The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Kurds or the Kurdish people are an Iranian ethnic group of Western Asia inhabiting a contiguous area known as Kurdistan. Geographically, those four adjacent and often-mountainous areas include southeastern Turkey, northwestern Iran, northern Iraq, northern Syria. There are exclaves of Kurds in central Anatolia and Khorasan. Additionally, there are significant Kurdish diaspora communities in the cities of western Turkey, in particular Istanbul, while a Kurdish diaspora has developed in Western Europe in Germany. Numerically, the Kurds are estimated to number anywhere from a low of 30 million, to as high as 45 million. Kurds speak the Kurdish languages, such as Kurmanji and Southern Kurdish. Religiously, although the majority of Kurds belong to the Shafi‘i school of Sunni Islam, there are prominent numbers of Kurds who practice Shia Islam and Alevism. Minority of the Kurdish people are adherents to Yarsanism, Yazidism and Christianity. After World War One and the defeat of the Ottoman Empire, the victorious Western allies made provision for a Kurdish state in the 1920 Treaty of Sevres.
However, that promise was nullified three years when the Treaty of Lausanne set the boundaries of modern Turkey and made no provision for a Kurdish state, leaving Kurds with minority status in their respective countries. This fact has led to numerous genocides and rebellions, along with the current ongoing armed guerrilla conflicts in Turkey and Syria / Rojava. Although Kurds are the majority population in the autonomous region of Iraqi Kurdistan, because of their statelessness, Kurdish nationalist movements continue to pursue greater cultural rights and independence throughout Greater Kurdistan. Kurdish is a collection of related dialects spoken by the Kurds, it is spoken in those parts of Iran, Iraq and Turkey which comprise Kurdistan. Kurdish holds official status in Iraq as a national language alongside Arabic, is recognized in Iran as a regional language, in Armenia as a minority language; the Kurdish languages belong to the northwestern sub‑group of the Iranian languages, which in turn belongs to the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European family.
Most Kurds are either bilingual or multilingual, speaking the language of their respective nation of origin, such as Arabic and Turkish as a second language alongside their native Kurdish, while those in diaspora communities speak three or more languages. According to Mackenzie, there are few linguistic features that all Kurdish dialects have in common and that are not at the same time found in other Iranian languages; the Kurdish dialects according to Mackenzie are classified as: Northern group Central group Southern group including Kermanshahi and LakiThe Zaza and Gorani are ethnic Kurds, but the Zaza–Gorani languages are not classified as Kurdish. Commenting on the differences between the dialects of Kurdish, Kreyenbroek clarifies that in some ways and Sorani are as different from each other as is English from German, giving the example that Kurmanji has grammatical gender and case endings, but Sorani does not, observing that referring to Sorani and Kurmanji as "dialects" of one language is supported only by "their common origin... and the fact that this usage reflects the sense of ethnic identity and unity of the Kurds."
The number of Kurds living in Southwest Asia is estimated at close to 30 million, with another one or two million living in diaspora. Kurds comprise anywhere from 18% to 20% of the population in Turkey as high as 25%. Kurds form regional majorities in all four of these countries, viz. in Turkish Kurdistan, Iraqi Kurdistan, Iranian Kurdistan and Syrian Kurdistan. The Kurds are the fourth largest ethnic group in West Asia after the Arabs and Turks; the total number of Kurds in 1991 was placed at 22.5 million, with 48% of this number living in Turkey, 18% in Iraq, 24% in Iran, 4% in Syria. Recent emigration accounts for a population of close to 1.5 million in Western countries, about half of them in Germany. A special case are the Kurdish populations in the Transcaucasus and Central Asia, displaced there in the time of the Russian Empire, who underwent independent developments for more than a century and have developed an ethnic identity in their own right; this groups' population was estimated at close to 0.4 million in 1990.
