Communes of France
The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic. French communes are analogous to civil townships and incorporated municipalities in the United States and Canada, Gemeinden in Germany, comuni in Italy or ayuntamiento in Spain; the United Kingdom has no exact equivalent, as communes resemble districts in urban areas, but are closer to parishes in rural areas where districts are much larger. Communes are based on historical geographic communities or villages and are vested with significant powers to manage the populations and land of the geographic area covered; the communes are the fourth-level administrative divisions of France. Communes vary in size and area, from large sprawling cities with millions of inhabitants like Paris, to small hamlets with only a handful of inhabitants. Communes are based on pre-existing villages and facilitate local governance. All communes have names, but not all named geographic areas or groups of people residing together are communes, the difference residing in the lack of administrative powers.
Except for the municipal arrondissements of its largest cities, the communes are the lowest level of administrative division in France and are governed by elected officials with extensive autonomous powers to implement national policy. A commune is city, or other municipality. "Commune" in English has a historical bias, implies an association with socialist political movements or philosophies, collectivist lifestyles, or particular history. There is nothing intrinsically different between commune in French; the French word commune appeared in the 12th century, from Medieval Latin communia, for a large gathering of people sharing a common life. As of January 2015, there were 36,681 communes in France, 36,552 of them in metropolitan France and 129 of them overseas; this is a higher total than that of any other European country, because French communes still reflect the division of France into villages or parishes at the time of the French Revolution. The whole territory of the French Republic is divided into communes.
This is unlike some other countries, such as the United States, where unincorporated areas directly governed by a county or a higher authority can be found. There are only a few exceptions: COM of Saint-Martin, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe région. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Martin became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. COM of Wallis and Futuna, which still is divided according to the three traditional chiefdoms. COM of Saint Barthélemy, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe region. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Barthélemy became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. Furthermore, two regions without permanent habitation have no communes: TOM of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands Clipperton Island in the Pacific Ocean In metropolitan France, the average area of a commune in 2004 was 14.88 square kilometres. The median area of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was smaller, at 10.73 square kilometres. The median area is a better measure of the area of a typical French commune.
This median area is smaller than that of most European countries. In Italy, the median area of communes is 22 km2. Switzerland and the Länder of Rhineland-Palatinate, Schleswig-Holstein, Thuringia in Germany were the only places in Europe where the communes had a smaller median area than in France; the communes of France's overseas départements such as Réunion and French Guiana are large by French standards. They group into the same commune several villages or towns with sizeable distances among them. In Réunion, demographic expansion and sprawling urbanization have resulted in the administrative splitting of some communes; the median population of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was 380 inhabitants. Again this is a small number, here France stands apart in Europe, with the lowest communes' median population of all the European countries; this small median population of French communes can be compared with Italy, where the median population of communes in 2001 was 2,343 inhabitants, Belgium, or Spain.
The median population given here should not hide the fact that there are pronounced differences in size between French communes. As mentioned in the introduction, a commune can be a city of 2 million inhabitants such as Paris, a town of 10,000 inhabitants, or just a hamlet of 10 inhabitants. What the median population tells us is that the vast majority of the French communes only have a few hundred inhabitants. In metropolitan France just over 50 percent of the 36,683 communes have fewer than 500 inhabitants a
Andeville is a commune in the Oise department in northern France. Communes of the Oise department INSEE South Africans buried in Andeville Communal Cemetery
Christianity is an Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth, as described in the New Testament. Its adherents, known as Christians, believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God and savior of all people, whose coming as the Messiah was prophesied in the Old Testament. Depending on the specific denomination of Christianity, practices may include baptism, prayer, confirmation, burial rites, marriage rites and the religious education of children. Most denominations hold regular group worship services. Christianity developed during the 1st century CE as a Jewish Christian sect of Second Temple Judaism, it soon attracted Gentile God-fearers, which lead to a departure from Jewish customs, the establishment of Christianity as an independent religion. During the first centuries of its existence Christianity spread throughout the Roman Empire, to Ethiopia and some parts of Asia. Constantine the Great decriminalized it via the Edict of Milan; the First Council of Nicaea established a uniform set of beliefs across the Roman Empire.
