Green River (Kentucky)
The Green River is a 384-mile-long tributary of the Ohio River that rises in Lincoln County in south-central Kentucky. Tributaries of the Green River include the Barren River, the Nolin River, the Pond River, the river was named after Nathanael Greene, a general of the American Revolutionary War. Following the Revolutionary War, many veterans staked claims along the Green River as payment for their military service, the river valley attracted a number of vagrants, earning it the dubious nickname Rogues Harbor. In 1842, the Green River was canalized, with a series of locks and dams being built to create a channel as far inland as Bowling Green. Four locks and dams were constructed on the Green River, and one lock and dam was built on the Barren River, a tributary that passed through Bowling Green. During the American Civil War, Confederate General John Hunt Morgan conducted daring raids through the Green River country, from which he reached into southern Indiana, in 1901, two additional locks and dams were opened on the Green River, which allowed river traffic to Mammoth Cave.
In 1941, Mammoth Cave National Park was established, and the two locks and dams closed in 1950. In 1965, Lock and Dam #4 at Woodbury failed, this was the dam that locked both the Green and Barren rivers, in 1969, the United States Army Corps of Engineers impounded a section of the river, forming 8, 200-acre Green River Lake. The lake is now the primary feature of Green River Lake State Park, there is still one Native American tribe living on the Green River, the Southern Cherokee Nation of Kentucky. In 1893 Governor John Y. Brown recognized the Southern Cherokee Nation as an Indian tribe, the Green River flows through Mammoth Cave National Park, located along river miles 190 to 205. The 384-mile-long Green River, an important transportation artery for the industry, is open to traffic up to the closed Lock. Muhlenberg County, once the largest coal-producing county in the nation, benefits greatly from access to the river, in 2002, more than 10 million short tons were shipped on the river, primarily sub-bituminous coal, petroleum coke, and aluminum ore.
The Green River is home to more than 150 fish species and this includes some of Kentuckys largest fish and some of the worlds rarest species of mussels. B. Cunningham wrote a series of 22 detective stories, all but one of which are set in a county through which the Green River flows and which feature Jess Roden, in 1969, Creedence Clearwater Revival released the album Green River. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System, Green River Green River
A drainage basin or catchment area is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water. Drainage basins connect into other drainage basins at elevations in a hierarchical pattern, with smaller sub-drainage basins. Other terms used to describe drainage basins are catchment, catchment basin, drainage area, river basin and water basin. In closed drainage basins the water converges to a point inside the basin, known as a sink, which may be a permanent lake. The drainage basin acts as a funnel by collecting all the water within the covered by the basin. Each drainage basin is separated topographically from adjacent basins by a perimeter, drainage basins are similar but not identical to hydrologic units, which are drainage areas delineated so as to nest into a multi-level hierarchical drainage system. Hydrologic units are defined to allow multiple inlets, outlets, or sinks, in a strict sense, all drainage basins are hydrologic units but not all hydrologic units are drainage basins.
Drainage basins of the oceans and seas of the world. Grey areas are endorheic basins that do not drain to the oceans, the following is a list of the major ocean basins, About 48. 7% of the worlds land drains to the Atlantic Ocean. The two major mediterranean seas of the world flow to the Atlantic, The Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico basin includes most of the U. S. The Mediterranean Sea basin includes much of North Africa, east-central Africa, Southern and Eastern Europe and the areas of Israel, Lebanon. Just over 13% of the land in the world drains to the Pacific Ocean, the Indian Oceans drainage basin comprises about 13% of Earths land. It drains the eastern coast of Africa, the coasts of the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, the Indian subcontinent, antarctica comprises approximately eight percent of the Earths land. The five largest river basins, from largest to smallest, are the basins of the Amazon, the Río de la Plata, the Congo, the Nile, and the Mississippi. The three rivers that drain the most water, from most to least, are the Amazon, endorheic drainage basins are inland basins that do not drain to an ocean.
