Random-access memory is a form of computer data storage that stores data and machine code being used. A random-access memory device allows data items to be read or written in the same amount of time irrespective of the physical location of data inside the memory. In contrast, with other direct-access data storage media such as hard disks, CD-RWs, DVD-RWs and the older magnetic tapes and drum memory, the time required to read and write data items varies depending on their physical locations on the recording medium, due to mechanical limitations such as media rotation speeds and arm movement. RAM contains multiplexing and demultiplexing circuitry, to connect the data lines to the addressed storage for reading or writing the entry. More than one bit of storage is accessed by the same address, RAM devices have multiple data lines and are said to be "8-bit" or "16-bit", etc. devices. In today's technology, random-access memory takes the form of integrated circuits. RAM is associated with volatile types of memory, where stored information is lost if power is removed, although non-volatile RAM has been developed.
Other types of non-volatile memories exist that allow random access for read operations, but either do not allow write operations or have other kinds of limitations on them. These include most types of ROM and a type of flash memory called NOR-Flash. Integrated-circuit RAM chips came into the market in the early 1970s, with the first commercially available DRAM chip, the Intel 1103, introduced in October 1970. Early computers used relays, mechanical counters or delay lines for main memory functions. Ultrasonic delay lines could only reproduce data in the order. Drum memory could be expanded at low cost but efficient retrieval of memory items required knowledge of the physical layout of the drum to optimize speed. Latches built out of vacuum tube triodes, out of discrete transistors, were used for smaller and faster memories such as registers; such registers were large and too costly to use for large amounts of data. The first practical form of random-access memory was the Williams tube starting in 1947.
It stored data. Since the electron beam of the CRT could read and write the spots on the tube in any order, memory was random access; the capacity of the Williams tube was a few hundred to around a thousand bits, but it was much smaller and more power-efficient than using individual vacuum tube latches. Developed at the University of Manchester in England, the Williams tube provided the medium on which the first electronically stored program was implemented in the Manchester Baby computer, which first ran a program on 21 June 1948. In fact, rather than the Williams tube memory being designed for the Baby, the Baby was a testbed to demonstrate the reliability of the memory. Magnetic-core memory was developed up until the mid-1970s, it became a widespread form of random-access memory. By changing the sense of each ring's magnetization, data could be stored with one bit stored per ring. Since every ring had a combination of address wires to select and read or write it, access to any memory location in any sequence was possible.
Magnetic core memory was the standard form of memory system until displaced by solid-state memory in integrated circuits, starting in the early 1970s. Dynamic random-access memory allowed replacement of a 4 or 6-transistor latch circuit by a single transistor for each memory bit increasing memory density at the cost of volatility. Data was stored in the tiny capacitance of each transistor, had to be periodically refreshed every few milliseconds before the charge could leak away; the Toshiba Toscal BC-1411 electronic calculator, introduced in 1965, used a form of DRAM built from discrete components. DRAM was developed by Robert H. Dennard in 1968. Prior to the development of integrated read-only memory circuits, permanent random-access memory was constructed using diode matrices driven by address decoders, or specially wound core rope memory planes; the two used forms of modern RAM are static RAM and dynamic RAM. In SRAM, a bit of data is stored using the state of a six transistor memory cell.
This form of RAM is more expensive to produce, but is faster and requires less dynamic power than DRAM. In modern computers, SRAM is used as cache memory for the CPU. DRAM stores a bit of data using a transistor and capacitor pair, which together comprise a DRAM cell; the capacitor holds a high or low charge, the transistor acts as a switch that lets the control circuitry on the chip read the capacitor's state of charge or change it. As this form of memory is less expensive to produce than static RAM, it is the predominant form of computer memory used in modern computers. Both static and dynamic RAM are considered volatile, as their state is lost or reset when power is removed from the system. By contrast, read-only memory stores data by permanently enabling or disabling selected transistors, such that the memory cannot be altered. Writeable variants of ROM share properties of both ROM and RAM, enabling data to persist without power and to be updated without requiring special equipment; these persistent forms of semiconductor ROM include USB flash drives, memory cards for cameras and portable devices, solid-state drives.
