The Nokia 1208 is a low-end GSM mobile phone sold by the Finnish company Nokia under their Ultrabasic series. The phone was announced in May 2007, it is similar to Nokia 1200, the difference being the color display. The phone sold 100 million units, making it one of the most successful phones to date, along with Nokia 1200, which sold 150 million units; the Nokia 1208 has a CSTN display with 65,000 colours, is 29 x 23 millimeters. The resolution is 96 x 68 pixels, it had two models: the colour display and the LCD model
The Nokia 1110 and Nokia 1110i are low-end GSM mobile phones sold by Nokia. The 1110 was released in 2005. Both are aimed at first-time mobile phone users. In Nokia's view, the 1110i has the advantage of reliability and a low price; these phones are similar to the Nokia 1100. Between January and May 2007, the 1110 was sold by Nokia as their basic low-end monochrome model, before being superseded by the Nokia 1200. One of its key markets is that of developing countries; the Nokia 1110 is the highest sold mobile device of all time. The Nokia 1110 has an inverted black and white display with amber backlight, while the 1110i has a regular or non-inverted black and white display, it allows Call Barring. It has a speaking alarm and clock, analog clock display, call management timers and counters, it comes with three built-in games. It supports picture messaging to send a picture greeting. List of best-selling mobile phones Manufacturer link
GSM is a standard developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute to describe the protocols for second-generation digital cellular networks used by mobile devices such as mobile phones and tablets. It was first deployed in Finland in December 1991; as of 2014, it has become the global standard for mobile communications – with over 90% market share, operating in over 193 countries and territories.2G networks developed as a replacement for first generation analog cellular networks, the GSM standard described a digital, circuit-switched network optimized for full duplex voice telephony. This expanded over time to include data communications, first by circuit-switched transport by packet data transport via GPRS and EDGE. Subsequently, the 3GPP developed third-generation UMTS standards, followed by fourth-generation LTE Advanced standards, which do not form part of the ETSI GSM standard. "GSM" is a trademark owned by the GSM Association. It may refer to the most common voice codec used, Full Rate.
In 1983, work began to develop a European standard for digital cellular voice telecommunications when the European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations set up the Groupe Spécial Mobile committee and provided a permanent technical-support group based in Paris. Five years in 1987, 15 representatives from 13 European countries signed a memorandum of understanding in Copenhagen to develop and deploy a common cellular telephone system across Europe, EU rules were passed to make GSM a mandatory standard; the decision to develop a continental standard resulted in a unified, standard-based network, larger than that in the United States. In February 1987 Europe produced the first agreed GSM Technical Specification. Ministers from the four big EU countries cemented their political support for GSM with the Bonn Declaration on Global Information Networks in May and the GSM MoU was tabled for signature in September; the MoU drew in mobile operators from across Europe to pledge to invest in new GSM networks to an ambitious common date.
In this short 38-week period the whole of Europe had been brought behind GSM in a rare unity and speed guided by four public officials: Armin Silberhorn, Stephen Temple, Philippe Dupuis, Renzo Failli. In 1989 the Groupe Spécial Mobile committee was transferred from CEPT to the European Telecommunications Standards Institute. In parallel France and Germany signed a joint development agreement in 1984 and were joined by Italy and the UK in 1986. In 1986, the European Commission proposed reserving the 900 MHz spectrum band for GSM; the former Finnish prime minister Harri Holkeri made the world's first GSM call on July 1, 1991, calling Kaarina Suonio using a network built by Telenokia and Siemens and operated by Radiolinja. The following year saw the sending of the first short messaging service message, Vodafone UK and Telecom Finland signed the first international roaming agreement. Work began in 1991 to expand the GSM standard to the 1800 MHz frequency band and the first 1800 MHz network became operational in the UK by 1993, called and DCS 1800.
That year, Telecom Australia became the first network operator to deploy a GSM network outside Europe and the first practical hand-held GSM mobile phone became available. In 1995 fax, data and SMS messaging services were launched commercially, the first 1900 MHz GSM network became operational in the United States and GSM subscribers worldwide exceeded 10 million. In the same year, the GSM Association formed. Pre-paid GSM SIM cards were launched in 1996 and worldwide GSM subscribers passed 100 million in 1998. In 2000 the first commercial GPRS services were launched and the first GPRS-compatible handsets became available for sale. In 2001, the first UMTS network was launched, a 3G technology, not part of GSM. Worldwide GSM subscribers exceeded 500 million. In 2002, the first Multimedia Messaging Service was introduced and the first GSM network in the 800 MHz frequency band became operational. EDGE services first became operational in a network in 2003, the number of worldwide GSM subscribers exceeded 1 billion in 2004.
