Ceramics in Mexico date back thousands of years before the Pre-Columbian period, when ceramic arts and pottery crafts developed with the first advanced civilizations and cultures of Mesoamerica. With one exception, pre-Hispanic wares were not glazed, but rather burnished and painted with colored fine clay slips, the potters wheel was unknown as well, pieces were shaped by molding and other methods. After the Spanish Invasion and Conquest, European techniques and designs were introduced, indigenous traditions survive in a few pottery items such as comals, and the addition of indigenous design elements into mostly European motifs. Today, ceramics are produced from traditional items such as dishes, kitchen utensils to new items such as sculptures. Despite the fame of the prior, the bulk of items produced in the country are floor. Mexico has a number of well-known artisan ceramic traditions, most of which are in the center, examples are the Talavera of Puebla, the majolica of Guanajuato, the various wares of the Guadalajara area, and barro negro of Oaxaca.
A more recent addition is the production of Mata Ortiz or Pakimé wares in Chihuahua, the making of earthenware began to replace stone utensils in Mexico began around the Purrón period. Many of these first ceramics were gourd or squash shaped, a carry over from when these vegetables were used to carry liquids and this earthenware developed into a pottery tradition that mostly used clay thinly coated with a fine clay slip. Most clays in Mexico need temper to regulate water absorption, with one significant exception being the clay used in the Fine Orangeware of the Gulf Coast, pre-Hispanic vessels were shaped by modeling, coiling or molding. Except for a proto wheel used by the Zapotecs, the wheel was unknown until the Spanish Conquest. Simple pinch pots or coiled pots were made by the family. The earliest molded pieces were simply clay pressed against a pre-existing bowl, famous examples of this type exist in Tlaxcala and Puebla states. Many figurines were made using molds. Sometimes vessels were made with several molded pieces with the upper part finished by coiling, with one exception, pre-Hispanic pieces were not glazed, but rather the finish was made with a slip made of extremely fine clay.
This slip often had mineral pigments added for color, which could be added before and/or after firing, firing was done in an open fire or in a pit. Figurines were often done in the family hearth, pots were fired in a heap placed on the ground or in a pit and covered with wood. The use of this method for firing most often led to incompletely fired pots, the only glazed ware from Mesoamerica is called Plumbate. It was glazed with a fine slip mixed with lead and fired by a special technique and it was produced only for a short time and its appearance marks the Early Post Classic period at many archeological sites
Mexican wine and wine making began with the arrival of the Spanish in the 16th century, when they brought vines from Europe to modern day Mexico, the oldest wine-growing region in the Americas. In 1699, Charles II of Spain prohibited wine making in Mexico, from until Mexico’s Independence, wine was produced in Mexico only on a small scale. After Independence, wine making for personal purposes was no longer prohibited and production rose, especially in the late 19th, many other European immigrant groups helped with the comeback of wine in Mexico. However, the Mexican Revolution set back wine production, especially in the north of the country, Wine production in Mexico has been rising in both quantity and quality since the 1980s, although competition from foreign wines and 40% tax on the product makes competing difficult within Mexico. Mexico is not traditionally a country, but rather prefers beer, tequila. Interest in Mexican wine, especially in the cities and tourists areas, has grown along with Mexican wines’ reputation throughout the world.
Many Mexican companies have received numerous awards, various wine producers from Mexico have won international awards for their products. There are three major wine producing areas in Mexico, with the Baja California area producing 90% of Mexico’s wine. This area is promoted heavily for enotourism with the “Ruta del Vino”, which connects over fifty wineries with the port of Ensenada and the border and the annual Vendimia harvest festival. According to legend, Hernán Cortés and his soldiers quickly depleted the wine they brought them from Spain celebrating the conquest of the Aztec Empire in 1521. Because of this, one of Cortés’ first acts as governor was to order the planting of grapevines throughout New Spain, in the early colonial era, ships arriving to Mexico and Spain’s other colonies carried grapevines. In certain areas, Spaniards found a type of grapevine. However, vines from Europe grew very well here, and they were planted in monasteries and haciendas in the states of Puebla, Coahuila and others.