ECC memory includes special circuitry to detect and/or correct random faults (mem
A camera phone is a mobile phone, able to capture photographs and record video using one or more built-in digital cameras. The first camera phone was sold in 2000 in Japan, a Sharp J-SH04 J-Phone model, although some argue that the SCH-V200 and Kyocera VP-210 Visual Phone, both introduced months earlier in South Korea and Japan are the first camera phones. Most camera phones are simpler than separate digital cameras, their usual fixed-focus lenses and smaller sensors limit their performance in poor lighting. Lacking a physical shutter, some have a long shutter lag. Photoflash is provided by an LED source which illuminates less intensely over a much longer exposure time than a bright and near-instantaneous flash strobe. Optical zoom and tripod screws are rare and none has a hot shoe for attaching an external flash; some lack a USB connection or a removable memory card. Most have Bluetooth and WiFi, can make geotagged photographs; some of the more expensive camera phones have only a few of these technical disadvantages, but with bigger image sensors, their capabilities approach those of low-end point-and-shoot cameras.
In the smartphone era, the steady sales increase of camera phones caused point-and-shoot camera sales to peak about 2010 and decline thereafter. Most model lines improve two. Most modern smartphones only have a menu choice to start a camera application program and an on-screen button to activate the shutter; some have a separate camera button, for quickness and convenience. A few camera phones are designed to resemble separate low-end digital compact cameras in appearance and to some degree in features and picture quality, are branded as both mobile phones and cameras; the principal advantages of camera phones are cost and compactness. Smartphones that are camera phones may run mobile applications to add capabilities such as geotagging and image stitching. Smartphones can use their touch screens to direct their camera to focus on a particular object in the field of view, giving an inexperienced user a degree of focus control exceeded only by seasoned photographers using manual focus. However, the touch screen, being a general purpose control, lacks the agility of a separate camera's dedicated buttons and dial.
Nearly all camera phones use CMOS image sensors, due to reduced power consumption compared to CCD type cameras, which are used, but in few camera phones. Some of camera phones use more expensive Backside Illuminated CMOS which uses less energy than CMOS, although more expensive than CMOS and CCD; as camera phone technology has progressed over the years, the lens design has evolved from a simple double Gauss or Cooke triplet to many molded plastic aspheric lens elements made with varying dispersion and refractive indexes. The latest generation of phone cameras apply distortion and various optical aberration corrections to the image before it is compressed into a.jpeg format.' Most camera phones have a digital zoom feature. A few have optical zoom. An external camera can be added, coupled wirelessly to the phone by Wi-Fi, they are compatible with most smartphones. Images are saved in the JPEG file format, except for some high-end camera phones which have RAW feature and the Android 5.0 Lollipop has facility of it.
Windows Phones can be configured to operate as a camera if the phone is asleep. An external flash can be employed. Phones store pictures and video in a directory called /DCIM in the internal memory; some can store this media in external memory. Camera phones can share pictures instantly and automatically via a sharing infrastructure integrated with the carrier network. Early developers including Philippe Kahn envisioned a technology that would enable service providers to "collect a fee every time anyone snaps a photo"; the resulting technologies, Multimedia Messaging Service and Sha-Mail, were developed parallel to and in competition to open Internet-based mobile communication provided by GPRS and 3G networks. The first commercial camera phone complete with infrastructure was the J-SH04, made by Sharp Corporation; the first commercial deployment in North America of camera phones was in 2004. The Sprint wireless carriers deployed over one million camera phones manufactured by Sanyo and launched by the PictureMail infrastructure developed and managed by LightSurf.