"The land of Karda" is mentioned on a Sumerian clay-tablet dated to the 3rd millennium B. C; this land was inhabited by "the people of Su". Other Sumerian clay-tablets referred to the people, who lived in the land of Karda, as the Qarduchi and the Qurti. Karda/Qardu is etymologically related to the Hebrew term Ararat. Qarti or Qartas, who were settled on the mountains north of Mesopotamia, are considered as a probable ancestor of the Kurds. Akkadians were attacked by nomads coming through Qartas territory at the end of 3rd millennium B. C. Akkadians distinguished them as Guti, they conquered Mesopotamia in 2150 B. C. and ruled with 21 kings. Many Kurds consider themselves descended from the Medes, an ancient Iranian people, use a calendar dating from 612 B. C. when the Assyrian capital of Nineveh was conquered by the Medes. The claimed Median descent is refl
Air Force Public Affairs Agency
The Air Force Public Affairs Agency is a United States Air Force field operating agency headquartered at Joint Base San Antonio-Randolph, Texas. Headquarters AFPAA consists of the Directorates of Staff and Operations. Additionally, AFPAA is accountable for six Operating Locations; the Directorate of Staff includes Financial Management, IT Support, Knowledge Operations and Personnel and Training. The Directorate of Operations includes Branding and Licensing, Public Web and Programs, career field development courses writers; the agency oversees the 1st Combat Camera Squadron and 4th Combat Camera Squadron co-located at Joint Base Charleston, South Carolina. The agency provides administrative and logistical support to six field offices across the United States; these include a command information branch at the Pentagon. Combined, these offices and units encompass representatives from all specialties within the Public Affairs career field, are charged with a multitude of unique public affairs responsibilities including: providing imagery documentation of Air Force warfighter and humanitarian relief missions.
Additionally, AFPAA serves as the sole force provider for combat camera forces in the Air Force. AFPAA provides career-field support through the development of career development courses for the Air Force's nearly 5,500 public affairs practitioners. Provide Airmen with unique Public Affairs resources to document and convey the Air Force mission and legacy. Be the primary innovators of Public Affairs capabilities supporting global operations. AFPAA traces its roots to June 1, 1978, with the activation of the Air Force Service Information and News Center. AFSINC was redesignated as the Air Force News Center April 1, 1990, became a field operating agency Feb. 5, 1991. It was redesignated to the Air Force News Agency Aug. 1, 1991, before its redesignation to AFPAA Oct. 1, 2008. AFPAA achieved full operational capability June 3, 2013
Stars and Stripes (newspaper)
Stars and Stripes is an American military newspaper that focuses and reports on matters concerning the members of the United States Armed Forces. It operates from inside the Department of Defense, but is editorially separate from it, its First Amendment protection is safeguarded by the United States Congress, to whom an independent ombudsman, who serves the readers' interests reports; as well as a website and Stripes publishes four daily print editions for the military service members serving overseas. The newspaper has its headquarters in Washington, D. C. During World War I, the staff, roving reporters, illustrators of the Stars and Stripes were veteran reporters or young soldiers who would become such in the post-war years, it was published by the American Expeditionary Forces from February 8, 1918, to June 13, 1919. Harold Ross, editor of the Stars and Stripes, returned home to found The New Yorker magazine. Cyrus Baldridge, its art director and principal illustrator, became a major illustrator of books and magazines, as well as a writer, print maker and stage designer.
Sports page editor Grantland Rice had a long career in journalism and founded a motion picture studio called Grantland Rice Sportlight. Drama critic Alexander Woollcott's essays for Stars and Stripes were collected in his 1919 book, The Command Is Forward; the Stars and Stripes was an eight-page weekly which reached a peak of 526,000 readers, relying on the improvisational efforts of its staff to get it printed in France and distributed to U. S. troops. During World War II, the newspaper was printed in dozens of editions in several operating theaters. Again, both newspapermen in uniform and young soldiers, some of whom would become important journalists, filled the staffs and showed zeal and talent in publishing and delivering the paper on time; some of the editions were assembled and printed close to the front in order to get the latest information to the most troops. During the war, the newspaper published the 53-book series G. I. Stories. After Bill Mauldin did his popular "Up Front" cartoons for the World War II Stars and Stripes, he returned home to a successful career as an editorial cartoonist and two-time winner of the Pulitzer Prize.
The newspaper has been published continuously in Europe since 1942 and in the Pacific since 1945. Notable former Stars and Stripes staffers include: CBS 60 Minutes' Andy Rooney and Steve Kroft. A photograph in Stars and Stripes loosely inspired the exploits of PFC Jack Agnew in the 1965 novel and its 1967 film adaptation, The Dirty Dozen. American comic strips have been presented in Stripes' Sunday Comics. Stars and Stripes is authorized by Congress and the US Department of Defense to produce independent daily military news and information distributed at U. S. military installations in Europe and Mideast and East Asia. A weekly derivative product is distributed within the United States by its commercial publishing partners. Stars and Stripes newspaper averages 32 pages each day and is published in tabloid format and online at www.stripes.com/epaper. Stars and Stripes employs civilian reporters, U. S. military senior non-commissioned officers as reporters, at a number of locations around the world and on any given day has an audience just shy of 1.0 million.