Around 18% of all land drains to endorheic lakes or seas or sinks, the largest of these consists of much of the interior of Asia, which drains into the Caspian Sea, the Aral Sea, and numerous smaller lakes. Some of these, such as the Great Basin, are not single drainage basins but collections of separate, in endorheic bodies of standing water where evaporation is the primary means of water loss, the water is typically more saline than the oceans. An extreme example of this is the Dead Sea, drainage basins have been historically important for determining territorial boundaries, particularly in regions where trade by water has been important
A dam is a barrier that impounds water or underground streams. Reservoirs created by not only suppress floods but provide water for activities such as irrigation, human consumption, industrial use, aquaculture. Hydropower is often used in conjunction with dams to generate electricity, a dam can be used to collect water or for storage of water which can be evenly distributed between locations. Dams generally serve the purpose of retaining water, while other structures such as floodgates or levees are used to manage or prevent water flow into specific land regions. The word dam can be traced back to Middle English, and before that, from Middle Dutch, the first known appearance of dam occurs in 1165. However, there is one village, that is mentioned in 1120. The word seems to be related to the Greek word taphos, so the word should be understood as dike from dug out earth. The names of more than 40 places from the Middle Dutch era such as Amsterdam and Rotterdam, early dam building took place in Mesopotamia and the Middle East.
Dams were used to control the level, for Mesopotamias weather affected the Tigris. The earliest known dam is the Jawa Dam in Jordan,100 kilometres northeast of the capital Amman and this gravity dam featured an originally 9-metre-high and 1 m-wide stone wall, supported by a 50 m-wide earth rampart. The structure is dated to 3000 BC, the Ancient Egyptian Sadd-el-Kafara Dam at Wadi Al-Garawi, located about 25 km south of Cairo, was 102 m long at its base and 87 m wide. The structure was built around 2800 or 2600 BC as a dam for flood control. During the Twelfth Dynasty in the 19th century BC, the Pharaohs Senosert III, Amenemhat III, two dams called Ha-Uar running east-west were built to retain water during the annual flood and release it to surrounding lands. The lake called Mer-wer or Lake Moeris covered 1,700 km2 and is today as Berkat Qaroun. One of the wonders of the ancient world was the Great Dam of Marib in Yemen. Repairs were carried out during various periods, most important around 750 BC and these extensive works were not actually finalized until 325 AD and allowed the irrigation of 25,000 acres.
By the mid-late 3rd century BC, an intricate water-management system within Dholavira in modern-day India was built, the system included 16 reservoirs and various channels for collecting water and storing it. Eflatun Pınar is a Hittite dam and spring temple near Konya and it is thought to be from the time of the Hittite empire between the 15th and 13th century BC
The Ohio River, which streams westward from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to Cairo, Illinois, is the largest tributary, by volume, of the Mississippi River in the United States. The 981-mile river flows through or along the border of six states, through its largest tributary, the Tennessee River, the basin includes many of the states of the southeastern U. S. It is the source of drinking water for three million people and it is named in Iroquoian or Seneca, Ohi, yó, lit. Good River or Shawnee and Spelewathiipi, the river had great significance in the history of the Native Americans, as numerous civilizations formed along its valley. For thousands of years, Native Americans used the river as a major transportation, in 1669, René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle led a French expedition to the Ohio River, becoming the first Europeans to see it. After European-American settlement, the served as a border between present-day Kentucky and Indian Territories. It was a transportation route for pioneers during the westward expansion of the early U. S.