While early phones had Internet connectivity, working web browsers and email-programs, the phone menu offered no way of including a photo in an email or uploading it to a web site. Connecting cables or removable media that would enable the local transfer of pictures were usually missing. Modern smartphones have unlimited connectivity and transfer options with photograph attachment features. During 2003, in Europe some phones without cameras had support for MMS and external cameras that could be connected with a small cable or directly to the data port at the base of the phone; the external cameras were comparable in quality to those fitted on regular camera phones at the time offering VGA resolution. One of these examples was the Nokia Fun Camera announced together with the Nokia 3100 in June 2003; the idea was for it to be used on devices without a built-in camera and be able to tr
Nokia 6220 Classic
Nokia 6220 classic is a Symbian OS smartphone announced by Nokia on 11 February 2008. It is notable for featuring a Xenon flash for its 5-megapixel camera, similar to the Nokia N82 and considered as a "budget" version of the N82. Despite its compact size, it offers features comparable the Nseries lineup, although lacks Wi-Fi or a 3.5 mm audio jack to cut costs. HSDPA-3.6M/10.2M/ WCDMA-900/2100 / DTM EGPRS-850/900/1800/1900 Class 11A/32B GPS navigation with Assisted GPS Symbian OS 9.3 with the S60 interface 3rd Edition. Secondary frontal camera for video phone calls. 2.5 mm headjack for supplied headset. Micro USB connector. Bluetooth version 2.0 with A2DP profile. MicroSD SDHC card slot. Stereo FM radio with support for Visual Radio and RDS. Audio player supporting MP3, M4A, eAAC+, RealAudio 7,8,10, WMA formats. 5.0-megapixel camera with autofocus, Carl Zeiss lens and Xenon flash. Video recording-VGA 640×480 @ 30 fps. H.264/MPEG-4 AVC, H.263, RealVideo 7,8,9/10 support. Java MIDP 2.1 Nokia SU-33W Media related to Nokia 6220 classic at Wikimedia Commons Nokia Device Details Video review of Nokia 6220 Classic
Global Positioning System
The Global Positioning System Navstar GPS, is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States Air Force. It is a global navigation satellite system that provides geolocation and time information to a GPS receiver anywhere on or near the Earth where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites. Obstacles such as mountains and buildings block the weak GPS signals; the GPS does not require the user to transmit any data, it operates independently of any telephonic or internet reception, though these technologies can enhance the usefulness of the GPS positioning information. The GPS provides critical positioning capabilities to military and commercial users around the world; the United States government created the system, maintains it, makes it accessible to anyone with a GPS receiver. The GPS project was launched by the U. S. Department of Defense in 1973 for use by the United States military and became operational in 1995.
It was allowed for civilian use in the 1980s. Advances in technology and new demands on the existing system have now led to efforts to modernize the GPS and implement the next generation of GPS Block IIIA satellites and Next Generation Operational Control System. Announcements from Vice President Al Gore and the White House in 1998 initiated these changes. In 2000, the U. S. Congress authorized the modernization effort, GPS III. During the 1990s, GPS quality was degraded by the United States government in a program called "Selective Availability"; the GPS system is provided by the United States government, which can selectively deny access to the system, as happened to the Indian military in 1999 during the Kargil War, or degrade the service at any time. As a result, several countries have developed or are in the process of setting up other global or regional satellite navigation systems; the Russian Global Navigation Satellite System was developed contemporaneously with GPS, but suffered from incomplete coverage of the globe until the mid-2000s.
GLONASS can be added to GPS devices, making more satellites available and enabling positions to be fixed more and to within two meters. China's BeiDou Navigation Satellite System is due to achieve global reach in 2020. There are the European Union Galileo positioning system, India's NAVIC. Japan's Quasi-Zenith Satellite System is a GPS satellite-based augmentation system to enhance GPS's accuracy; when selective availability was lifted in 2000, GPS had about a five-meter accuracy. The latest stage of accuracy enhancement uses the L5 band and is now deployed. GPS receivers released in 2018 that use the L5 band can have much higher accuracy, pinpointing to within 30 centimetres or 11.8 inches. The GPS project was launched in the United States in 1973 to overcome the limitations of previous navigation systems, integrating ideas from several predecessors, including classified engineering design studies from the 1960s; the U. S. Department of Defense developed the system, which used 24 satellites, it was developed for use by the United States military and became operational in 1995.
Civilian use was allowed from the 1980s. Roger L. Easton of the Naval Research Laboratory, Ivan A. Getting of The Aerospace Corporation, Bradford Parkinson of the Applied Physics Laboratory are credited with inventing it; the work of Gladys West is credited as instrumental in the development of computational techniques for detecting satellite positions with the precision needed for GPS. The design of GPS is based on similar ground-based radio-navigation systems, such as LORAN and the Decca Navigator, developed in the early 1940s. Friedwardt Winterberg proposed a test of general relativity – detecting time slowing in a strong gravitational field using accurate atomic clocks placed in orbit inside artificial satellites. Special and general relativity predict that the clocks on the GPS satellites would be seen by the Earth's observers to run 38 microseconds faster per day than the clocks on the Earth; the GPS calculated positions would drift into error, accumulating to 10 kilometers per day. This was corrected for in the design of GPS.