In 1597, Casa Madero was founded by Lorenzo García in the town of Santa María de las Parras as the oldest winery in the Americas and this area of Coahuila soon became a major wine producer due to its climate and good supplies of water. The vines that were established here were exported to the Napa Valley in California. Vineyards in the Americas, especially New Spain were successful enough that wine exports from Spain to America plummeted, because of this, Charles II decided to prohibit the production of wine in Spain’s colonies, especially Mexico, except for the making of wine for the Church in 1699. That prohibition stayed in force until Mexico’s Independence, many missionaries refused to abide by the edict and continued to produce wine for normal consumption on a small scale. One of these was Jesuit priest Juan Ugarte, who planted the first vines in Baja California when he arrived at the Loreto mission in 1701, from the end of the 18th century to the middle of the 19th, most wine production was done by clergy
Scandinavia /ˌskændᵻˈneɪviə/ is a historical and cultural region in Northern Europe characterized by a common ethnocultural North Germanic heritage and mutually intelligible North Germanic languages. The term Scandinavia always includes the three kingdoms of Denmark and Sweden, the remote Norwegian islands of Svalbard and Jan Mayen are usually not seen as a part of Scandinavia, nor is Greenland, an overseas territory of Denmark. This looser definition almost equates to that of the Nordic countries, in Nordic languages, only Denmark and Sweden are commonly included in the definition of Scandinavia. In English usage, Scandinavia sometimes refers to the geographical area, the name Scandinavia originally referred vaguely to the formerly Danish, now Swedish, region Scania. Icelanders and the Faroese are to a significant extent descended from the Norse, Finland is mainly populated by Finns, with a minority of approximately 5% of Swedish speakers. A small minority of Sami people live in the north of Scandinavia.
The Danish and Swedish languages form a continuum and are known as the Scandinavian languages—all of which are considered mutually intelligible with one another. Faroese and Icelandic, sometimes referred to as insular Scandinavian languages, are intelligible in continental Scandinavian languages only to a limited extent, Finnish and Meänkieli are closely related to each other and more distantly to the Sami languages, but are entirely unrelated to the Scandinavian languages. Apart from these, German and Romani are recognized minority languages in Scandinavia, the southern and by far most populous regions of Scandinavia have a temperate climate. Scandinavia extends north of the Arctic Circle, but has mild weather for its latitude due to the Gulf Stream. Much of the Scandinavian mountains have a tundra climate. There are many lakes and moraines, legacies of the last glacial period, Scandinavia usually refers to Denmark and Sweden. Some sources argue for the inclusion of the Faroe Islands and Iceland, though that broader region is known by the countries concerned as Norden.
Before this time, the term Scandinavia was familiar mainly to classical scholars through Pliny the Elders writings, and was used vaguely for Scania, as a political term, Scandinavia was first used by students agitating for Pan-Scandinavianism in the 1830s. After a visit to Sweden, Andersen became a supporter of early political Scandinavism, the term is often defined according to the conventions of the cultures that lay claim to the term in their own use. More precisely, and subject to no dispute, is that Finland is included in the broader term Nordic countries, various promotional agencies of the Nordic countries in the United States serve to promote market and tourism interests in the region. The official tourist boards of Scandinavia sometimes cooperate under one umbrella, Norways government entered one year later. All five Nordic governments participate in the joint promotional efforts in the United States through the Scandinavian Tourist Board of North America, Scandinavia can thus be considered a subset of the Nordic countries
Finnmark is a county in the extreme northeastern part of Norway. By land, it borders Troms county to the west, Finland to the south, and Russia to the east, and by water, the Norwegian Sea to the northwest, the county was formerly known as Finmarkens amt or Vardøhus amt. Since 2002, it has had two names and Finnmárku. It is part of the Sápmi region, which spans four countries, as well as the Barents Region, Vardø, the easternmost municipality in Norway, is located farther east than the cities of St. Petersburg and Istanbul. The Old Norse form of the name was Finnmǫrk, the first element is finn, the Norse name for the Sámi people. The last element is mǫrk which means woodland or borderland, in Norse times the name referred to any places where Sámi people were living. The coat of arms are black with a castle tower, technically described as Sable. The design is from 1967 and shows the old Vardøhus Fortress on the border with Russia. Finnmark is the northernmost and easternmost county in Norway, by area, Finnmark is Norways largest county, even larger than the neighboring country of Denmark.
