The Hobrecht-Plan is the binding land-use plan for Berlin in the 19th century. It is named after its main editor James Hobrecht, serving for the royal-prussian urban planning police; the finalized plan "Bebauungsplan der Umgebungen Berlins" was resolved in 1862, intended for a time frame of about 50 years. The plan not only covered the area around the cities of Berlin and Charlottenburg, it described the spatial regional planning of a large perimeter, thus it prepared the city and its neighbouring municipalities for the Greater Berlin Act of 1920, which extended Berlin's size and population. The plan resulted in large areas of dense urban city blocks known as'blockrand structures', with mixed-use buildings reaching to the street and offering a common-used courtyard often overbuilt with additional court structures to house more people; the Hobrecht-Plan inspired new urban plans after 1990 by construction senator Hans Stimmann and his colleagues, so the until divided Berlin would grow together, become denser and livelier again.
Hobrecht's plan is compared to Baron Haussmann's restructuring of Paris, as it resulted in wide metropolitan avenues, large urban parks and squares and other modernisation projects of the infrastructure. The industrial revolution led to a swift rural exodus at the beginning of the 19th century. Berlin as the Prussian capital was the target of many emigrants resulting in a rapid growth. After the Napoleonic Wars the city grew by 10,000 new inhabitants every year accelerating in the middle of the century so that the metro area would reach the millions at the end of the century. There had been some urban planning on the city before Hobrecht; this includes proposals from Karl Friedrich Schinkel and planning maps from Johann Carl Ludwig Schmid dating to 1825 and 1830. Peter Joseph Lenné proposed a wider regional planning in 1840 named "Projektierte Schmuck- und Grenzzüge von Berlin mit nächster Umgebung". All the persons were well-renowned landscape architects. Hobrecht was instead a geodesist who had just extended his formation with a civil engineer examination on transportation planning in 1858.
Soon after entering the royal Prussian urban planning police he was commanded in 1859 to head the commission on creation of a land-use plan for Berlin and its environs. He traveled to Hamburg and London in 1860 to learn about the contemporary development status in urban planning their sewer systems. In the 1860s the Berlin Customs Wall was removed and there were plans to amalgamation of the many suburbs of Berlin on 1 January 1861. Based on the just finished land surveys and existing land-use proposals James Hobrecht constructed a map showing a possible land-use for a city at a projected size of 1.5 to 2 million inhabitants. It incorporated the land between the Customs Wall and a railway line being constructed to encircle the city; that Hobrecht-Plan did show two large ring roads encircling both of Berlin and Charlottenburg with dozens of arterial roads entering the city. The area between these were divided into rectangular spaces. Unlike the urban planning of Paris, Hobrecht did respect the existing roads and railways including them into the planning process.
The map was resolved on 18 July 1862 and it would influence the urban structure of Berlin for the centuries to come. The Hobrecht-Plan was detailed for the street area, giving only the boundary lines for housing construction; the housing construction business was rather unregulated in comparison with modern construction rules – there were some basic constraints to allow fire brigades to do their work by having the maximum height limited to 20 meters and each house had to be reachable from the streets via a backyard of at least 5.34 × 5.34 meters in size to allow the fire engine to turn. In effect, speculative builders took over with densely packed architectural designs to allow a maximum number of rooms – the foundation of the Mietskaserne tenement housing estates rings. While Hobrecht called for the front buildings to be designed for upper- and middle-class people, the backyard buildings were plagued by lack of sunlight and poor ventilation; the situation worsened in Gründerzeit times with housing construction running too so that the population density rose beyond 1000 inhabitants per square kilometer – many backyard houses had two to three inhabitants per room and the citywide sewer system was not to be finished before 1893.