Winterberg, Friedwardt. “Relativistische Zeitdilatation eines künstlichen Satelliten ” When the Soviet Union launched the first artificial satellite in 1957, two American physicists, William Guier and George Weiffenbach, at Johns Hopkins University's Applied Physics Laboratory decided to monitor its radio transmissions. Within hours they realized that, because of the Doppler effect, they could pinpoint where the satellite was along its orbit; the Director of the APL gave them access to their UNIVAC to do the heavy calculations required. Early the next year, Frank McClure, the deputy director of the APL, asked Guier and Weiffenbach to investigate the inverse problem—pinpointing the user's location, given that of the satellite; this led them and APL to develop the TRANSIT system. In 1959, ARPA played a role in TRANSIT. TRANSIT was first tested in 1960, it used a constellation of five satellites and could provide a navigational fix once per hour. In 1967, the U. S. Navy developed the Timation satellite, which proved the feasibility of placing accurate clocks in space, a technology required for GPS.
In the 1970s, the ground-based OMEGA navigation system, based on phase comparison of signal transmission from pairs of stations
Form factor (mobile phones)
The form factor of a mobile phone is its size and style, as well as the layout and position of its major components. A bar phone takes the shape of a cuboid with rounded corners and/or edges; the name is derived from the rough resemblance to a chocolate bar in shape. This form factor is used by a variety of manufacturers, such as Nokia and Sony Ericsson. Bar-type smartphones have the screen and keypad on a single face. Sony had a well-known'Mars Bar' phone model CM-H333 in 1993; these are variants of bars. While they are technically the same as a regular bar phone, the keyboard and all the buttons make them look different. Devices like these lost popularity afterwards; the BlackBerry line from Research In Motion was popular and influential in this category. "Brick" is a slang term always used to refer to large, outdated rectangular phones early devices with large batteries and electronics. Such early phones, such as the Motorola DynaTAC, have been displaced by newer smaller models which offer greater portability thanks to smaller antennas and slimmer battery packs.
However, "brick" has more been applied to older phone models in general, including non-bar form factors, early touchscreen phones as well, due to their size and relative lack of functionality compared to current models on the market. The term "brick" has expanded beyond smartphones to include most non-working consumer electronics, including a game console, router, or other device, due to a serious misconfiguration, corrupted firmware, or a hardware problem, can no longer function, hence, is as technologically useful as a brick; the term derives from the vaguely cuboid shape of many electronic devices and the suggestion that the device can function only as a lifeless, square object, paperweight or doorstop. This term is used as a verb. For example, "I bricked my MP3 player when I tried to modify its firmware." It can be used as a noun, for example, "If it's corrupted and you apply using fastboot, your device is a brick." In the common usage of the term, "bricking" suggests that the damage is so serious as to have rendered the device permanently unusable.
A slate or slade is a smartphone form with few to no physical buttons, instead relying upon a touchscreen and an onscreen keyboard. The first commercially available touchscreen phone was a brick phone, the IBM Simon Personal Communicator, released in 1994; the iPhone, released in 2007, is responsible for the influence and achievement of this design as it is conceived. Some unusual "slate" designs include that of LG New Chocolate, or the Samsung Galaxy Round, curved; the phablet or smartlet is a subset of the slate/touchscreen. A portmanteau of the words phone and tablet, phablets are a class of mobile device designed to combine or straddle the size of a slate smartphone together with a tablet. Phablets have screens that measure between 5.3 and 6.7 inches, are larger than most high-end slate smartphones of the time, which have to be 5.2 inches or less to be known as a smartphone, though smaller than tablets. The multi-screen is of the slate form factor, but with two touchscreens; some have a small separate screen above the main screens, the LG V10 and LG V20.
Other multi-screen form factors has screens on both sides of the phone. In the case of Yotaphone and Siam 7X, they have normal touchscreens on the front, but on the backside is an e-ink screen, which enables using the cases in a fashion similar to reading a book; the presence of the front camera for taking selfies has been an essential feature in smartphones, however, it is a difficulty to achieve a bezelless screen as is the trend in the 2010s. The Nubia X and Vivo NEX Dual Display have solved this combining the use of the main camera and a smaller second rear screen, eliminating the front camera; the taco form factor was popularized by the Nokia N-Gage, released in 2003. It was known as the plastic taco for its taco-shape and the placement of microphones on the side of the device, when one talks into the microphone, gives the appearance of eating a taco. Other models include Nokia 3300 and Nokia 5510. A smartphone in the form of a wristwatch is referred to as a watch phone. A flip or clamshell phone consists of two or more sections that are connected by hinges, allowing the phone to flip open fold closed in order to become more compact.