However, with a population of about 75,000, it is the least populated of all Norwegian counties, Finnmark has a total coastline of 6,844 kilometres, including 3,155 kilometres of coastline on the islands. Nearly 12,300 people or 16.6 percent of the population in 2000 was living in the 100-meter belt along the coastline. Honningsvåg in Finnmark claims to be the northernmost city of the world, the coast is indented by large fjords, many of which are false fjords, as they are not carved out by glaciers. The highest point is located on the top of the glacier Øksfjordjøkelen, which has an area of 45 square kilometres, both Øksfjordjøkelen and Seilandsjøkelen are located in the western part of Finnmark. The Øksfjord plateau glacier calved directly into the sea until 1900, the central and eastern part of Finnmark is generally less mountainous, and has no glaciers. The land east of Nordkapp is mostly below 300 m, the nature varies from barren coastal areas facing the Barents Sea, to more sheltered fjord areas and river valleys with gullies and tree vegetation.
About half of the county is above the line. This valley has the highest density of Brown bears in Norway and moose are common in large parts of Finnmark, but rare on the coast. The interior parts of the county are part of the great Finnmarksvidda plateau, with an elevation of 300 to 400 m, with numerous lakes, the plateau is famous for its tens of thousands of reindeer owned by the Sami, and swarms of mosquitos in mid-summer
The Nordic countries or Nordics are a geographical and cultural region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic, where they are most commonly known as Norden. They consist of Denmark, Iceland and Sweden, the population of the Nordic countries are mainly Scandinavian or Finnish, with Greenlandic Inuit and the Sami people as minorities. Of todays native languages, Danish, Icelandic, the non-Germanic languages spoken are Finnish and several Sami languages. The main religion is Lutheran Christianity, the Nordic countries have much in common in their way of life, their use of Scandinavian languages and social structure. Politically, Nordic countries do not form an entity. Especially in English, Scandinavia is sometimes used as a synonym for the Nordic countries, Scandinavian Peninsula on the other hand covers mainland Norway and Sweden as well as the northernmost part of Finland. At 3,425,804 square kilometers, the area of the Nordic countries would form the 7th-largest country in the world. Uninhabitable icecaps and glaciers comprise about half of area, mostly in Greenland.
In January 2013, the region had a population of around 26 million people, the Nordic countries cluster near the top in numerous metrics of national performance, including education, economic competitiveness, civil liberties, quality of life, and human development. Although the area is linguistically heterogeneous, with three unrelated groups, the common linguistic heritage is one of the factors making up the Nordic identity. The North Germanic languages Danish and Swedish are considered mutually intelligible and these languages are taught in school throughout the Nordic countries. Swedish, for example, is a subject in Finnish schools. Danish is mandatory in Faroese and Greenlandic schools, as these states are a part of the Danish Realm. Iceland teaches Danish, since Iceland too was a part of the Danish Realm until 1918, there is a high degree of income redistribution and little social unrest. The Nordic countries consists of historical territories of the Scandinavian countries, areas that share a common history and it is meant unambiguously to refer to this larger group, since the term Scandinavia is narrower and sometimes ambiguous.