The Hobrecht-plan was criticized for decades as given the foundation for the social problems even nurturing the street fights in the 1920s between red and brown thugs in the crowded lower class quarters. Hobrecht himself was in the position and he had the education to outguess the results, he promoted his plan saying In der Mietskaserne gehen die Kinder aus den Kellerwohnungen in die Freischule über denselben Hausflur wie diejenigen des Rats oder Kaufmanns, auf dem Wege nach dem Gymnasium. Schusters Wilhelm aus der Mansarde und die alte bettlägerige Frau Schulz im Hinterhaus, deren Tochter durch Nähen oder Putzarbeiten den notdürftigen Lebensunterhalt besorgt, werden in dem ersten Stock bekannte Persönlichkeiten. Hier ist ein Teller Suppe zur Stärkung bei Krankheit, da ein Kleidungsstück, dort die wirksame Hilfe zur Erlangung freien Unterrichts oder dergleichen und alles das, was sich als das Resultat der gemütlichen Beziehungen zwischen den gleichgearteten und wenn auch noch so verschiedenen situierten Bewohner herausstellt
Klaus Heinrich Thomas Mann was a German writer. Born in Munich, Klaus Mann was his wife, Katia Pringsheim, his father was baptized as a Lutheran. He began writing short stories in 1924 and the following year became drama critic for a Berlin newspaper, his first literary works were published in 1925. Mann's early life was troubled, his homosexuality made him the target of bigotry, he had a difficult relationship with his father. After only a short time in various schools, he travelled with his sister Erika Mann, a year older than himself, around the world, visiting the US in 1927, reporting about it in essays published as a collaborative travelogue in 1929. In 1924 he had become engaged to his childhood friend Pamela Wedekind, the eldest daughter of the playwright Frank Wedekind, a close friend of his sister Erika; the engagement was broken off in January 1928. He travelled with Erika to North Africa in 1929. Around this time they made the acquaintance of Annemarie Schwarzenbach, a Swiss writer and photographer, who remained close to them for the next few years.
Klaus made several trips abroad with Annemarie, the final one to a Soviet writers' congress in Moscow in 1934. Since his young adulthood, Klaus was using drugs opiates, which he became addicted to, his diaries document an attempted morphine-injection in 1933. The aspiring writer used opium and heroin to increase his creative energy, as this was the case for artists and intellectuals in literary circles at the time, he underwent drug detoxification in Budapest during his frantic travels and at the Kilchberg Sanatorium in Switzerland. After 1936, his drug use and sexual escapades became excessive during his stay in New York. In 1932 Klaus wrote the first part of his autobiography, well received until Hitler came to power. In 1933 Klaus participated with Erika in a political cabaret, the Pepper-Mill, which came to the attention of the Nazi regime. To escape prosecution he left Germany in March 1933 for Paris visiting Amsterdam and Switzerland, where his family had a house. In 1933, Klaus Mann and Annemarie Schwarzenbach, together with Fritz Landshoff and Dutch publisher Emanuel Querido, founded Die Sammlung, a literary magazine, first published in September 1933 in Amsterdam.
It was affiliated with a number of influential German writers who fled from the Hitler regime during the first years of the establishment and consolidation of Nazi rule. The magazine was funded by the wealthy Annemarie Schwarzenbach, Klaus Mann served as its editor-in-chief from 1933 to 1935, when Die Sammlung's activity ceased. Klaus Mann did not only play an important role in the consolidation of the German Exilliteratur but he communicated with authors who remained in Germany after 1933. In a letter exchange with Gottfried Benn, whose ambivalence towards Nazi rule was well known, Klaus expressed concern about his continued membership in the national German academy of writers, pointing out the moral dilemma it posed urging him to leave the country to join the German intellectuals in exile. In November 1934 Klaus was stripped of German citizenship by the Nazi regime, he became a Czechoslovak citizen. In 1936, he moved to the United States, living in Princeton, New Jersey, New York. In the summer of 1937, he met his partner for the rest of the year Thomas Quinn Curtiss, a longtime film and theater reviewer for Variety and the International Herald Tribune.