In his Notes on the State of Virginia published in 1781–82, Thomas Jefferson stated and its current gentle, waters clear, and bosom smooth and unbroken by rocks and rapids, a single instance only excepted. During the 19th century, the river was the boundary of the Northwest Territory. Where the river was narrow, it was the way to freedom for thousands of slaves escaping to the North, many helped by free blacks and whites of the Underground Railroad resistance movement. The Ohio River is a transition area, as its water runs along the periphery of the humid subtropical. It is inhabited by fauna and flora of both climates, in winter, it regularly freezes over at Pittsburgh but rarely further south toward Cincinnati and Louisville. At Paducah, Kentucky, in the south, near the Ohios confluence with the Mississippi, Paducah was founded there because it is the northernmost ice-free reach of the Ohio. The Ohio River is formed by the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers at Point State Park in Pittsburgh, from there, it flows northwest through Allegheny and Beaver counties, before making an abrupt turn to the south-southwest at the West Virginia–Ohio–Pennsylvania triple-state line.
From there, it forms the border between West Virginia and Ohio, upstream of Wheeling, West Virginia, the river follows a roughly southwest and west-northwest course until Cincinnati, before bending to a west-southwest course for most of its length. The course forms the borders of West Virginia and Kentucky. The Ohio drains parts of 15 states in four regions, northeast New York, a small area of the southern border along the headwaters of the Allegheny. Pennsylvania, a corridor from the corner to north central border
Nolin River Lake
Nolin River Lake is a reservoir in Edmonson and Hart counties in Kentucky. It was impounded from the Nolin River by the United States Army Corps of Engineers in 1963, the Nolin River dam was authorized in 1938 as part of a flood control act. The lake varies from 2,890 acres in the winter to 5,795 acres in the summer, nearby attractions include Mammoth Cave National Park, Nolin Lake State Park, Moutardier Resort and Marina, Ponderosa Boat Dock/Marina and Wax Marina. US Army Corps of Engineers page on Nolin Lake Nolin Lake State Park facilities map Nolin Lake State Park interactive GIS map
Edmonson County, Kentucky
Edmonson County is a county located in the U. S. state of Kentucky. As of the 2010 census, the population was 12,161, the county was formed in 1825 and named for Captain John Jack Edmonson, who was killed at the Battle of Frenchtown during the War of 1812. The sale of alcohol is prohibited in Edmonson County. Edmonson County is included in the Bowling Green, KY Metropolitan Statistical Area, Edmonson County was established on January 12,1825 from land given by Grayson and Warren counties. A courthouse built in 1873 replaced a former structure rendered unfit when its floor collapsed. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 308 square miles. The population density was 38 per square mile, there were 6,104 housing units at an average density of 20 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 98. 39% White,0. 58% Black or African American,0. 44% Native American,0. 07% Asian,0. 06% from other races,0. 56% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 22. 40% of all households were made up of individuals and 9. 60% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 2.88.
In the county, the population was out with 23. 60% under the age of 18,9. 00% from 18 to 24,27. 80% from 25 to 44,25. 30% from 45 to 64. The median age was 38 years, for every 100 males there were 92.50 females. For every 100 males age 18 and over, there were 89.33 females, the median income for a household in the county was $25,413, and the median income for a family was $31,843. Males had an income of $26,770 versus $17,158 for females. The per capita income for the county was $14,480, about 14. 20% of families and 18. 40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25. 50% of those under age 18 and 21. 00% of those age 65 or over. There are currently four public schools operating as part of the Edmonson County School System and they are Kyrock Elementary, South Edmonson Elementary, the Edmonson County Fifth/Sixth Grade Center and Edmonson County Middle/High School. There are two routes that form the major transportation corridors through Edmonson County. KY70 is the primary west to east route, traversing the width of the county, KY259 enters Edmonson County at the border with Grayson County, near the town of Bee Spring.