The Nordic countries are considered to unambiguously refer to Denmark, Iceland and Sweden. The term is derived indirectly from the local term Norden, used in the Scandinavian languages, unlike the Nordic countries, the term Norden is in the singular. The demonym is nordbo, literally meaning northern dweller, especially outside of the Nordic region the term Scandinavia is often used incorrectly as a synonym for the Nordic countries
The Faroe Islands, spelled the Faeroes, is an archipelago between the Norwegian Sea and the North Atlantic, about halfway between Norway and Iceland,320 kilometres north-northwest of Scotland. Its area is about 1,400 square kilometres with a population of 49,188 in 2016, the Faeroe Islands is an autonomous country within the Danish Realm. The land of the Faeroes is rugged, and these islands have an oceanic climate, wet, cloudy. Despite this island groups northerly latitude, temperatures average above freezing throughout the year because of the Gulf Stream, between 1035 and 1814, the Faeroes were part of the Hereditary Kingdom of Norway. In 1814, the Treaty of Kiel granted Denmark control over the islands, the Faroe Islands have been a self-governing country within the Kingdom of Denmark since 1948. The Faroese have control of most domestic matters, areas that remain the responsibility of Denmark include military defence, the police department, the justice department and foreign affairs. However, as they are not part of the customs area as Denmark, the Faroe Islands have an independent trade policy.
The islands have representation in the Nordic Council as members of the Danish delegation, the people of the Faroe Islands compete as national team in certain sports. In Danish, the name Færøerne may reflect an Old Norse word fær, the morpheme øerne represents a plural of ø in Danish. The Danish name thus translates as the islands of sheep, in Faroese, the name appears as Føroyar. Oyar represents the plural of oy, older Faroese for island, the modern Faeroese word for island is oyggj. In the English language, their name is sometimes spelled Faeroe, archaeological evidence shows settlers living on the Faroe Islands in two successive periods prior to the arrival of the Norse, the first between 400 and 600 and the second between 600 and 800. Scientists from the University of Aberdeen have found early cereal pollen from domesticated plants, archaeologist Mike Church noted that Dicuil mentioned what may have been the Faroes. He suggested that the living there might have been from Ireland, Scotland or Scandinavia.
A Latin account of a made by Brendan, an Irish monastic saint who lived around 484–578. This association, however, is far from conclusive in its description, Dicuil, an Irish monk of the early 9th century, wrote a more definite account. 800, bringing Old West Norse, which evolved into the modern Faroese language, according to Icelandic sagas such as Færeyjar Saga, one of the best known men in the island was Tróndur í Gøtu, a descendant of Scandinavian chiefs who had settled in Dublin, Ireland. Tróndur led the battle against Sigmund Brestursson, the Norwegian monarchy, a traditional name for the islands in Irish, Na Scigirí, possibly refers to the Skeggjar Beards, a nickname given to island dwellers
Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
Melipona beecheii is a species of eusocial, stingless bees of the order Hymenoptera and the genus Melipona. It is native to Central America from the Yucatán Peninsula in the north to Costa Rica in the south, M. beecheii was cultivated in the Yucatán Peninsula starting in the pre-Columbian era by the ancient Maya civilization. The Mayan name for M. beecheii is xunan kab, which translates roughly to regal lady bee, M. beecheii once served as the subject of various Mayan religious ceremonies. Melipona beecheii is a member of the family Apidae of eusocial bees within the order Hymenoptera, the subfamily Meliponini is commonly referred to as stingless bees. The genus Melipona contains nearly 50 other species, Melipona beecheii has a golden-yellowish and brown striped body with translucent wings attached to the back. It has a body composed of a head and abdomen, none of which are segmented. Antennae protrude from the head and stick straight out, M. beecheii has small, white hairs covering the head and abdomen.