In 1940 Klaus Mann founded another literary magazine for German writers living in exile in the United States, Decision. It lasted for only a year. During that time, he lived at his father's house in Pacific Palisades when he was unable to support himself financially. Mann became a US citizen in 1943; the process of naturalization was delayed because of an investigation the FBI conducted into Klaus Mann's political and sexual activities. Throughout his life in the US, he identified himself as cosmopolitan. In World War II, he served as a Staff Sergeant of the 5th US Army in Italy. In summer 1945, he was sent by the Stripes to report from Postwar-Germany. Mann's most famous novel, was written in 1936 and first published in Amsterdam; the novel is a thinly-disguised portrait of the actor Gustaf Gründgens. The literary scandal surrounding it made Mann posthumously famous in West Germany, as Gründgens' adopted son brought a legal case to have the novel banned after its first publication in West Germany in the early 1960s.
After seven years of legal hearings, the West German Supreme Court banned it by a vote of three to three, although it continued to be available in East Germany and abroad. The ban was lifted and the novel published in West Germany in 1981. Mann's novel Der Vulkan is one of the 20th century's most famous novels about German exiles during World War II, he died in Cannes of an overdose of sleeping pills on 21 May 1949, after another drug treatment. The prolific writer committed suicide because of financial problems and social isolation, he was buried there in the Cimetière du Grand Jas. Der fromme Tanz, 1925 Anja und Esther, 1925 Revue zu Vieren, 1927 Alexander, Roman der Utopie, 1929 Auf der Suche nach einem Weg, 1931 Kind dieser Zeit, 1932 Treffpunkt im Unendlichen, 1932 Journey into Freedom, 1934 Symphonie Pathétique, 1935 Mephisto, 1936 Vergittertes Fenster, 1937 Der Vulkan, 1939 The Turning Point, 1942 André Gide and the Crisis of Modern Thought, 1943 The Chaplain, 1945 Dohm–Mann family tree Exilliteratur Juliane Schicker.'Decision.
A Review of Free Cult
Leo Lesser Ury was a German-Jewish Impressionist painter and printmaker, associated with the Düsseldorf school of painting. Ury was born in Birnbaum in Prussia, the son of a baker whose death in 1872 was followed by the family's relocation to Berlin. In 1878 Lesser left school to apprentice with a tradesman, the next year he went to Düsseldorf to study painting at the Kunstakademie. Ury spent time in Brussels, Paris and other locations, before returning to Berlin in 1887, his first exhibition was in 1889 and met with a hostile reception, although he was championed by Adolph von Menzel whose influence induced the Akademie to award Ury a prize. In 1893 he joined the Munich Secession, one of the several Secessions formed by progressive artists in Germany and Austria in the last years of the 19th century. In 1901 he returned to Berlin, where he exhibited with the Berlin Secession, first in 1915 and notably in 1922, when he had a major exhibition. By this time Ury's critical reputation had grown and his paintings and pastels were in demand.