When flipped open, the phone's screen and keyboard are available. When flipped shut, the phone becomes more portable than when it is opened for use. Motorola was once owner of a trademark for the term flip phone, but the term flip phone has become genericized and used more than clamshell in colloquial speech. Motorola was the manufacturer of the famed StarTAC flip phone in the 1990s, as well as the RAZR in the mid-2000s. There were flip "down" phones, like the Motorola MicroTAC series and was widely used by Ericsson. In 2010, Motorola introduced a different kind of flip phone with its Backflip smartphone; when closed, one side is the screen and the other is a physical QWERTY keyboard. The hinge is on a long edge of the phone instead of a short edge, when flipped out the screen is above the keyboard. Another unusual flip form was seen on the luxury Serene, a partnership between Samsung and Bang & Olufsen. Clamshell came to be use
An accelerometer is a device that measures proper acceleration. Proper acceleration, being the acceleration of a body in its own instantaneous rest frame, is not the same as coordinate acceleration, being the acceleration in a fixed coordinate system. For example, an accelerometer at rest on the surface of the Earth will measure an acceleration due to Earth's gravity, straight upwards of g ≈ 9.81 m/s2. By contrast, accelerometers in free fall will measure zero. Accelerometers have multiple applications in science. Sensitive accelerometers are components of inertial navigation systems for aircraft and missiles. Accelerometers are used to monitor vibration in rotating machinery. Accelerometers are used in tablet computers and digital cameras so that images on screens are always displayed upright. Accelerometers are used in drones for flight stabilisation. Coordinated accelerometers can be used to measure differences in proper acceleration gravity, over their separation in space; this gravity gradiometry is useful because absolute gravity is a weak effect and depends on local density of the Earth, quite variable.
Single- and multi-axis models of accelerometer are available to detect magnitude and direction of the proper acceleration, as a vector quantity, can be used to sense orientation, coordinate acceleration, vibration and falling in a resistive medium. Micromachined microelectromechanical systems accelerometers are present in portable electronic devices and video game controllers, to detect the position of the device or provide for game input. An accelerometer measures proper acceleration, the acceleration it experiences relative to freefall and is the acceleration felt by people and objects. Put another way, at any point in spacetime the equivalence principle guarantees the existence of a local inertial frame, an accelerometer measures the acceleration relative to that frame; such accelerations are popularly denoted g-force. An accelerometer at rest relative to the Earth's surface will indicate 1 g upwards, because any point on the Earth's surface is accelerating upwards relative to the local inertial frame.
To obtain the acceleration due to motion with respect to the Earth, this "gravity offset" must be subtracted and corrections made for effects caused by the Earth's rotation relative to the inertial frame. The reason for the appearance of a gravitational offset is Einstein's equivalence principle, which states that the effects of gravity on an object are indistinguishable from acceleration; when held fixed in a gravitational field by, for example, applying a ground reaction force or an equivalent upward thrust, the reference frame for an accelerometer accelerates upwards with respect to a free-falling reference frame. The effects of this acceleration are indistinguishable from any other acceleration experienced by the instrument, so that an accelerometer cannot detect the difference between sitting in a rocket on the launch pad, being in the same rocket in deep space while it uses its engines to accelerate at 1 g. For similar reasons, an accelerometer will read zero during any type of free fall.
This includes use in a coasting spaceship in deep space far from any mass, a spaceship orbiting the Earth, an airplane in a parabolic "zero-g" arc, or any free-fall in vacuum. Another example is free-fall at a sufficiently high altitude that atmospheric effects can be neglected; however this does not include a fall in which air resistance produces drag forces that reduce the acceleration, until constant terminal velocity is reached. At terminal velocity the accelerometer will indicate 1 g acceleration upwards. For the same reason a skydiver, upon reaching terminal velocity, does not feel as though he or she were in "free-fall", but rather experiences a feeling similar to being supported on a "bed" of uprushing air. Acceleration is quantified in the SI unit metres per second per second, in the cgs unit gal, or popularly in terms of standard gravity. For the practical purpose of finding the acceleration of objects with respect to the Earth, such as for use in an inertial navigation system, a knowledge of local gravity is required.
