Departments of France
In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. Ninety-six departments are in metropolitan France, five are overseas departments, which are classified as regions. Departments are further subdivided into 334 arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons; each department is administered by an elected body called a departmental council. From 1800 to April 2015, these were called general councils; each council has a president. Their main areas of responsibility include the management of a number of social and welfare allowances, of junior high school buildings and technical staff, local roads and school and rural buses, a contribution to municipal infrastructures. Local services of the state administration are traditionally organised at departmental level, where the prefect represents the government; the departments were created in 1790 as a rational replacement of Ancien Régime provinces with a view to strengthen national unity.
All of them were named after physical geographical features, rather than after historical or cultural territories which could have their own loyalties. The division of France into departments was a project identified with the French revolutionary leader the Abbé Sieyès, although it had been discussed and written about by many politicians and thinkers; the earliest known suggestion of it is from 1764 in the writings of d'Argenson. They have inspired similar divisions in some of them former French colonies. Most French departments are assigned a two-digit number, the "Official Geographical Code", allocated by the Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques. Overseas departments have a three-digit number; the number is used, for example, in the postal code, was until used for all vehicle registration plates. While residents use the numbers to refer to their own department or a neighbouring one, more distant departments are referred to by their names, as few people know the numbers of all the departments.
For example, inhabitants of Loiret might refer to their department as "the 45". In 2014, President François Hollande proposed to abolish departmental councils by 2020, which would have maintained the departments as administrative divisions, to transfer their powers to other levels of governance; this reform project has since been abandoned. The first French territorial departments were proposed in 1665 by Marc-René d'Argenson to serve as administrative areas purely for the Ponts et Chaussées infrastructure administration. Before the French Revolution, France gained territory through the annexation of a mosaic of independent entities. By the close of the Ancien Régime, it was organised into provinces. During the period of the Revolution, these were dissolved in order to weaken old loyalties; the modern departments, as all-purpose units of the government, were created on 4 March 1790 by the National Constituent Assembly to replace the provinces with what the Assembly deemed a more rational structure.
Their boundaries served two purposes: Boundaries were chosen to break up France's historical regions in an attempt to erase cultural differences and build a more homogeneous nation. Boundaries were set so that every settlement in the country was within a day's ride of the capital of a department; this was a security measure, intended to keep the entire national territory under close control. This measure was directly inspired by the Great Terror, during which the government had lost control of many rural areas far from any centre of government; the old nomenclature was avoided in naming the new departments. Most were named after other physical features. Paris was in the department of Seine. Savoy became the department of Mont-Blanc; the number of departments 83, had been increased to 130 by 1809 with the territorial gains of the Republic and of the First French Empire. Following Napoleon's defeats in 1814–1815, the Congress of Vienna returned France to its pre-war size and the number of departments was reduced to 86.
In 1860, France acquired the County of Nice and Savoy, which led to the creation of three new departments. Two were added from the new Savoyard territory, while the department of Alpes-Maritimes was created from Nice and a portion of the Var department; the 89 departments were given numbers based on the alphabetical order of their names. The department of Bas-Rhin and parts of Meurthe, Moselle and Haut-Rhin were ceded to the German Empire in 1871, following France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. A small part of Haut-Rhin became known as the Territoire de Belfort; when France regained the ceded departments after World War I, the Territoire de Belfort was not re-integrated into Haut-Rhin. In 1922, it became France's 90th department; the Lorraine departments were not changed back to their original boundaries, a new Moselle department was created in the regaine
Ailleville is a French commune in the Aube department in the Grand Est region of northern-central France. The inhabitants are known as Aillevilloises. Ailleville is located in the valley of the Aube river some 2 km north-west of Bar-sur-Aube; the commune is traversed from Bar-sur-Aube in the south-east crossing the heart of the commune and the town to exit towards Arsonval in the north-west. There are no other highways in the commune other than small country lanes. There are no hamlets other than Ailleville; the north-east of the commune is dominated by the forests of Envers de Bretonvau and Bois de Val Joudry. The rest of the commune is farmland; the southern part of the commune is traversed by a railway line running from Bar-sur-Aube railway station in the south-east to the next station at Arret-de-Jessains in the north-west. There is no station in the commune with the nearest station at Bar-sur-Aube; the nearest cities are Chaumont some 40 km to Troyes some 40 km west. The Aube river crosses the southern boundary of the commune and forms a small portion of the southern border of the commune.