His subjects were landscapes, urban landscapes, interior scenes, treated in an Impressionistic manner that ranged from the subdued tones of figures in a darkened interior to the effects of streetlights at night to the dazzling light of foliage against the summer sky. Ury is noted for his paintings of nocturnal cafe scenes and rainy streets, he developed a habit of repeating these compositions in order to sell them while retaining the originals, these quickly-made and inferior copies have harmed his reputation. Always introverted and distrustful of people, Ury became reclusive in his years, he is buried in the Jewish Cemetery in Berlin-Weissensee. Tanya Ury Brauchitsch, Boris von. Lesser Ury. Berlin: Edition Braus. Ury, Lesser: Memorial Exhibition Commemorating the 100th anniversary of his birth. Tel Aviv. Schwartz, Karl. Jewish Artists of the 19th and 20th Centuries. New York: Philosophical Library. Brieger, Lothar. Lesser Ury. Berlin: Verlag Neue Kunsthandlung. Works by or about Lesser Ury at Internet Archive Hecht Museum Available Works & Biography Galerie Ludorff, Germany
Persecution of homosexuals in Nazi Germany
Upon the rise of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers Party in Germany, gay men and, to a lesser extent, were two of the numerous groups targeted by the Nazis and were among Holocaust victims. Beginning in 1933, gay organizations were banned, scholarly books about homosexuality, sexuality in general, were burned, homosexuals within the Nazi Party itself were murdered; the Gestapo compiled lists of homosexuals, who were compelled to sexually conform to the "German norm". Between 1933 and 1945, an estimated 100,000 men were arrested as homosexuals, of whom some 50,000 were sentenced. Most of these men served time in regular prisons, an estimated 5,000 to 15,000 of those sentenced were incarcerated in Nazi concentration camps, it is unclear how many of the 5,000 to 15,000 would die in the camps, but leading scholar Rüdiger Lautmann believes that the death rate of homosexuals in concentration camps may have been as high as 60%. Homosexuals in the camps suffered an unusual degree of cruelty by their captors.
These estimates include only individuals singled out for their sexual orientation. Many others had been sent to the camps based on their religion without need of other justification. Little study has been done to estimate the number of Jewish homosexuals. After the war, the treatment of homosexuals in concentration camps went unacknowledged by most countries, some men were re-arrested and imprisoned based on evidence found during the Nazi years, it was not until the 1980s that governments began to acknowledge this episode, not until 2002 that the German government apologized to the gay community. In 2005, the European Parliament adopted a resolution on the Holocaust which included the persecution of homosexuals. Prussia, the largest and most populous of the Länder, did not enforce Paragraph 175 under the leadership of the Social Democratic Otto Braun from 1918 to 1932, which had the effect of making Prussia into a haven for homosexuals all across Germany. In the 1920s, gay culture had flourished in Prussia Berlin, known as the "homosexual capital of Europe", many homosexuals had come out of the closet.
Germany under the Weimar Republic was characterized by a sort of cultural war between the traditional conservative culture and the avant-garde Weimar culture, the tolerance shown to homosexuals in Prussia was used by conservatives as an example of the "depravity" and "un-German" nature of Weimar culture. The tolerance towards homosexuals in Prussia had ended after Chancellor Franz von Papen had deposed Braun in 1932, starting in 1933, gay culture in Germany "went underground". On 30 January 1933, President Paul von Hindenburg appointed Adolf Hitler Chancellor with Papen as the Reich Commissioner of Prussia; the aim of the National Socialist regime was the creation of the idealised Volksgemeinschaft that would unite the German people into one, which required the removal of all who either would not join the Volksgemeinschaft or those who considered to be racially "unfit" to join the Volksgemeinschaft. The German historian Detlev Peukert wrote the basis of Nazi thinking about the Volksgemeinschaft was "Its basis was the racialist elimination of all elements that deviated from the norm: refractory youth, the asocial, homosexuals, people who were incompetent or failures at work, the disabled.
National Socialist eugenics...laid down criteria of assessment that were applicable to the population at whole". In late February 1933, as the moderating influence of Ernst Röhm weakened, the Nazi Party launched its purge of homosexual clubs in Berlin, outlawed sex publications, banned organized gay groups; as a consequence, many fled Germany. Röhm himself was gay, but he subscribed to an ultra-macho "hard" image and despised the "soft" homosexuals. A climate of fear took hold over the homosexual community, with – for example – many lesbians getting married to avoid being sent to the concentration camps that had first appeared in March 1933; the Prussian police launched a series of raids to shut down gay bars and Paragraph 175 was enforced with a new degree of strictness and vigor. In March 1933, Kurt Hiller, the main organizer of Magnus Hirschfeld's Institute of Sex Research, was sent to a concentration camp. On May 6, 1933, Nazi Youth of the Deutsche Studentenschaft made an organized attack on the Institute of Sex Research.