Stars and Stripes serves independent military news and information to an online audience of about 2.0 million unique visitors per month, 60 to 70 percent of whom are located in the United States. Stars and Stripes is a non-appropriated fund organization, only subsidized by the Department of Defense. A large portion of its operating costs is earned through the sale of advertising and subscriptions. Unique among the many military publications and Stripes operates as a First Amendment newspaper and is part of the newly formed Defense Media Activity; the other entities encompassed by the Defense Media Activity, are command publications of the Department of Defense. Stars and Stripes is in the process of digitizing its World War II editions. Newspaper microfilm from 1949 to 1999 is now in searchable format through a partnership with Heritage Microfilm and has been integrated into an archives website. Newspaper Archive has more made the England and Mediterranean editions from World War II available.
Ensley Llewellyn Library of Congress. "Stars and Stripes: The American Soldiers' Newspaper of World War I, 1918 to 1919". Library of Congress. Retrieved February 7, 2018. Official website Stars and Stripes digital editions Today's Stars and Stripes Mideast Edition front page at the Newseum websiteStars and Stripes multimedia gallery Stars and Stripes Museum/Library Association, Inc. Stars and Stripes: The American Soldiers' Newspaper of World War I, 1918 to 1919 The short film The Story of Stars and Stripes is available for free download at the Internet Archive The short film Big Picture: All the World to All the Troops is available for free download at the Internet Archive
Global War on Terrorism Service Medal
The Global War on Terrorism Service Medal is a military award of the United States Armed Forces, created through Executive Order 13289 on 12 March 2003, by President George W. Bush; the medal recognizes those military service members who have supported operations to counter terrorism in the War on Terror from 11 September 2001, to a date yet to be determined. In September 2002, the U. S. Department of Defense sent a request to the U. S. Army Institute of Heraldry to provide a design for a Global War on Terrorism Service Medal. In January 2003, a design was completed, approved and made official in March 2003. According to the U. S. Department of Defense, the Global War on Terrorism Service Medal will cease being awarded when Presidential Proclamation 7463, "Declaration of National Emergency by Reason of Certain Terrorist Attacks", delivered on 14 September 2001, is terminated by the U. S. government. The following are the seven established operations for the Global War on Terrorism Service Medal recognized by the Department of Defense: The Coast Guard awards the medal for different operations.
To receive the Global War on Terrorism Service Medal, a military service member must have served on active duty during a designated anti-terrorism operation for a minimum 30 consecutive or 60 non-consecutive days. For those who were engaged in combat, killed, or wounded in the line of duty the time requirement is waived; the initial authorized operation for the Global War on Terrorism Service Medal was the so-called "Airport Security Operation" which occurred between 27 September 2001 and 31 May 2002. Additional operations, for which the Global War on Terrorism Service Medal is authorized, include the active military campaigns of Operation Enduring Freedom, Operation Noble Eagle, Operation Iraqi Freedom. Future operations are at the discretion of United States component commanders upon approval from the United States Department of Defense. In 2004, Defense Department and military service branches began publishing directives and orders, specifying that the Global War on Terrorism Service Medal would be awarded not only for direct participation in specific operations, but to any personnel who performed support duty of an anti-terrorism operation but did not directly participate.
The phrase "support" was further defined as any administrative, planning, technical, or readiness activity, which provides support to an operation of the Global War on Terrorism. As a result of this blanket term, the Global War on Terrorism Service Medal became an eligible award for most personnel of the United States Armed Forces who performed service after 11 September 2001 through March 2004. With the orders granting the GWOT-SM for "support duty", the medal has become the same type of award as the National Defense Service Medal and graduates of training schools, ROTC, service academies are presented both awards at the same time; the primary difference between the NDSM and the GWOT-SM is that the NDSM is automatic as soon as a person joins the military whereas the GWOTSM may only be presented after thirty days of active duty in a unit. The regulations for Reservists and National Guardsmen are not as well defined for the GWOT-SM as they are for the NDSM, since the presentation of the NDSM to reservists and National Guardsmen was codified and clarified as far back as the Persian Gulf War.