By 2005 GSM networks accounted for more than 75% of the worldwide cellular network market, serving 1.5 billion subscribers. In 2005, the first HSDPA-capable network became operational; the first HSUPA network launched in 2007. Worldwide GSM subscribers exceeded three billion in 2008; the GSM Association estimated in 2010 that technologies defined in the GSM standard served 80% of the mobile market, encompassing more than 5 billion people across more than 212 countries and territories, making GSM the most ubiquitous of the many standards for cellular networks. GSM is a second-generation standard employing time-division multiple-Access spectrum-sharing, issued by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute; the GSM standard does not include the 3G Universal Mobile Telecommunications System code division multiple access technology nor the 4G LTE orthogonal frequency-division multiple access technology standards issued by the 3GPP. GSM, for the first time, set a common standard for Europe for wireless networks.
It was adopted by many countries outside Europe. This allowed subscribers to use other GSM networks; the common standard reduced research and development costs, since ha
Mobile operating system
A mobile operating system is an operating system for phones, smartwatches, or other mobile devices. While computers such as typical laptops are'mobile', the operating systems used on them are not considered mobile ones, as they were designed for desktop computers that did not have or need specific mobile features; this distinction is becoming blurred in some newer operating systems that are hybrids made for both uses. Mobile operating systems combine features of a personal computer operating system with other features useful for mobile or handheld use. By Q1 2018, over 383 million smartphones were sold with 86.2 percent running Android and 12.9 percent running iOS. Android alone is more popular than the popular desktop operating system Windows, in general smartphone use outnumber desktop use. Mobile devices with mobile communications abilities contain two mobile operating systems – the main user-facing software platform is supplemented by a second low-level proprietary real-time operating system which operates the radio and other hardware.
Research has shown that these low-level systems may contain a range of security vulnerabilities permitting malicious base stations to gain high levels of control over the mobile device. Mobile operating systems have majority use since 2017, thus traditional desktop OS is now a minority used kind of OS. However, variations occur in popularity by regions, while desktop-minority applies on some days in regions such as United States and United Kingdom. 9294029091 Mobile operating system milestones mirror the development of mobile phones and smartphones: 1973–1993 – Mobile phones use embedded systems to control operation. 1993 – Apple launch Newton OS running on their Newton series of portable computers. 1994 – The first smartphone, the IBM Simon, has a touchscreen, PDA features. 1996 – Palm Pilot 1000 personal digital assistant is introduced with the Palm OS mobile operating system. 1998 – Symbian Ltd. has developed Symbian OS. Symbian was used by many major mobile phone brands, above all by Nokia.
1999 – Nokia S40 Platform is introduced along with the Nokia 7110. 2000 – Symbian becomes the first modern mobile OS on a smartphone with the launch of the Ericsson R380. 2001 – The Kyocera 6035 is the first smartphone with Palm OS. 2002 Microsoft's first Windows CE smartphones are introduced. BlackBerry releases its first smartphone. 2005 – Nokia introduces Maemo OS on the first Internet tablet N770. 2007 Apple iPhone with iOS is introduced as an iPod, "mobile phone" and "Internet communicator". Open Handset Alliance formed by Google, HTC, Dell, Motorola, Samsung, LG, etc. 2008 – OHA releases Android 1.0 with the HTC Dream as the first Android phone. 2009 Palm introduces webOS with the Palm Pre. By 2012, webOS devices were discontinued. Samsung announces the Bada OS with the introduction of the Samsung S8500. November – Windows Phone OS phones are released but are not compatible with the prior Windows Mobile OS. July – MeeGo, a mobile Linux distribution, combining Maemo and Moblin, is introduced with the Nokia N9, a collaboration of Nokia and Linux Foundation.