There are no discernible streams in the commune. The village was founded in 6 A. D. with the name "Aquilavilla". This villa was undoubtedly given to a Roman soldier at the end of his military service next to the famous Agrippa Roman road; the name of the village changed many times: Alivilla in 1152 Aquilevilla in 1170 Aillevilla in 1222 Aquilavilla in 1253 Aileville in 1270 Ailleville in 1306. The Merovingians established themselves in the Roman village and in 1076 the village changed with its attachment, along with all the County of Bar sur Aube, to the County of Champagne. With the reputation of the fairs in Champagne and its proximity to Bar sur Aube, the village increased in importance. A Church, an Abbey, a Chateau were built; the old vineyards planted by the Romans became reputable under Louis XIV. The history of Ailleville was peaceful until the Napoleonic Campaign of 1814. In February, during the Bar-sur-Aube battle, the village was devastated as many others in the area. Twenty-two families in all, most of the inhabitants, were sheltered in the castle.
They rebuilt the village afterwards, although several, who were destitute and helpless, had to depart. There are some remains of the Gallo-Roman era in the commune; the inhabitants were once known as "Braments." List of Successive Mayors of Ailleville A Chateau from the time of Henry IV A Roman road from Langres to Chalons-en-Champagne The Presence of Merovingian sarcophagi from the 6th-7th century around the Lavoir. These sarcophagi were found in the 1970s by the local historian Roger Rubaud at a place called Les Longues-Roies above the village. A Cistercian Cross next to the church from the 16th century in Corinthian style proving the existence of a Cistercian Abbey in the valley founded by the Lords of Jaucourt in 1215 at Gué de Ternant. Destroyed rebuilt in 1309 at the foot of Côte Jobert. After being in severe decline in the 18th century it was destroyed in the French Revolution. A Château from the 17th century flanked by four turrets. A Dovecote The Church of Saint Martin; the church is a simple Romanesque building from the 12th century.
The choir is narrower than the nave. The building depended on the chapter of Saint-Maclou of Bar-sur-Aube; the church contains many items that are registered as historical objects: A Statuette: Education of the Virgin 4 Bas-reliefs: the Evangelists A Statue: Saint Nicholas A Statuette: Saint Martin An Altar and Tabernacle A Tombstone of Jean de Lauparet A Tombstone for the Guillard family A Ciborium A Chalice A Chalice A Paten An Incense lamp A Monstrance A Statue: Saint Ambroise A Statue: Saint Radegonde A Statue: Christ on the Cross A Stoup The Furniture in the Church Communes of the Aube department Ailleville on the old IGN website Ailleville on Lion1906 Ailleville on Google Maps Ailleville on Géoportail, National Geographic Institute website Ailleville on the 1750 Cassini Map Ailleville on the INSEE website INSEE
Aube is a French department in the Grand Est region of north-eastern France. As with sixty departments in France, this department is named after a river: the Aube. With 305,606 inhabitants, Aube is 76th department in terms of population; the inhabitants of the department are known as Aubois or AuboisesThe department was constituted as it is today by a decree of the National Assembly of 15 January 1790. The Aube department is located in the south-west side of the Grand Est region, it borders the departments of Marne in the north, Haute-Marne to the east, Côte-d'Or in the south-east, Yonne in the south-west, Seine-et-Marne in the west. Within the department regions of natural or traditional countryside can be identified as follows: northwest quarter: Champagne crayeuse northwestern tip: the Nogentais southwest of Troyes: the Othe region to the south: le Chaourçois to the northeast: the Briennois to the east: the Barrois between Troyes and Barrois: Champagne wetlands Aube is divided into 431 communes totalling 308,503 inhabitants.
Major cities with more than 10,000 inhabitants) are: Troyes, Romilly-sur-Seine, La Chapelle-Saint-Luc, Saint-André-les-Vergers and Sainte-Savine. They are located in the centre of the department. Four of those five cities are part of the Agglomeration of Troyes. There are 23 rivers throughout the department, the four main rivers being the Seine, the Aube, the Armance, the Vanne; the department has 140,000 hectares of forests. Located in the Community of communes of Forests and lands in Champagne, the Orient Forest Regional Natural Park was one of the first natural parks created in France. In the same place, there is the Orient Lake and the Amance and Temple lakes where fishing, recreational water sports, bathing are available; each lake specialises in one or more of these activities. The climate is moderate without intense cold or excessive heat which represents a climate similar to continental and oceanic. Between 1950 and 1985 the average annual temperature recorded in the department was 10.1 °C, equivalent to the Paris basin and the cities of north-eastern France.