The U. S. Army's regulations state that all soldiers "on active duty, including Reserve Component Soldiers mobilized, or Army National Guard Soldiers activated on or after 11 September 2001 to a date to be determined having served 30 consecutive days or 60 nonconsecutive days are authorized the GWOTSM." The GWOT-SM was awarded automatically to all service members on Active Duty between 11 September 2001 and 31 March 2004. While the award is no longer automatic, the termination "date to be determined" has not been set; the Battalion Commander is the approval authority for the GWOT-SM. Service members are still eligible for the medal provided they meet the criteria in AR 600-8-22. U. S. Army soldiers serving on active duty in a training status are not authorized award of the GWOT-SM for the active duty time they are in training; the criteria for the awards states that a Soldier has to serve on active duty in support of a designated GWOT operation for 30 consecutive days or 60 nonconsecutive days.
Army soldiers in a training status are not considered to be supporting these designated operations. Regulations for rating the GWOT-SM are the same in both the Navy, the Marine Corps, Military Sealift Command for those who serve on both active duty, reserve duty, support. 30 days of consecutive duty or 60 days of non-consecutive duty in support of approved organizations. Personnel who are still in their initial career training are not eligible. Eligibility begins. Civilian Mariners attached to Military Sealift Command's supply ships may be eligible for the Global War on Terrorism Civilian Service Medal. Air Force service members were first awarded the GWOT-SM for conducting airport security operations in the fall and winter of 2001, it was subsequently awarded for participation or support of Operations Noble Eagle, Enduring Freedom, Iraqi Freedom. Members must be assigned, attached or mobilized to a unit participating in or serving in support of these designated operations for t
Military intelligence is a military discipline that uses information collection and analysis approaches to provide guidance and direction to assist commanders in their decisions. This aim is achieved by providing an assessment of data from a range of sources, directed towards the commanders' mission requirements or responding to questions as part of operational or campaign planning. To provide an analysis, the commander's information requirements are first identified, which are incorporated into intelligence collection and dissemination. Areas of study may include the operational environment, hostile and neutral forces, the civilian population in an area of combat operations, other broader areas of interest. Intelligence activities are conducted at all levels, from tactical to strategic, in peacetime, the period of transition to war, during a war itself. Most governments maintain a military intelligence capability to provide analytical and information collection personnel in both specialist units and from other arms and services.
The military and civilian intelligence capabilities collaborate to inform the spectrum of political and military activities. Personnel performing intelligence duties may be selected for their analytical abilities and personal intelligence before receiving formal training. Intelligence operations are carried out throughout the hierarchy of military activity. Strategic intelligence is concerned with broad issues such as economics, political assessments, military capabilities and intentions of foreign nations; such intelligence may be scientific, tactical, diplomatic or sociological, but these changes are analyzed in combination with known facts about the area in question, such as geography and industrial capacities. Operational intelligence is focused on denial of intelligence at operational tiers; the operational tier is below the strategic level of leadership and refers to the design of practical manifestation. The term operation intelligence is sometimes used to refer to intelligence that supports long-term investigations into multiple, similar targets.
Operational intelligence is concerned with identifying, targeting and intervening in criminal activity. Tactical intelligence is focused on support to operations at the tactical level and would be attached to the battlegroup. At the tactical level, briefings are delivered to patrols on current threats and collection priorities; these patrols are debriefed to elicit information for analysis and communication through the reporting chain. Intelligence should respond to the needs of leadership, based on the military objective and operational plans; the military objective provides a focus for the estimate process, from which a number of information requirements are derived. Information requirements may be related to terrain and impact on vehicle or personnel movement, disposition of hostile forces, sentiments of the local population and capabilities of the hostile order of battle. In response to the information requirements, analysts examine existing information, identifying gaps in the available knowledge.
Where gaps in knowledge exist, the staff may be able to task collection assets to target the requirement. Analysis reports draw on all available sources of information, whether drawn from existing material or collected in response to the requirement; the analysis reports are used to inform the remaining planning staff, influencing planning and seeking to predict adversary intent. This process is described as Intelligence Requirement Management; the process of intelligence has four phases: collection, analysis and dissemination. In the United Kingdom these are known as direction, collection and dissemination. In the U. S. military, Joint Publication 2-0 states: "The six categories of intelligence operations are: planning and direction. Many of the most important facts may be gathered from public sources; this form of information collection is known as open-source intelligence. For example, the population, ethnic make-up and main industries of a region are important to military commanders, this information is public.
