world war.
Each side had a nuclear strategy that discouraged an attack by the other side, on the basis that such an attack would lead to the total destruction of the attacker—the doctrine of mutually assured destruction. Aside from the development of the two sides' nuclear arsenals, their deployment of conventional military forces, the struggle for dominance was expressed via proxy wars around the globe, psychological warfare, massive propaganda campaigns and espionage, far-reaching embargoes, rivalry at sports events, technological competitions such as the Space Race; the first phase of the Cold War began in the first two years after the end of the Second World War in 1945. The USSR consolidated its control over the states of the Eastern Bloc, while the United States began a strategy of global containment to challenge Soviet power, extending military and financial aid to the countries of Western Europe and creating the NATO alliance; the Berlin Blockade was the first major crisis of the Cold War. With the victory of the Communist side in the Chinese Civil War and the outbreak of the Korean War, the conflict expanded.
The USSR and the US competed for influence in Latin America and the decolonizing states of Africa and Asia. The Soviets suppressed the Hungarian Revolution of 1956; the expansion and escalation sparked more crises, such as the Suez Crisis, the Berlin Crisis of 1961, the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962, the closest the two sides came to nuclear war. Meanwhile, an international peace movement took root and grew among citizens around the world, first in Japan from 1954, when people became concerned about nuclear weapons testing, but soon in Europe and the US; the peace movement, in particular the anti-nuclear movement, gained pace and popularity from the late 1950s and early 1960s, continued to grow through the'70s and'80s with large protest marches and various non-parliamentary activism opposing war and calling for global nuclear disarmament. Following the Cuban Missile Crisis, a new phase began that saw the Sino-Soviet split complicate relations within the Communist sphere, while US allies France, demonstrated greater independence of action.
The USSR crushed the 1968 Prague Spring liberalization program in Czechoslovakia, while the US experienced internal turmoil from the civil rights movement and opposition to the Vietnam War, which ended with the defeat of the US-backed Republic of Vietnam, prompting further adjustments. By the 1970s, both sides had become interested in making allowances in order to create a more stable and predictable international system, ushering in a period of détente that saw Strategic Arms Limitation Talks and the US opening relations with the People's Republic of China as a strategic counterweight to the Soviet Union. Détente collapsed at the end of the decade with the beginning of the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979; the early 1980s were another period of elevated tension, with the Soviet downing of KAL Flight 007 and the "Able Archer" NATO military exercises, both in 1983. The United States increased diplomatic and economic pressures on the Soviet Union, at a time when the communist state was suffering from economic stag
USS Craven (DD-382)
USS Craven was a Gridley-class destroyer commissioned in the United States Navy from 1937 to 1946. She served in the Pacific War and was scrapped in 1947. Craven was the third U. S. Navy ship named for Tunis Augustus Macdonough Craven, she was launched on 25 February 1937 by Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corporation's Fore River Shipyard in Quincy, Massachusetts. After training in the Caribbean and along the east coast and experimental torpedo firing at Newport, Rhode Island, Craven departed Norfolk, Virginia on 16 August 1938 to join the fleet at San Diego, California. From 4 January to 17 July 1939 she cruised to the Caribbean on maneuvers and fleet problems, to the east coast for visits, but otherwise operated off the west coast. From 1 April 1940 she was based at Pearl Harbor where she joined in fleet exercises and served as antisubmarine screen for carriers; when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, Craven was at sea with Enterprise proceeding from Wake Island to Pearl Harbor. While still with the Enterprise group, Craven was damaged when she collided with the cruiser Northampton during underway refueling on 15 December.
That incident, coupled with more damage inflicted from heavy seas on 19 December, necessitated her return to Pearl Harbor. Craven joined in the raids on the Marshalls and Gilberts, 1 February 1942 and on Wake Island, 24 February. After overhaul on the west coast, on 8 April she returned to convoy west coast operations. Craven sailed from Pearl Harbor 12 November 1942 to join in the struggle for Guadalcanal, escorting transports to that island for the next nine months. On 6 and 7 August 1943 she joined in the sweep of Vella Gulf which sank Japanese destroyers Kawakaze and Arashi, damaged a cruiser. Craven departed Efate 23 September 1943 for San Francisco and overhaul. Returning to Pearl Harbor, she sortied 19 January 1944 to screen the carriers of TF 58 during air strikes on Wotje and Eniwetok in February supporting the invasion of the Marshall Islands. From the base at Majuro, Craven sailed to screen carriers in heavy strikes on Palau, Ulithi, Woleai. After a voyage to Pearl Harbor in May, Craven rejoined the 5th Fleet for the invasion of the Marianas.
She screened the softening up strikes on Guam and Rota, the supporting raids on the Bonins, as well as guarded the carriers with protective antiaircraft fire during the Battle of the Philippine Sea on 19 and 20 June. Craven continued to guard the carriers during the air strikes of July and September on the Bonins, Guam and the Palaus. Returning to Pearl Harbor 11 October 1944, Craven had overhaul and training sailed from Pearl Harbor 2 January 1945, she arrived at New York 26 January for exercises and antisubmarine patrol on the east coast until 2 May when she sailed to Southampton, England, as convoy escort, returning to New York 29 May. She departed Portland, Maine, 22 June to carry the U. S. Minister to Tangier, continued to Oran. Craven ranged throughout the Mediterranean Sea on escort and transport duties until 14 January 1946 when she cleared for New York, arriving 28 January, she weighed anchor 20 February for Pearl Harbor where she arrived 16 March. Craven was decommissioned there 19 April 1946, sold 2 October 1947.
Craven received nine battle stars for World War II service. This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships; the entry can be found here
Naval Air Station Pensacola
Naval Air Station Pensacola or NAS Pensacola, "The Cradle of Naval Aviation", is a United States Navy base located next to Warrington, Florida, a community southwest of the Pensacola city limits. It is best known as the initial primary training base for all U. S. Navy, Marine Corps and Coast Guard officers pursuing designation as Naval Aviators and Naval Flight Officers, the advanced training base for most Naval Flight Officers, as the home base for the United States Navy Flight Demonstration Squadron, the precision-flying team known as the Blue Angels; because of contamination by heavy metals and other hazardous materials during its history, it is designated as a Superfund site needing environmental cleanup. The air station hosts the Naval Education and Training Command and the Naval Aerospace Medical Institute, the latter of which provides training for all naval Naval Flight Surgeons, Naval Aviation Physiologists, Naval Aviation Experimental Psychologists. With the closure of Naval Air Station Memphis in Millington and the transition of that facility to Naval Support Activity Mid-South, NAS Pensacola became home to the Naval Air Technical Training Center Memphis, which relocated to Pensacola and was renamed NATTC Pensacola.
NATTC provides technical training schools for nearly all enlisted aircraft maintenance and enlisted aircrew specialties in the U. S. Navy, U. S. Marine Corps and U. S. Coast Guard; the NATTC facility at NAS Pensacola is home to the USAF Detachment 1, a geographically separated unit whose home unit is the 359th Training Squadron located at nearby Eglin AFB. Detachment 1 trains over 1,100 Airmen annually in three structural maintenance disciplines: Low Observable, Non-Destructive Inspection, Aircraft Structural Maintenance. NAS Pensacola contains Forrest Sherman Field, home of Training Air Wing SIX, providing undergraduate flight training for all prospective Naval Flight Officers for the U. S. Navy and U. S. Marine Corps, flight officers/navigators for other NATO/Allied/Coalition partners. TRAWING SIX consists of the Training Squadron 4 "Warbucks," Training Squadron 10 "Wildcats" and Training Squadron 86 "Sabrehawks," flying the T-45C Goshawk and T-6A Texan II. A select number of prospective U. S. Air Force Navigator/Combat Systems Officers, destined for certain fighter/bomber or heavy aircraft, were trained via TRAWING SIX, under VT-4 or VT-10, with command of VT-10 rotating periodically to a USAF officer.
This previous track for USAF Navigators was termed Joint Undergraduate Navigator Training. Today, all USAF Undergraduate CSO Training for all USAF aircraft is consolidated at NAS Pensacola as a USAF organization and operation under the 479th Flying Training Group, an Air Education and Training Command unit; the 479 FTG is a tenant activity at NAS Pensacola and a GSU of the 12th Flying Training Wing at Randolph AFB, Texas. The 479 FTG operates T-1A Jayhawk aircraft. Other tenant activities include the United States Navy Flight Demonstration Squadron, the Blue Angels, flying F/A-18 Hornets and a single USMC C-130T Hercules. A total of 131 aircraft operate out of Sherman Field, generating 110,000 flight operations each year; the National Naval Aviation Museum, the Pensacola Naval Air Station Historic District, the National Park Service-administered Fort Barrancas and its associated Advance Redoubt, the Pensacola Lighthouse and Museum are all located at NAS Pensacola, as is the Barrancas National Cemetery.
The site now occupied. In 1559, Spanish explorer Don Tristan de Luna founded a colony on Santa Rosa Island, considered the first European settlement of the Pensacola area; the Spanish built the wooden Fort San Carlos de Austria on this bluff in 1697–1698. Although besieged by Indians in 1707, the fort was not taken. Spain was competing in North America with the French, who settled lower Louisiana and the Illinois Country and areas to the North; the French destroyed this fort when they captured Pensacola in 1719. After Great Britain defeated the French in the Seven Years' War and exchanging some territory with Spain, British colonists took over this site and West Florida in 1763. In 1781, as an ally of the American rebels during the American Revolutionary War, the Spanish captured Pensacola. Britain ceded West Florida to Spain following the war; the Spanish completed the fort San Carlos de Barrancas in 1797. Barranca is a Spanish word for bluff, the natural terrain feature that makes this location ideal for the fortress.
Pensacola was taken by General Andrew Jackson in November 1814 during the War of 1812 between Great Britain and the United States. British forces destroyed Fort San Carlos; the Spanish remained in control of the region until 1821, when the Adams-Onís Treaty confirmed the purchase of Spanish Florida by the United States, Spain ceded this territory to the US. In 1825, the US designated this area for the Pensacola Navy Yard was designated and Congress appropriated $6,000 for a lighthouse. Operational that year, it "is said to be haunted by a light keeper murdered by his wife." Fort Barrancas was rebuilt, 1839–1844, the U. S. Army deactivating it on 15 April 1947. Designated a National Historic Site in 1960, control of the site was transferred to the National Park Service in 1971. After extensive re
Air Development Squadron 3 or VX-3 was a United States Navy air test and evaluation squadron established on 20 November 1948 and disestablished on 1 March 1960. VX-3 was established by the merger of the assets of VA-1L and VF-1L and based at NAS Atlantic City, its aircraft carried the tail code "XC". In late 1949 VX-3 received the F6U Pirate which it operated for a short period before sending them into storage at NAS Quonset Point. In March 1953 VX-3 began operational trials of probe and drogue aerial refueling using AJ-1 Savage bombers. In late 1954 VX-3 carrier-qualified the F9F-8 Cougar aboard the USS Midway. In August 1955 VX-3 F9F-8s tested the first mirror landing system aboard USS Bennington. VX-3 received the first F-8U-1 Crusaders in December 1956 and conducted carrier qualifications of the Crusader aboard the USS Franklin D. Roosevelt in April 1957. During testing of the Crusader two aircraft and pilots were lost. On 6 June 1957 a VX-3 Crusader set a US coast to coast speed record of three hours and twenty-eight minutes, launching from USS Bon Homme Richard on the West Coast and landing on USS Saratoga on the East Coast.
Thomas J. Hudner Jr. Donald D. EngenWalter Starghill AT3 History of the United States Navy List of inactive United States Navy aircraft squadrons List of United States Navy aircraft squadrons