By 380, the Roman Empire designated Christianity as the state religion. The period of the first seven ecumenical councils is sometimes referred to as the Great Church, the united full communion of the Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, before their schisms. Oriental Orthodoxy split after the Council of Chalcedon over differences in Christology; the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church separated in the East–West Schism over the authority of the Pope. In 1521, Protestants split from the Catholic Church in the Protestant Reformation over Papal primacy, the nature of salvation, other ecclesiological and theological disputes. Following the Age of Discovery, Christianity was spread into the Americas, sub-Saharan Africa, the rest of the world via missionary work and colonization. There are 2.3 billion Christians in the world, or 31.4% of the global population. Today, the four largest branches of Christianity are the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church and Oriental Orthodoxy.
Christianity and Christian ethics have played a prominent role in the development of Western civilization around Europe during late antiquity and the Middle Ages. In the New Testament, the names by which the disciples were known among themselves were "brethren", "the faithful", "elect", "saints" and "believers". Early Jewish Christians referred to themselves as'The Way' coming from Isaiah 40:3, "prepare the way of the Lord." According to Acts 11:26, the term "Christian" was first used in reference to Jesus's disciples in the city of Antioch, meaning "followers of Christ," by the non-Jewish inhabitants of Antioch. The earliest recorded use of the term "Christianity" was by Ignatius of Antioch, in around 100 AD. While Christians worldwide share basic convcitions, there are differences of interpretations and opinions of the Bible and sacred traditions on which Christianity is based. Concise doctrinal statements or confessions of religious beliefs are known as creeds, they began as baptismal formulae and were expanded during the Christological controversies of the 4th and 5th centuries to become statements of faith.
The Apostles' Creed is the most accepted statement of the articles of Christian faith. It is used by a number of Christian denominations for both liturgical and catechetical purposes, most visibly by liturgical churches of Western Christian tradition, including the Latin Church of the Catholic Church, Lutheranism and Western Rite Orthodoxy, it is used by Presbyterians and Congregationalists. This particular creed was developed between the 9th centuries, its central doctrines are those of God the Creator. Each of the doctrines found in this creed can be traced to statements current in the apostolic period; the creed was used as a summary of Christian doctrine for baptismal candidates in the churches of Rome. Its main points include: Belief in God the Father, Jesus Christ as the Son of God, the Holy Spirit The death, descent into hell and ascension of Christ The holiness of the Church and the communion of saints Christ's second coming, the Day of Judgement and salvation of the faithful; the Nicene Creed was formulated in response to Arianism, at the Councils of Nicaea and Constantinople in 325 and 381 and ratified as the universal creed of Christendom by the First Council of Ephesus in 431.
The Chalcedonian Definition, or Creed of Chalcedon, developed at the Council of Chalcedon in 451, though rejected by the Oriental Orthodox churches, taught Christ "to be acknowledged in two natures, unchangeably, inseparably": one divine and one human, that both natures, while perfect in themselves, are also united into one person. The Athanasian Creed, received in the Western Church as having the same status as the Nicene and Chalcedonian, says: "We worship one God in Trinity, Trinity in Unity. Many evangelical Protestants reject creeds as definitive statements of faith while agreeing with some or all of the substance of the creeds. Most Baptists do not use creeds "in that they have not sought to establish binding
Fucecchio is a town and comune of the Metropolitan City of Florence in the Italian region of Tuscany. The main economical resources of the city are the leather industries, shoes industry and other manufacturing activities, although in the recent years their number has been decreasing because of a slight recession started; the medieval town of Fucecchio is mentioned in the opera Gianni Schicchi by Giacomo Puccini – one character, was once its podestà, some of the estates to be distributed are situated there. Collegiata di San Giovanni Battista. Abbey of San Salvatore, founded in 1001, it houses a painting by Jacopo Chimenti, derived from a similar one by Giorgio Vasari. Oratory of Madonna della Ferruzza. Palazzo Corsini. People born in Fucecchio include: Marco Bracci, volleyball player Luca Cecconi, football manager and former striker Enrico da Fucecchio, Bishop of Luni Manuela Falorni, best known as "la Venere bianca", pornographic actress Alessandro Lambruschini, long-distance runner Giuseppe Montanelli and politician Indro Montanelli and journalist Andrea Tafi, cyclist Official website Map of Fucecchio Contrada Massarella New Life Christian church in Fucecchio
Angy is a commune in the Oise department in northern France. Communes of the Oise department INSEE
Abancourt is a French commune in the Oise department in the Hauts-de-France region of northern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Abancourtoises. Abancourt is located some 40 km south-west of Amiens and some 20 km north-east of Forges-les-Eaux in the western extremity of the Oise department, on the border of the Seine-Maritime department. Access to the commune is by the D316 road from Aumale in the north passing through the commune and the village and continuing south to Blargies; the D8 goes south-west from the village to the border of Seine-Maritime where it becomes the D236 and continues south-west to Criquiers. The D7 goes south-west to Moliens; the D919 goes north-east from the village to Romescamps. Apart from the village there are the hamlets of La Montagne in the north and Hennicourt in the south. Except for a strip of forest in the west, the commune is farmland. A railway line passes through the east of the commune from north-east to south with Abancourt station in the south of the commune.