The average sunshine hours per year is 1771. Average annual rainfall is quite high. In general there is more rain in autumn than in winter but rainfall is highest during spring. In contrast summer is the season. There is, more rain in the south-east than the north-west. Snow is infrequent. Prevailing wind is from the west; the department has 150 km of autoroutes, 33 km of national roads, 4,517 km of departmental roads and 2,116 km of local roads. In the Agglomeration of Troyes TCAT provides a transport network between communes. Unlike many networks that are provided by other operators, the agglomeration community of the city is the owner of the company; the network serves eleven communes including two outside the Troyes agglomeration. Other cities, including Romilly-sur-Seine, have no transport network. Aube has intercity transport networks. 21 regular bus routes are operated between the major cities of the department. The use of these lines is entrusted to private coaches: Transdev – The Carriers of Aube has 15 routes, Keolis Sud Lorraine has 4 routes, Procars Champagne has 2 routes, Autocars Bardy has one route.
Five railway stations are in operation. These are: Nogent-sur-Seine, Romilly-sur-Seine, Vendeuvre-sur-Barse, Bar-sur-Aube. Aube does not have a strong rail coverage. Only one main non-electrified line passes through Aube – the line that connects Paris-Est to Mulhouse; the department has 34.8 km of navigable waterways. The city of Nogent-sur-Seine has two river ports for grain; the first inhabitants of Aube were the Tricasses and Lingones with a substantial human settlement around the year 400 BC. Saints Potentian and Savinian, Greek priests from Samos, came to preach the gospel from the middle of the 3rd century. Saint Patroclus was one of the first martyrs of the new faith in the year 259. Shortly after Saint Jule and some notables of the city of Tricasses suffered martyrdom; as elsewhere, the Christian community became large enough to accommodate a bishop. Saint Amateur was the first in 340. In the year 286 the Bagaudae ravaged the land. Emperor Julian rescued it; the territory making up Aube was first attached to France following the Treaty of Verdun.
Two important monasteries were founded in the department: one at Clairvaux in 1114, created by Bernard of Clairvaux, the other at Paraclete, by his illustrious rival, Pierre Abélard and of which Héloïse d'Argenteuil was the first abbess. Bernard of Clairvaux was noted for his eloquence at the Council of Troyes and his preaching of the Second Crusade which had no result and whose outcome was disastrous; the reunion of Champagne with the kingdom of France was finalised in 1361. Yet people wanted the incorporation of Champagne but in 1328 King Philip VI gave the city of Bar-sur-Seine to Philippe de Croy; the inhabitants, ransomed him to return it to the king on the condition that it become inalienable. The decree of the National Assembly of 15 January 1790 formally established the department of Aube, its first president was Augustin-Henri-Marie Picot and his first deputy was Louis Antoine Joseph Robin. Jacques Claude Beugnot was elected Attorney-General and MP; the 19th century marked the emergence of the Hosiery business i
Barbuise is a commune in the Aube department in the Grand Est region of north-central France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Barbisiennes. Barbuise is located 20 km east of Provins. Access to the commune is by the D40 from La Villeneuve-au-Châtelot in the east which passes through the heart of the commune south of the village and continues west south-west to join the D40A to Chalautre-la-Grande; the D52 comes from Villenauxe-la-Grande in the north and passes through the village before continuing south-east to Pont-sur-Seine. The D97 goes north-west from the village to Montpothier; the D174 goes north to Plessis-Barbuise. The D197 connects the D97 in the west of the commune; the commune is all farmland with many lakes occupying a significant area of land in a belt across the commune and in the south-east. The Canal de Courtavant crosses the south-east of the commune from south-west to north-east; the Noxe river joins the canal. The Canal de Soulaunoy joins the Noxe south-west of the village.
The area of the commune has been occupied since ancient times as evidenced by many archaeological discoveries and megaliths in the commune. Barbuise appears as Barbuife as Barbuise on the 1790 version. List of Successive Mayors In 2010 the commune had 416 inhabitants; the evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger communes that have a sample survey every year. Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 The Dolmen of Grèves de Fraicul is registered as an historical monument. Were a part of Cerny culture; the parish church contains a large number of items. For a complete list including links to descriptions click here. Communes of the Aube department
Barberey-Saint-Sulpice is a commune in the Aube department in the Grand Est region of north-central France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Barberotines. Barberey-Saint-Sulpice is located to the immediate north-west of Troyes with the Troyes - Barberey Airport located in the commune. Access to the commune is by the D619 highway which starts at the end of the D319 highway at the edge of Troyes and continues north-west through the commune to Fontaine-les-Grès; the D20 passes through the commune from Troyes going north-west to Saint-Lyé. The D60 from Troyes to Dierrey-Saint-Pierre passes through the south-western end of the commune; the D619 comes from Sainte-Maure in the north-east and passes through the centre of the commune and the town and continues south-west to join the D60 in the commune. The airport runway crosses three-quarters of the commune west of the D619 from north to south with access to the airport terminal by the Route de l'Aerodrome branching off the D619; the main railway line from Troyes to the north-west passes through the commune with a station in the town.