This can be obtained either by calibrating the device at rest, or from a known model of gravity at the approximate current position. Conceptually, an accelerometer behaves as a damped mass on a spring; when the accelerometer experiences an acceleration, the mass is displaced to the point that the spring is able to accelerate the mass at the same rate as the casing. The displacement is measured to give the acceleration. In commercial devices, piezoelectric and capacitive components are used to convert the mechanical motion into an electrical signal. Piezoelectric accelerometers rely on single crystals, they are unmatched in terms of their upper frequency range, low packaged weight and high temperature range. Piezoresistive accelerometers are preferred in high shock applications. Capacitive accelerometers use a silicon micro-machined sensing element, their performance is superior in the low frequency range and they can be operated in servo mode to achieve high stability and linearity. Modern accelerometers are small micro electro-mechanical systems, are indeed the simplest MEMS devices possible
Nokia 1616 is an affordable ultrabasic GSM mobile phone from Nokia announced on 4 November 2009 and released in 2010 for developing countries and budget users for a suggested price of €24 before taxes and excluding subsidies. The device's main non-phone features are flashlight at the top of the device, an FM radio; the radio requires a headset or headphones in lieu of an antenna to function, can work in the background, thereby providing access to other phone tasks without having to turn it off. The device has a color display with scratch-proof display glass, a dust-proof keypad, comes in Black, Dark Gray, Dark Blue, Dark Red colors. In addition to the phone, the battery, the Nokia AC-3 compact charger, the original packaging includes a Nokia WH-102 stereo headset; the Series 30-based handset has support for multiple phonebooks, its memory can hold up to 500 contacts in addition to the amount offered in a SIM card. Each contact can be assigned three telephone numbers. SMS storage is up to 250 messages.
Other functions include a speaking clock combined with an alarm clock, reminder, basic calculator, converter and stopper, a spreadsheet-like expenses ledger for budgeting. Models for emerging markets included the SMS-based Nokia Life Tools subscription information service, which utilized services, such as: Nokia Life Tools Agriculture, Nokia Life Tools Education, Nokia Life Tools Entertainment. Nokia 1616 with Nokia Life Tools was presented on January 8, 2010 by then-CEO of Nokia Olli-Pekka Kallasvuo at his CES 2010 keynote in Las Vegas, Nevada. Damien McFerran at CNET UK praised the phone for its dustproof keypad, FM radio, flashlight. Special mention was given to good battery life, a standard 3.5mm headphone jack, inclusion of headphones in the packaging, which McFerran pointed out is something that other manufacturers' budget phones packaging did not include. In a May 2010 guest opinion published in the German t3n magazine, Swiss IT author Roman Hanhart weighed the pros and cons of having a smartphone and a basic phone.
Hanhart compared the dismal battery life of his SIM-locked 800-franc HTC Dream and the need to be on-demand online — versus the two weeks' battery life using his Nokia 1616 that he ordered for a total of 44 francs from a webshop, his sense of liberty with a basic phone, wherein he could attain the level of reachability he wanted without having to worry about his phone collecting information on him. In a July 2010 comparative review of budget phones published in the Russian weekly Argumenty i Fakty and penned by Viktor Zaykovskiy, Nokia 1616 got the top spot, as offering the best price-to-feature ratio. Zaykovskiy pointed out the presence of a colour display in a budget phone, quick UI responsiveness, the rubber keypad, good battery life, the flashlight, he praised the FM radio's excellent reception, sound quality and volume, that the radio can work as a background task, thus enabling people to use other phone functions while listening to music. Zaykovskiy concluded that this was "one the best phones one can buy for 1350 roubles."
For the year 2010 in Estonia, Nokia 1616 was the 10th most popular phone for Tele2, made the list of top four most-sold Nokia phones at Elisa, with Nokia phones making the most overall sales for Elisa. It was sold in Elisa with a prepaid SIM card for 19.17 euros. As of early June 2011, Nokia 1616 was the 4th most popular SIM-free phone in Austria, according to data by electronics retailer Saturn. In Russia, Nokia 1616 was rated the 4th most popular non-smartphone by sales for the month of February 2011 according to data by Russian electronics retailer Eldorado and CNews.ru, was the 4th most popular phone in the Tele2 Rossiya network as of late July 2013. In 2014, Nokia 1616 made the #2 position in the list of most popular entry-level non-data mobile phones in South Africa in terms of usage share, based on statistics from Vodacom, a major operator in the region. Known submodels are 1616-2, 1616-2c; the device was manufactured in India. "Nokia 1616 Overview". Nokia. 2012. Archived from the original on April 19, 2012.
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