It is however imperative that the collector of information understands that what is collected is "information", does not become intelligence until after an analyst has evaluated and verified this information. Collection of read materials, composition of units or elements, disposition of strength, tactics, personalities of these units and elements contribute to the overall intelligence value after careful analysis; the tonnage and basic weaponry of most capital ships and aircraft are public, their speeds and ranges can be reasonably estimated by experts just from photographs. Ordinary facts like the lunar phase on particular days or the ballistic range of common military weapons are very valuable to planning, are habitually collected in an intelligence library. A great deal of useful intelligence can be gathered from photointerpretation of detailed high-altitude pictures of a country. Photointerpreters maintain catalogs of munitions factories, military bases and crate designs in order to interpret munition shipments and inventories.
Most intelligence services support groups whose only purpose is to keep maps. Since maps have valuable civilian uses, these agencies are publicly associated or identified as other parts of the government; some historic counterintelligence services in Russia and China, have intentionally banned or p
Classified information is material that a government body deems to be sensitive information that must be protected. Access is restricted by law or regulation to particular groups of people with the necessary security clearance and need to know, intentional mishandling of the material can incur criminal penalties. A formal security clearance is required to view or handle classified documents or to access classified data; the clearance process requires a satisfactory background investigation. Documents and other information must be properly marked "by the author" with one of several levels of sensitivity—e.g. Restricted, confidential and top secret; the choice of level is based on an impact assessment. This includes security clearances for personnel handling the information. Although "classified information" refers to the formal categorization and marking of material by level of sensitivity, it has developed a sense synonymous with "censored" in US English. A distinction is made between formal security classification and privacy markings such as "commercial in confidence".
Classifications can be used with additional keywords that give more detailed instructions on how data should be used or protected. Some corporations and non-government organizations assign levels of protection to their private information, either from a desire to protect trade secrets, or because of laws and regulations governing various matters such as personal privacy, sealed legal proceedings and the timing of financial information releases. With the passage of time much classified information can become a bit less sensitive, or becomes much less sensitive, may be declassified and made public. Since the late twentieth century there has been freedom of information legislation in some countries, whereby the public is deemed to have the right to all information, not considered to be damaging if released. Sometimes documents are released with information still considered confidential obscured, as in the example at right; the purpose of classification is to protect information. Higher classifications protect information.
Classification formalises what constitutes a "state secret" and accords different levels of protection based on the expected damage the information might cause in the wrong hands. However, classified information is "leaked" to reporters by officials for political purposes. Several U. S. presidents have leaked sensitive information to get their point across to the public. Although the classification systems vary from country to country, most have levels corresponding to the following British definitions. Top Secret is the highest level of classified information. Information is further compartmented so that specific access using a code word after top secret is a legal way to hide collective and important information; such material would cause "exceptionally grave damage" to national security if made publicly available. Prior to 1942, the United Kingdom and other members of the British Empire used Most Secret, but this was changed to match the United States' category name of Top Secret in order to simplify Allied interoperability.
The Washington Post reports in an investigation entitled Top Secret America, that per 2010 "An estimated 854,000 people... hold top-secret security clearances" in the United States. Secret material would cause "serious damage" to national security. In the United States, operational "Secret" information can be marked with an additional "LIMDIS", to limit distribution. Confidential material would cause "damage" or be prejudicial to national security if publicly available. Restricted material would cause "undesirable effects"; some countries do not have such a classification. Such a level is known as "Private Information". Official material forms the generality of government business, public service delivery and commercial activity; this includes a diverse range of information, of varying sensitivities, with differing consequences resulting from compromise or loss. OFFICIAL information must be secured against a threat model, broadly similar to that faced by a large private company; the OFFICIAL classification replaced the Confidential and Restricted classifications in April 2014 in the UK.
Unclassified is technically not a classification level, but this is a feature of some classification schemes, used for government documents that do not merit a particular classification or which have been declassified. This is because the information is low-impact, therefore does not require any special protection, such as vetting of personnel. A plethora of pseudo-classifications exist under this category. Clearance is a general classification, that comprises a variety of rules controlling the level of permission required to view some classified information, how it must be stored and destroyed. Additionally, access is restricted on a "need to know" basis. Possessing a clearance does not automatically authorize the individual to view all material classified at that level or below that level; the individual must present a legitimate "need to know" in addition to the proper level of clearance. In addition to the general risk-based classification levels, additional compartmented constraints on access exist, such as Special Intelligence, which protects intelligence sources and methods, No Foreign dissemination, which restricts dissemi