The highway continues on, bridging the Green River, before intersecting with KY101, KY259 branches off in a southeastern direction while KY101 continues as the main north-south route through the county, exiting into Warren County just south of the community of Chalybeate
Hodgenville is a home rule-class city in LaRue County, United States. It is the seat of its county, Hodgenville sits along the North Fork of the Nolin River. The population was 3,206 at the 2010 census and it is included in the Elizabethtown metropolitan area. An English-born Virginian, Robert Hodgen purchased 10,000 acres of land in the vicinity, in 1789, after the American Revolutionary War, when settlers started moving west into Kentucky, he built a mill at the site. After his death, the community developed around it was called Hodgenville upon the petition of his widow. The United States post office at the site, was known as Hodgensville from 1826 to 1904, the city was formally incorporated by the state assembly on February 18,1836. Abraham Lincoln was born in a cabin on Sinking Spring Farm near Hodgenville on February 12,1809. About two years later, the moved to another farm in the Hodgenville area. Despite claims made later, the cabin Lincoln was born in was destroyed by the time of his assassination.
The Abraham Lincoln Birthplace National Historical Park labels the replica cabin, which was thirty years after his death. The significance of the two Hodgenville sites are found in the setting, preservation of these two national sites allows visitors to see the landscape of the earliest period of Abraham Lincolns life. The Lincoln Museum is opened for visitors downtown and the bronze Abraham Lincoln Statue stands at the town square, according to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.7 square miles, all land. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers, according to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Hodgenville has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated Cfa on climate maps. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,874 people,1,235 households, the population density was 1,667.7 people per square mile. There were 1,349 housing units at a density of 782.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 86. 64% White,11. 27% African American,0.
24% Native American,0. 07% Asian,0. 35% from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 1. 18% of the population. 34. 1% of all households were made up of individuals and 17. 4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.17 and the average family size was 2.76. The age distribution was 22. 8% under the age of 18,7. 9% from 18 to 24,25. 2% from 25 to 44,22. 8% from 45 to 64, the median age was 41 years
Mammoth Cave National Park
Mammoth Cave National Park is a U. S. national park in central Kentucky, encompassing portions of Mammoth Cave, the longest cave system known in the world. Since the 1972 unification of Mammoth Cave with the system under Flint Ridge to the north. The park was established as a park on July 1,1941. It became a World Heritage Site on October 27,1981, the parks 52,830 acres are located primarily in Edmonson County, with small areas extending eastward into Hart County and Barren County. It is centered on the Green River, with a tributary, with 405 miles of surveyed passageways Mammoth Cave is by far the worlds longest known cave system, being over twice as long as the second-longest cave system, Mexicos Sac Actun underwater cave. Mammoth Cave developed in thick Mississippian-aged limestone strata capped by a layer of sandstone and it is known to include more than 390 miles of passageway, new discoveries and connections add several miles to this figure each year. Mammoth Cave National Park was established to preserve the cave system, the epikarstic zone concentrates local flows of runoff into high-elevation springs which emerge at the edges of ridges.
It is in underlying massive limestone layers that the human-explorable caves of the region have naturally developed. The limestone layers of the column beneath the Big Clifty, in increasing order of depth below the ridgetops, are the Girkin Formation. Genevieve Limestone, and the St. Louis Limestone, for example, the large Main Cave passage seen on the Historic Tour is located at the bottom of the Girkin and the top of the Ste. Each of the layers of limestone is divided further into named geological units and subunits. One area of research involves correlating the stratigraphy with the cave survey produced by explorers. This makes it possible to produce approximate three-dimensional maps of the contours of the layer boundaries without the necessity for test wells. The upper sandstone caprock is relatively hard for water to penetrate, the sandstone caprock layer has been dissolved and eroded at many locations within the park, such as the Frozen Niagara room. At one valley bottom in the region of the park.
Known as Cedar Sink, the features a small river entering one side. Mammoth Cave is home to the endangered Kentucky cave shrimp, a sightless albino shrimp, the National Park Service offers several cave tours to visitors. Some notable features of the cave, such as Grand Avenue, Frozen Niagara, two tours, lit only by visitor-carried paraffin lamps, are popular alternatives to the electric-lit routes
Abraham Lincoln was an American politician and lawyer who served as the 16th President of the United States from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. Lincoln led the United States through its Civil War—its bloodiest war and perhaps its greatest moral, constitutional, in doing so, he preserved the Union, abolished slavery, strengthened the federal government, and modernized the economy. Born in Hodgenville, Lincoln grew up on the frontier in Kentucky. Largely self-educated, he became a lawyer in Illinois, a Whig Party leader, elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1846, Lincoln promoted rapid modernization of the economy through banks and railroads. Reentering politics in 1854, he became a leader in building the new Republican Party, in 1860, Lincoln secured the Republican Party presidential nomination as a moderate from a swing state. Though he gained little support in the slaveholding states of the South. Subsequently, on April 12,1861, a Confederate attack on Fort Sumter inspired the North to enthusiastically rally behind the Union.
Politically, Lincoln fought back by pitting his opponents against each other, by carefully planned political patronage and his Gettysburg Address became an iconic endorsement of the principles of nationalism, equal rights and democracy. Lincoln initially concentrated on the military and political dimensions of the war and his primary goal was to reunite the nation. He suspended habeas corpus, leading to the ex parte Merryman decision. Lincoln closely supervised the war effort, especially the selection of top generals, including his most successful general, Lincoln tried repeatedly to capture the Confederate capital at Richmond, each time a general failed, Lincoln substituted another, until finally Grant succeeded. As the war progressed, his moves toward ending slavery included the Emancipation Proclamation of 1863. On April 14,1865, five days after the surrender of Confederate commanding general Robert E. Lee, Lincoln was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth, a Confederate sympathizer. Secretary of War Edwin Stanton launched a manhunt for Booth, and 12 days on April 26, Lincoln has been consistently ranked both by scholars and the public as among the greatest U. S. presidents.
Abraham Lincoln was born February 12,1809, the child of Thomas and Nancy Hanks Lincoln, in a one-room log cabin on the Sinking Spring Farm near Hodgenville. He was a descendant of Samuel Lincoln, an Englishman who migrated from Hingham, Norfolk to its namesake of Hingham, samuels grandson and great-grandson began the familys western migration, which passed through New Jersey and Virginia. Lincolns paternal grandfather and namesake, Captain Abraham Lincoln, moved the family from Virginia to Jefferson County, Captain Lincoln was killed in an Indian raid in 1786. His children, including eight-year-old Thomas, the presidents father
The Mississippi River is the chief river of the largest drainage system on the North American continent. Flowing entirely in the United States, it rises in northern Minnesota, with its many tributaries, the Mississippis watershed drains all or parts of 31 U. S. states and 2 Canadian provinces between the Rocky and Appalachian Mountains. The Mississippi ranks as the fourth longest and fifteenth largest river in the world by discharge, the river either borders or passes through the states of Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Tennessee, Arkansas and Louisiana. Native Americans long lived along the Mississippi River and its tributaries, most were hunter-gatherers, but some, such as the Mound Builders, formed prolific agricultural societies. The arrival of Europeans in the 16th century changed the way of life as first explorers, settlers. The river served first as a barrier, forming borders for New Spain, New France, and the early United States, and as a vital transportation artery and communications link.
Formed from thick layers of the silt deposits, the Mississippi embayment is one of the most fertile agricultural regions of the country. In recent years, the river has shown a shift towards the Atchafalaya River channel in the Delta. The word itself comes from Messipi, the French rendering of the Anishinaabe name for the river, see below in the History section for additional information. In addition to historical traditions shown by names, there are at least two measures of a rivers identity, one being the largest branch, and the other being the longest branch. Using the largest-branch criterion, the Ohio would be the branch of the Lower Mississippi. Using the longest-branch criterion, the Middle Mississippi-Missouri-Jefferson-Beaverhead-Red Rock-Hellroaring Creek River would be the main branch and its length of at least 3,745 mi is exceeded only by the Nile, the Amazon, and perhaps the Yangtze River among the longest rivers in the world. The source of this waterway is at Browers Spring,8,800 feet above sea level in southwestern Montana and this is exemplified by the Gateway Arch in St.
Louis and the phrase Trans-Mississippi as used in the name of the Trans-Mississippi Exposition. It is common to qualify a regionally superlative landmark in relation to it, the New Madrid Seismic Zone along the river is noteworthy. These various basic geographical aspects of the river in turn underlie its human history and present uses of the waterway, the Upper Mississippi runs from its headwaters to its confluence with the Missouri River at St. Louis, Missouri. The source of the Upper Mississippi branch is traditionally accepted as Lake Itasca,1,475 feet above sea level in Itasca State Park in Clearwater County, the lake is in turn fed by a number of smaller streams. From its origin at Lake Itasca to St. Louis, fourteen of these dams are located above Minneapolis in the headwaters region and serve multiple purposes, including power generation and recreation. The remaining 29 dams, beginning in downtown Minneapolis, all locks and were constructed to improve commercial navigation of the upper river
A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a sea or ocean and the main stem river drain the surrounding drainage basin of its surface water and groundwater, leading the water out into an ocean. A confluence, where two or more bodies of water together, usually refers to the joining of tributaries. The opposite to a tributary is a distributary, a river or stream that branches off from, distributaries are most often found in river deltas. Right tributary and left tributary are terms stating the orientation of the relative to the flow of the main stem river. These terms are defined from the perspective of looking downstream, where tributaries have the same name as the river into which they feed, they are called forks. These are typically designated by compass direction, for example, the American River receives flow from its North and South forks. The Chicago Rivers North Branch has the East and Middle Fork, the South Branch has its South Fork, forks are sometimes designated as right or left.
Here, the handedness is from the point of view of an observer facing upstream, for instance, Steer Creek has a left tributary which is called Right Fork Steer Creek. Tributaries are sometimes listed starting with those nearest to the source of the river, the Strahler Stream Order examines the arrangement of tributaries in a hierarchy of first, second and higher orders, with the first-order tributary being typically the least in size. For example, a second-order tributary would be the result of two or more first-order tributaries combining to form the second-order tributary, another method is to list tributaries from mouth to source, in the form of a tree structure, stored as a tree data structure
Hardin County, Kentucky
Hardin County is a county located in the U. S. state of Kentucky. Its county seat is at Elizabethtown, the county was formed in 1792. Hardin County is part of the Elizabethtown-Fort Knox, KY Metropolitan Statistical Area, as well as the Louisville/Jefferson County—Elizabethtown-Madison, as of the 2010 census, the population was 105,543. Hardin County is known for being the birthplace of former U. S. president Abraham Lincoln, Hardin County was established in 1792 from land given by Nelson County. Hardin was the 15th Kentucky county in order of formation, the county is named for Col. John Hardin, a Continental Army officer during the American Revolution and a brother of the Capt. William Hardin who founded Hardinsburg. Courthouse fires destroyed county records in 1864 and again in 1932, the present courthouse dates from 1934. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 630 square miles. It is the fourth-largest county by area in Kentucky, Hardin County borders nine counties, more than any other county in Kentucky.
As of the census of 2010, there were 105,543 people,39,853 households, the population density was 167.5 per square mile. There were 43,261 housing units at a density of 68.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 80. 5% White,11. 6% Black or African American,0. 5% Native American,2. 0% Asian,0. 2% Pacific Islander,1. 5% from other races, and 3. 5% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 5. 0% of the population,24. 5% of all households were made up of individuals and 8. 0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the family size was 3.04. The age distribution was 25. 97% under 18,9. 93% from 18 to 24,27. 50% from 25 to 44,25. 60% from 45 to 64, the median age was 35.0 years. For every 100 females there were 100.41 males, for every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.54 males. Complete economic data from the 2010 Census has not yet been released, according to the 2010 Census, the median income for a household in the county was $43,421, and the median income for a family was $55,151.
The per capita income for the county was $23,744, remaining economic data is from the 2000 Census. At that time, males had an income of $30,743 versus $22,688 for females