Queens and drones are all roughly the same size, all members of the hive regardless of their future role develop in identical, mass-provisioned, sealed cells. This allows for self-determination of roles, the root of conflict within M. beecheii. Melipona beecheii is a eusocial bee that has been observed in a variety of geographic locations with tropical climates. M. beecheii can be found in Central America, especially in the southern Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Melipona beecheii has been observed primarily in tropical forests, both humid and arid. M. beecheii builds its nests inside hollow cavities of trees and, there is increasing use of insecticides in the forest and decreasing interest in the ancient Mayan practice of beekeeping. Beekeepers who work with M. beecheii in the Mayan zone in Quintana Roo state, in M. beecheii, all females, even those designated to be workers, have the ability to develop as queens. As a result of potential to self-determine, immature females may try to develop as queens in order to gain greater reproductive opportunities.
When a colonys queen dies, or before the formation of new colonies by swarming, new queens are produced, workers kill the extra queens by biting off their heads and limbs. The average life expectancy of developing queens is 47 hours, advantages to producing excess queens include the provision of spare queens in case of queen failure, and the ability to select the best queen from a pool of candidates. Melipona beecheii exhibits foraging specialization within the community, single-foraging bees are responsible for harvesting one single commodity, such as pollen, nectar, or resin, in a single day while multi-foraging bees will forage for two or three of those resources. About half of the bees are single-foraging and half are multi-foraging, a switch in foraging specialization occurs very rapidly, often within a single day
The term has been extended to include not only the geographic location of supplier and consumer but can be defined in terms of social and supply chain characteristics. For example, local food initiatives often promote sustainable and organic farming practices, local food represents an alternative to the global food model, a model which often sees food travelling long distances before it reaches the consumer. We can trace back the seeds of the food movement to the creation of the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933. The contemporary American movement associated with the term can be traced back to proposed resolutions to the Society for Nutrition Educations 1981 guidelines and these largely unsuccessful resolutions encouraged increased local production to slow farmland loss. The program described sustainable diets - a term new to the American public. At the time, the resolutions were met with criticism from pro-business institutions. No single definition of local or local food systems exists, the geographic distances between production and consumption varies within the movement.
However, the public recognizes that local describes the marketing arrangement. There are a number of different definitions for local have been used or recorded by researchers assessing local food systems most informed by political or geographic boundaries, among the more widely circulated and popular defining parameters is the concept of food miles, which has been suggested for policy recommendations. In 2008 Congress passed H. R.2419, which amended the Consolidated Farm, in May 2010 the USDA acknowledged this definition in an informational leaflet. Similar to watersheds, food sheds follow the process of food comes from. It is the responsibility to conclude how local the food is. + The USDA included statistics about the growing local food market in the leaflet released in May 2010. The statistics are as follows, Direct-to-consumer marketing amounted to $1.2 billion in current dollar sales in 2007, according to the 2007 Census of Agriculture, compared with $551 million in 1997. Direct-to-consumer sales accounted for 0.4 percent of agricultural sales in 2007.
If non-edible products are excluded from total agricultural sales, direct-to-consumer sales accounted for 0.8 percent of sales in 2007. The number of markets rose to 5,274 in 2009, up from 2,756 in 1998 and 1,755 in 1994. In early 2010, estimates exceeded 1,400, but the number could be much larger, in the 2016 Index, the three top-ranking states were Vermont and Oregon, while the three lowest-ranking states were Nevada and Florida. Networks of local farmers and producers are now collaborating in the UK, Canada and this technological change enables more consumers to participate in farmers markets
The French Laundry
The French Laundry is a French restaurant located in Yountville, California, in the Napa Valley. The chef and owner of the French Laundry is Thomas Keller, the restaurant building dates from 1900, and is in the National Register of Historic Places. The French Laundry is frequently honored by inclusion in the annual Restaurant Magazine list of the Top 50 Restaurants of the World, since 2006, it has been awarded three stars in the Michelin Guide to San Francisco. It received a review in The New York Times and was called the best restaurant in the world. Since 2007, the restaurant has been the recipient of the Wine Spectator Grand Award, in July 2014, the Napa Valley restaurant celebrated its 20th anniversary with a six-hour feast for friends and luminaries and temporarily closed for renovations before the end of the year. The restaurant reopened on April 7,2015 following demolition of a number of buildings on the site, during the remainder of the renovation project, the staff is working out of a temporary kitchen.