September Apple releases iOS 9. Google releases Android 6.0 "Marshmallow". October – On October 26, BlackBerry announced that there are no plans to release new APIs and software development kits for BlackBerry 10, future updates would focus on security and privacy enhancements only. November – Microsoft releases Windows 10 Mobile. February – Microsoft released Windows 10 Mobile Anniversary Update. June – Apple announced iOS 10. August – Google posted the Fuchsia source code on GitHub. August – Google released Android 7.0 "Nougat". September – Apple released iOS 10. November – Tizen released Tizen 3.0. November – BlackBerry released BlackBerry 10.3.3. April – Samsung offic
Thin-film-transistor liquid-crystal display
A thin-film-transistor liquid-crystal display is a variant of a liquid-crystal display that uses thin-film-transistor technology to improve image qualities such as addressability and contrast. A TFT LCD is an active matrix LCD, in contrast to passive matrix LCDs or simple, direct-driven LCDs with a few segments. TFT LCDs are used in appliances including television sets, computer monitors, mobile phones, handheld devices, video game systems, personal digital assistants, navigation systems and car instrument clusters; the liquid crystal displays used in calculators and other devices with simple displays have direct-driven image elements, therefore a voltage can be applied across just one segment of these types of displays without interfering with the other segments. This would be impractical for a large display, because it would have a large number of picture elements, thus it would require millions of connections, both top and bottom for each one of the three colors of every pixel. To avoid this issue, the pixels are addressed in rows and columns, reducing the connection count from millions down to thousands.
The column and row wires attach to one for each pixel. The one-way current passing characteristic of the transistor prevents the charge, being applied to each pixel from being drained between refreshes to a display's image; each pixel is a small capacitor with a layer of insulating liquid crystal sandwiched between transparent conductive ITO layers. The circuit layout process of a TFT-LCD is similar to that of semiconductor products. However, rather than fabricating the transistors from silicon, formed into a crystalline silicon wafer, they are made from a thin film of amorphous silicon, deposited on a glass panel; the silicon layer for TFT-LCDs is deposited using the PECVD process. Transistors take up only a small fraction of the area of each pixel and the rest of the silicon film is etched away to allow light to pass through it. Polycrystalline silicon is sometimes used in displays requiring higher TFT performance. Examples include small high-resolution displays such as those found in viewfinders.
Amorphous silicon-based TFTs are by far the most common, due to their lower production cost, whereas polycrystalline silicon TFTs are more costly and much more difficult to produce. The inexpensive twisted nematic display is the most common consumer display type; the pixel response time on modern TN panels is sufficiently fast to avoid the shadow-trail and ghosting artifacts of earlier production. The more recent use of RTC technologies has allowed manufacturers to reduce grey-to-grey transitions, without increasing the ISO response time. Response times are now quoted in G2G figures, with 4ms and 2ms now being commonplace for TN-based models. TN displays suffer from limited viewing angles in the vertical direction. Colors will shift. In the vertical direction, colors will shift so much. Most TN panels represent colors using only six bits per RGB color, or 18 bit in total, are unable to display the 16.7 million color shades that are available from graphics cards. Instead, these panels display interpolated 24-bit color using a dithering method that combines adjacent pixels to simulate the desired shade.
They can use a form of temporal dithering called Frame Rate Control, which cycles between different shades with each new frame to simulate an intermediate shade. Such 18 bit panels with dithering are sometimes advertised as having "16.2 million colors". These color simulation methods are noticeable to many people and bothersome to some. FRC tends to be most noticeable in darker tones, while dithering appears to make the individual pixels of the LCD visible. Overall, color reproduction and linearity on TN panels is poor. Shortcomings in display color gamut are due to backlighting technology, it is not uncommon for displays with simple LED or CCFL-based lighting to range from 10% to 26% of the NTSC color gamut, whereas other kind of displays, utilizing more complicated CCFL or LED phosphor formulations or RGB LED backlights, may extend past 100% of the NTSC color gamut, a difference quite perceivable by the human eye. The transmittance of a pixel of an LCD panel does not change linearly with the applied voltage, the sRGB standard for computer monitors requires a specific nonlinear dependence of the amount of emitted light as a function of the RGB value.
In-plane switching was developed by Hitachi Ltd. in 1996 to improve on the poor viewing angle and the poor color reproduction of TN panels at that time. Its name comes from the main difference from TN panels, that the crystal molecules move parallel to the panel plane instead of perpendicular to it; this change reduces the amount of light scattering in the matrix, which gives IPS its characteristic wide viewing angles and good color reproduction. Initial iterations of IPS technology were characterised by slow response time and a low contrast ratio but revisions have made marked improvements to these shortcomings; because of its wide viewing angle and accurate color reproduction, IPS is employed in high-end monitors aimed at professional graphic artists, although with the recent fall in price it has been seen in the mainstream market as well. IPS technology was sold to Panasonic by Hitachi
A camera phone is a mobile phone, able to capture photographs and record video using one or more built-in digital cameras. The first camera phone was sold in 2000 in Japan, a Sharp J-SH04 J-Phone model, although some argue that the SCH-V200 and Kyocera VP-210 Visual Phone, both introduced months earlier in South Korea and Japan are the first camera phones. Most camera phones are simpler than separate digital cameras, their usual fixed-focus lenses and smaller sensors limit their performance in poor lighting. Lacking a physical shutter, some have a long shutter lag. Photoflash is provided by an LED source which illuminates less intensely over a much longer exposure time than a bright and near-instantaneous flash strobe. Optical zoom and tripod screws are rare and none has a hot shoe for attaching an external flash; some lack a USB connection or a removable memory card. Most have Bluetooth and WiFi, can make geotagged photographs; some of the more expensive camera phones have only a few of these technical disadvantages, but with bigger image sensors, their capabilities approach those of low-end point-and-shoot cameras.
In the smartphone era, the steady sales increase of camera phones caused point-and-shoot camera sales to peak about 2010 and decline thereafter. Most model lines improve two. Most modern smartphones only have a menu choice to start a camera application program and an on-screen button to activate the shutter; some have a separate camera button, for quickness and convenience. A few camera phones are designed to resemble separate low-end digital compact cameras in appearance and to some degree in features and picture quality, are branded as both mobile phones and cameras; the principal advantages of camera phones are cost and compactness. Smartphones that are camera phones may run mobile applications to add capabilities such as geotagging and image stitching. Smartphones can use their touch screens to direct their camera to focus on a particular object in the field of view, giving an inexperienced user a degree of focus control exceeded only by seasoned photographers using manual focus. However, the touch screen, being a general purpose control, lacks the agility of a separate camera's dedicated buttons and dial.
Nearly all camera phones use CMOS image sensors, due to reduced power consumption compared to CCD type cameras, which are used, but in few camera phones. Some of camera phones use more expensive Backside Illuminated CMOS which uses less energy than CMOS, although more expensive than CMOS and CCD; as camera phone technology has progressed over the years, the lens design has evolved from a simple double Gauss or Cooke triplet to many molded plastic aspheric lens elements made with varying dispersion and refractive indexes. The latest generation of phone cameras apply distortion and various optical aberration corrections to the image before it is compressed into a.jpeg format.' Most camera phones have a digital zoom feature. A few have optical zoom. An external camera can be added, coupled wirelessly to the phone by Wi-Fi, they are compatible with most smartphones. Images are saved in the JPEG file format, except for some high-end camera phones which have RAW feature and the Android 5.0 Lollipop has facility of it.
Windows Phones can be configured to operate as a camera if the phone is asleep. An external flash can be employed. Phones store pictures and video in a directory called /DCIM in the internal memory; some can store this media in external memory. Camera phones can share pictures instantly and automatically via a sharing infrastructure integrated with the carrier network. Early developers including Philippe Kahn envisioned a technology that would enable service providers to "collect a fee every time anyone snaps a photo"; the resulting technologies, Multimedia Messaging Service and Sha-Mail, were developed parallel to and in competition to open Internet-based mobile communication provided by GPRS and 3G networks. The first commercial camera phone complete with infrastructure was the J-SH04, made by Sharp Corporation; the first commercial deployment in North America of camera phones was in 2004. The Sprint wireless carriers deployed over one million camera phones manufactured by Sanyo and launched by the PictureMail infrastructure developed and managed by LightSurf.
While early phones had Internet connectivity, working web browsers and email-programs, the phone menu offered no way of including a photo in an email or uploading it to a web site. Connecting cables or removable media that would enable the local transfer of pictures were usually missing. Modern smartphones have unlimited connectivity and transfer options with photograph attachment features. During 2003, in Europe some phones without cameras had support for MMS and external cameras that could be connected with a small cable or directly to the data port at the base of the phone; the external cameras were comparable in quality to those fitted on regular camera phones at the time offering VGA resolution. One of these examples was the Nokia Fun Camera announced together with the Nokia 3100 in June 2003; the idea was for it to be used on devices without a built-in camera and be able to tr