A few days on May 10, the Institute's library and archives were publicly hauled out and burned in the streets of the Opernplatz. Around 20,000 books and journals, 5,000 images, were destroyed. Seized were the Institute's extensive lists of names and addresses of homosexuals. In the midst of the burning, Joseph Goebbels gave a political speech to a crowd of around 40,000 people. Hitler protected Röhm from other elements of the Nazi Party which held his homosexuality to be a violation of the party's strong anti-gay policy. However, Hitler changed course when he perceived Röhm to be a potential threat to his power. During the Night of the Long Knives in 1934, a purge of those whom Hitler deemed threats to his power, he had Röhm murdered and used Röhm's homosexuality as a justification to suppress outrage within the ranks of the SA. After solidifying his power, Hitler would include gay men among those sent to concentration camps during the Holocaust. Heinrich Himmler had been a supporter of Röhm, arguing that the charges of homosexuality against him were manufactured by Jews.
But after the purge, Hitler elevated Himmler's sta
The Berlin U-Bahn is a rapid transit railway in Berlin, the capital city of Germany, a major part of the city's public transport system. Together with the S-Bahn, a network of suburban train lines, a tram network that operates in the eastern parts of the city, it serves as the main means of transport in the capital. Opened in 1902, the U-Bahn serves 173 stations spread across ten lines, with a total track length of 151.7 kilometres, about 80% of, underground. Trains run every two to five minutes during peak hours, every five minutes for the rest of the day and every ten minutes in the evening. Over the course of a year, U-Bahn trains travel 132 million km, carry over 400 million passengers. In 2017, 553.1 million passengers rode the U-Bahn. The entire system is maintained and operated by the Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe known as the BVG. Designed to alleviate traffic flowing into and out of central Berlin, the U-Bahn was expanded until the city was divided into East and West Berlin at the end of World War II.
Although the system remained open to residents of both sides at first, the construction of the Berlin Wall and the subsequent restrictions imposed by the Government of East Germany limited travel across the border. The East Berlin U-Bahn lines from West Berlin were severed, except for two West Berlin lines that ran through East Berlin; these were allowed to pass through East Berlin without stopping at any of the stations, which were closed. Friedrichstraße was the exception because it was used as a transfer point between U6 and the West Berlin S-Bahn system, a border crossing into East Berlin; the system was reopened following the fall of the Berlin Wall, German reunification. The Berlin U-Bahn is the most extensive underground network in Germany. In 2006, travel on the U-Bahn was equivalent to 122.2 million km of car journeys. The Berlin U-Bahn was built in three major phases: Up to 1913: the construction of the Kleinprofil network in Berlin, Schöneberg, Wilmersdorf. At the end of the 19th century, city planners in Berlin were looking for solutions to the increasing traffic problems facing the city.
As potential solutions and inventor Ernst Werner von Siemens suggested the construction of elevated railways, while AEG proposed an underground system. Berlin city administrators feared that an underground would damage the sewers, favouring an elevated railway following the path of the former city walls. Years of negotiations followed until, on 10 September 1896, work began on a elevated railway to run between Stralauer Tor and Zoologischer Garten, with a short spur to Potsdamer Platz. Known as the "Stammstrecke", the route was inaugurated on 15 February 1902, was popular. Before the year ended, the railway had been extended: by 17 August, east to Warschauer Brücke. In a bid to secure its own improvement, Schöneberg wanted a connection to Berlin; the elevated railway company did not believe such a line would be profitable, so the city built the first locally financed underground in Germany. It was opened on 1 December 1910. Just a few months earlier, work began on a fourth line to link Wilmersdorf in the south-west to the growing Berlin U-Bahn.
The early network ran east to west, connecting the richer areas in and around Berlin, as these routes had been deemed the most profitable. In order to open up the network to more of the workers of Berlin, the city wanted north-south lines to be established. In 1920, the surrounding areas were annexed to form Groß-Berlin, removing the need for many negotiations, giving the city much greater bargaining power over the private Hochbahngesellschaft; the city mandated that new lines would use wider carriages—running on the same, standard-gauge track—to provide greater passenger capacity. Construction of the Nord-Süd-Bahn connecting Wedding in the north to Tempelhof and Neukölln in the south had started in December 1912, but halted for the First World War. Work resumed in 1919, although the money shortage caused by hyperinflation slowed progress considerably. On 30 January 1923, the first section opened between Hallesches Tor and Stettiner Bahnhof, with a continuation to Seestraße following two months later.
Underfunded, the new line had to use trains from the old Kleinprofil network. The line branched at Belle-Alliance-Straße, now. In 1912, plans were approved for AEG to build its own north-south underground line, named the GN-Bahn after its termini and Neukölln, via Alexanderplatz. Financial difficulties stopped the construction in 1919; the first section opened on 17 July 1927 between Boddinstraße and Schönleinstraße, with the intermediate Hermannplatz becoming the first
Friedrich Graf Kleist von Nollendorf
Friedrich Emil Ferdinand Heinrich Graf Kleist von Nollendorf and died in Berlin, was a Prussian field marshal and a member of the old junker family von Kleist. Kleist entered the Prussian Army in 1778 and served in the War of the Bavarian Succession and the French Revolutionary Wars. By 1799, Kleist was put in command of a battalion of grenadiers. Kleist fought at Jena. In 1807 he went on extended leave but by 1808 he was put in command of an infantry brigade and the next year he was made commandant of Berlin. During the War of Liberation he was given a corps with which he fought in the battles of Kulm and Leipzig. In 1814, he was given the title Count of Nollendorf for his decisive role in this battle. After Leipzig, Kleist blockaded the fortress of Erfurt, bringing about its surrender after which, in early 1814, he marched his troops into France, where his corps was attached to Blücher's army, he fought in the battle of Laon and in the attack on Paris. At the end of the war Kleist was promoted to the rank of General der Infanterie.
During the Hundred Days, Kleist was given command of a Prussian corps, to operate independently from Blücher's Army of the Lower Rhine. Two years before his death he was promoted to the rank of Generalfeldmarschall. Meerheimb, F. von, "Kleist von Nollendorf, Friedrich", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 16, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 124–127 Günter Richter, "Kleist von Nollendorf, Friedrich Heinrich Graf", Neue Deutsche Biographie, 12, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 27–28. "Das Leben des Generalfeldmarschalls Grafen Kleist von Nollendorf". In Kleist, Sigurd von. Geschichte des Geschlechts v. Kleist Dritter Teil – Biographien bis 1880 Fünfte Abteilung. Bergisch Gladbach. ] Pflugk-Harttung, Julius von. Das preußische Heer und die Norddeutschen Bundestruppen unter General v. Kleist 1815. Gotha. Priesdorff, Kurt von. Soldatisches Führertum. 3. Hamburg: Hanseatische Verlagsanstalt. Pp. 311–320. Denkmal in Merseburg
Schöneberg is a locality of Berlin, Germany. Until Berlin's 2001 administrative reform it was a separate borough including the locality of Friedenau. Together with the former borough of Tempelhof it is now part of the new borough of Tempelhof-Schöneberg; the village was first documented in a 1264 deed issued by Margrave Otto III of Brandenburg. In 1751, Bohemian weavers founded Neu-Schöneberg known as Böhmisch-Schöneberg along northern Hauptstraße. During the Seven Years' War on 7 October 1760 Schöneberg and its village church were destroyed by a fire due to the joint attack on Berlin by Habsburg and Russian troops. Both Alt-Schöneberg and Neu-Schöneberg were in an area developed in the course of industrialization and incorporated in a street network laid out in the Hobrecht-Plan in an area that came to be known architecturally as the Wilhelmine Ring; the two villages were not combined as one entity until 1874 and received town privileges in 1898. In the following year it was disentangled from the Kreis of Teltow, became a Prussian Stadtkreis.