The building was built as a saloon in the 1900s by a Scottish stonesman for Pierre Guillaume, when a law was passed in 1906 prohibiting sale of alcohol within a mile of a veterans home, Guillaume sold the building. In the 1920s, the building was owned by John Lande who used it as a French steam laundry, in 1978, Don Schmidt, the mayor of Yountville renovated the building into a restaurant. He and his wife Sally Schmitt owned the French Laundry for much of the 1980s, in 1994, Keller bought the restaurant. In 2004, the restaurant installed a heating and air conditioning system. Every day, the French Laundry serves two different nine-course tasting menus, none of which uses the same ingredient more than once, during the holiday season, the restaurant may offer special dishes. The menu as of October 26,2015 is $310 USD per person, not including gratuity for the meal, not including additional supplements such as Russian caviar. The food is mainly French with contemporary American influences, giving rise to such unique specialties as Cuisse de grenouilles sur un bâton.
Previous Chef de Cuisine Timothy Hollingsworth won the Bocuse dOr USA semi-finals in 2008, the restaurant is open for dinner every evening, and lunch is normally served Friday through Sunday, although Friday lunch will not be offered during the current renovation project. They typically close for 1–2 weeks each winter and summer, in February 2004, Thomas Keller opened the East Coast version of his Yountville restaurant, which he named Per Se. The kitchens of restaurants are connected via a real-time video feed on a television screen. Thomas Keller opened a restaurant in the Silverado Resort & Spa during the renovation of The French Laundry. The restaurant, which will serve American classics, is to be called Ad Lib and this is not the first pop-up restaurant that Keller has helmed, previously popping up at the Mandarin Oriental in Hong Kong and at Harrods in London. S
A sommelier, or wine steward, is a trained and knowledgeable wine professional, normally working in fine restaurants, who specializes in all aspects of wine service as well as wine and food pairing. The role in fine dining today is more specialized and informed than that of a wine waiter. It is opined by Sommeliers Australia that the role is strategically on a par with that of the chef de cuisine, a sommelier may be responsible for the development of wine lists, and books and for the delivery of wine service and training for the other restaurant staff. Working along with the team, they pair and suggest wines that will best complement each particular food menu item. This entails the need for a knowledge of how food and wine, spirits. A professional sommelier works on the floor of the restaurant and is in contact with restaurant patrons. The sommelier has a responsibility to work within the taste preference, the modern word is French, deriving from Middle French where it referred to a court official charged with transportation of supplies.
This use of the dates to a period when pack animals would be used to transport supplies. The Middle French probably finds its origin in Old Provençal where a saumalier was a pack animal driver, sauma referred to a pack animal or the load of a pack animal. In Late Latin, sagma referred to a packsaddle, one can become a sommelier only through experience in the restaurant or wine industry as a qualification, though many choose to become certified or educated by one of the many certifying bodies. In France, the Union des Sommeliers was founded in 1907 to ensure protection for its members. The approach and role of the association developed throughout the years as it lost its autonomy by merging with the Mutualité Hôtelière in 1959, ten years later, sommeliers regained their independence as the Association des Sommeliers de Paris was founded in 1969. In Italy, the Italian Sommelier Association, AIS, being founded on July 7,1965, is one of the oldest sommelier associations of the world and it is officially recognised and legally acknowledged by the Italian government.
Italian Sommelier Association is part and founding member of the Worldwide Sommelier Association and it is actually the largest sommelier association ever featuring over 33,000 members only in Italy, featuring either high curriculum level and high quality service standards. A Professional Sommelier qualification and diploma is issued by AIS after candidates career assessment for those sommeliers actually working in a food and beverage establishment. The Wine & Spirit Education Trust, often referred to as WSET, is a British organisation which arranges courses and exams in the field of wine and spirits. It was founded in 1969, is headquartered in London and is regarded as one of the worlds leading providers of wine education. Although WSET does not market itself as a certification and education body