The station is an intermediate stop on the TER Hauts-de-France Amiens to Rouen route and the Le Tréport-Mers to Beauvais routeThe Bresle River flows north-west from Abancourt along the Formerie plateau into the English Channel at Le Tréport. This coastal river is around 68 to 72 kilometres long depending on which source is used and crosses the Oise and Seine-Maritime Departments; the area was mentioned as Abencourt in 1146, Abencurtis in 1148, Abencurt in 1150 and 1152, Habencourt in 1180, Abencourt in 1337, 1454, in the 16th century. One Jean and one Adrien d'Abancourt were alternately lords of Abancourt at the beginning of the 15th century. Ceramic tiles and amphoras from Abancourt's Roman period are displayed in the Beauvais museum; these were found near a hamlet on the mountain and it is assumed that there must have been a Roman camp or installation at one time. Fine red pottery and curved roof tiles nearly 50 centimetres across have been found. On Abancourt's ancient Roman road lies a linden tree 6 metres in circumference, the marker of a military border or a Celtic monument.
Abancourt appears as the same on the 1790 version. The village was renamed Abancourt-la-Montagne after the French Revolution. Between 1791 and 1823, the commune was reattached to Romescamps. In 1823 Abancourt was newly created. In 1867 the railway came to Abancourt with the construction of Abancourt Station on the Rouen to Amiens line, it was connected directly to Le Tréport and Paris in 1873–1875. In the First World War the main British supply ports of Le Havre and the inland port of Rouen had restricted hinterlands, it was necessary to find a location where the daily supplies, to maintain 1.3 million troops, could be marshalled and distributed. Abancourt, the junction of several key railway lines to the coast and the Somme, was chosen. Supply trains from Le Havre and Rouen disgorged their content into vast warehouses in the Abancourt complex along 3.2 kilometres of track. The warehouses contained enough non-perishable stores to last at least one month and dispatched twenty-two supply trains a day to the next distribution station.
Today there is no obvious trace of this vast complex of sidings. In the First World War, the British Army had a prison at Abancourt. In August 1916 a serious mutiny broke out in the prison, for which seven ring-leaders were prosecuted and at least two put to death on 29 October 1916: British Gunner Lewis, aged 30, shot at Rouen, New Zealand Private John Braithwaite, 35 years old, shot at the prison. See List: Abancourt is a member of the Community of communes of Picardie Vert, which comprises the communes of Formerie, Marseille-en-Beauvaisis, Songeons; the commune is part of "Greater Beauvaisis", one of the sixteen constituent departments of the "Region of Hauts-de-France". The commune participates in three inter-communal groups: The electrification SIVOM of Formerie; the water syndicate of Blargies. The inter-communal syndicate of school boards of Abancourt and Boutavent; the principal 2006 municipal budget allocated 298,000 euros to investment and 217,000 euros to services. In 2010, the poll tax collected by the commune was 3.40%, the property tax on developed properties was 22.29%, the property tax on vacant land was 21.71%, the business tax was 11.93%.
In 1999, 59.4% of the commune's residents were owners of their places of residence and 34.4% were tenants. Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 The Church of Notre Dame contains a statue Education of the Virgin is registered as a "historical object". Hennicourt Chapel: built by the Galopin-Mabille family in 1856 and restored in 2008; the commune has a primary school at Hennicourt. In 2008, the town had a bar/tobacconist, a bakery and a grocery store, located on the Main Street. At the railway station there is restaurant and a bar/tobacconist. A hall is available for hire. In the early 1960s, the singer Annie "Stone" Gautrat, who sang with Eric Charden, lived in a small house in Perny Street, near the railway station, with her parents during her childhood; the house is located at the corner of the street at the bridge. Stone still remembers the white portico, present at the time. Patrick Jakobows