Many of the former peasants gained wealth by selling their acres to the settlement companies of growing Berlin and built luxurious mansions on Hauptstraße. The large town hall, Rathaus Schöneberg, was completed in 1914. In 1920, Schöneberg became a part of Greater Berlin. Subsequent to World War II the Rathaus served as the city hall of West Berlin until 1991 when the administration of the reunited City of Berlin moved back to the Rotes Rathaus in Mitte; the locality of Schöneberg includes the neighbourhoods of Bayerisches Viertel and the Rote Insel as well as Lindenhof and the large natural park area Südgelände on the outside of the Ringbahn railway circle line. Dorfkirche, the old village church, from 1766 Rathaus Schöneberg, 1914 at John-F.-Kennedy-Platz, where on 26 June 1963 U. S. President John F. Kennedy held his "Ich bin ein Berliner" speech Headquarters of the RIAS Berlin from 1948 to 1993 headquarters of DeutschlandRadio Berlin from 1994 until the station was renamed Deutschlandradio Kultur in 2005.
The building was erected in 1941 by the IG Farben conglomerate. Former headquarters of the Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe, the public transport company of Berlin, on Potsdamer Straße Kaufhaus des Westens, the largest department store in continental Europe, at Wittenbergplatz Heinrich-von-Kleist-Park, first laid out in 1656 by Elector Frederick William of Brandenburg as a nursery Berlin's Botanical Garden, which in 1910 moved to Dahlem; the Kammergericht appellate court building was erected within the park in 1913, together with two colonnades by Carl von Gontard from 1780, moved here from the Alexanderplatz. On 8 August 1944 it was the site of the Volksgerichtshof show trial of members of the 20 July plot led by judge-president Roland Freisler. From 1945 onward, the building served as the seat of the Allied Control Council in Berlin; when the Soviet representatives left the Council in 1948, the Berlin Air Safety Center remained there as the only four-power authority, while the rest of the building was empty.
Today it again serves as the seat of the Kammergericht. Pallasstraße Hochbunker, a former air raid shelter, built in 1943 by forced laborers. A large social housing estate was built in 1977 to bridge over the bunker and to cross the street, the former site of the Berlin Sportpalast; the building where Joseph Goebbels held his 1943 "Total War" speech was demolished in 1973. The present housing estate is known to Berliners as the Sozialpalast. Lutherkirche at Denewitzplatz, which now houses the American Church in Berlin. Blixa Bargeld, born 12 January 1959 Marlene Dietrich, born 27 December 1901, Sedanstraße 65, Rote Insel, died 6 May 1992 in Paris. Nelly Sachs, holder of the 1966 Nobel Prize for Literature, born 10 December 1891, Maaßenstraße 12, died 12 May 1970 in Stockholm Willi Stoph, born 9 July 1914, Rote Insel, died 13 April 1999 in Berlin Hans Baluschek, Ceciliengärten housing estate, 1929–1933 August Bebel Hauptstraße 97 Gottfried Benn Bozener Straße 20 David Bowie Hauptstraße 155, 1976–1978 Iggy Pop Hauptstraße 155, 1976–1978 Paul Burridge Winterfeldtstraße 83, 2006–2008 Ferruccio Busoni Viktoria-Luise-Platz 11, buried Städtischer Friedhof III cemetery, Friedenau Albert Einstein Haberlandstraße 5, 1919-1933 Hans Fallada Luitpoldstraße 11 Sepp Herberger Bülowstraße Hilde Hildebrand Voßbergstraße 2, 1930–1932 Christopher Isherwood Nollendorfstraße 17 Klaus Kinski, Wartburgstraße 3, 1930–1944 Hildegard Knef, Sedanstraße 68 Else Lasker-Schüler Motzstraße 7 Friedrich Luft (1911–