Apart from a large urban area covering most of the north-west of the commune and the airport occupying the centre, the rest of the commune is farmland. The Seine river passes through the north-east of the commune as it flows north-west to reach Paris and the Atlantic ocean at Le Havre; the former Canal de la Haute-Seine begins in the commune and follows the Seine to join the Aube at Marcilly-sur-Seine. List of Successive Mayors; the evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger communes that have a sample survey every year. Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 The commune has a number of buildings and sites that are registered as historical monuments: A Canal Bridge over the Seine A Chateau The Huot Mill The Mill contains an Hydraulic Turbine, registered as an historical object.
The Parish Church of Saint-Sulpice is registered as an historical monument. Has a Romanesque nave from the 12th century and a choir and transept from the 16th and 17th centuries. There is a wooden Renaissance tribune of twenty-five panels; the façade and porch are half-timbered. The Church contains a large number of items that are registered as historical objects. Claude-Louis Bruslé de Valsuzenay, French politician and senior official in the 18th and 19th centuries, Châtelain of Barberey. Communes of the Aube department Barberey-Saint-Sulpice official website Barberey-Saint-Sulpice on the old National Geographic Institute website Community of Communes Seine Melda Coteaux official website
Bar-sur-Seine is a French commune in the Aube department in the Grand Est region of north-central France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Barséquanais or Barséquanaises; the commune has been awarded three flowers by the National Council of Towns and Villages in Bloom in the Competition of cities and villages in Bloom. Bar-sur-Seine is located some 20 km south-east of Troyes and 25 km north-west of Montliot-et-Courcelles. Access to the commune is by the D671 road from Virey-sous-Bar in the north-west which passes through the town and continues south-east to Celles-sur-Ource; the D443 comes from Magnant in the north-east passing through the village and continuing south-west to Villemorien. The D63 goes to Magnant by a longer route; the D4 goes from the town to Ville-sur-Arce in the south-east. The D49 goes north-west to Courtenot. There is the railway passing through the commune from Saint-Parres-lès-Vaudes in the north-east and continuing to the next station at Polisot in the south-east.
Apart from the town there are the hamlets of Avaleur and La Bordé. There are large forests to the north-east and south-west of the town with the rest of the commune farmland; the Seine river flows through the commune and the town from south-east to north-west and continues north-west to Troyes and beyond. The Ource river flows from the south-east and forms part of the south-eastern border before joining the Seine at the border of the commune; the Arce river joins the Seine on the right bank on the south-eastern border of the commune. Bar is a Gallic word and even pre-Gallic which means "summit" or "height"; the town was devastated in 1359 by the English, according to Froissart, no fewer than 900 mansions were burnt. Afterwards it suffered in the religious wars of the 16th century. Bar-sur-Seine was the chief town of the district in 1790 and sub-prefecture from 1800 until 1926. Bar-sur-Seine minted deniers under Charles the Bald. Under the Ancien Regime Bar-sur-Seine was located in the province of Burgundy.
Bar-sur-Seine appears as Bar ſur Seine, with a long s, on the 1750 Cassini Map and the same on the 1790 version. List of Successive Mayors The commune has seven educational establishments: Public Kindergarten of 14 July Henri Breton private primary school Georges Leclerc public primary school Maurice Robert public primary school Henri Breton College Paul Portier College Lycée professionnel du Val Moré In 2010 the commune had 3233 inhabitants; the evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger communes that have a sample survey every year. Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 Most Champagne vines are grown in the Marne department in the Marne valley and on a series of lands straddling the Tertiary and Cretaceous Champagnes of Aube are eccentric and southern compared to other Champagnes and are grown on Jurassic lands which makes them distinctive.
This area of Aube Champagnes includes other neighbouring communes such as Les Riceys and Bar-sur-Aube. The commune has a number of buildings and sites that are registered as historical monuments: The Boulard Stationery factory The Charrier Mill The Bar-sur-Seine Glass and Crystal Works A Timbered House at Rue Victor-Hugo The Domain of Villeneuve at Villeneuve The Portal of Châtillon The Chateau of the Counts of Bar The commune has two religious buildings and sites that are registered as historical monuments: The Church of Saint-Stephen The Chapel of Avalleur The commune contains a large number of religious objects that are registered as historical objects. Most of these items are with many items in other locations. For a complete list of these items together with links to some photos click here. Communes of the Aube department Bar-sur-Seine Official website
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona