Gambell is a city in the Nome Census Area of the U. S. state of Alaska. Located on St. Lawrence Island, it had a population of 681 at the 2010 census, up from 649 in 2000. Sivuqaq is the Yupik language name for Gambell, it has been called Chibuchack and Sevuokok. St. Lawrence Island has been inhabited sporadically for the past 2,000 years by both Alaskan Yup'ik and Siberian Yupik people. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the island had a population of about 4,000. Between 1878 and 1880 a famine decimated the island's population. Many who did not starve left; the remaining population of St. Lawrence Island was nearly all Siberian Yupik. In 1887, the Reformed Episcopal Church of America decided to open a mission on St. Lawrence Island; that year a carpenter and tools were left at Sivuqaq by a ship. The carpenter worked with local Yupik to build a wood building, the first they had seen; when the building was finished, the carpenter left the keys to the door with a local chief and departed. Since the carpenter had not spoken Siberian Yupik, the residents did not know the purpose of the building.
The Reformed Episcopal Church had not been able to find missionaries willing to live on St. Lawrence Island, so the building built for the mission was left unoccupied. In 1890, the building was acquired by Sheldon Jackson, he spoke to the Reverend Vene and Nellie Gambell, of Wapello, about moving to St. Lawrence Island. Gambell was hired as a schoolteacher and the Gambells came to the island in 1894, they had a daughter in 1897. Nellie Gambell became ill and the Gambells spent the winter of 1897–1898 in the United States, where Nellie was hospitalized. In the spring of 1898 they embarked on a return journey to St. Lawrence Island on the schooner Jane Gray; the ship sank in 37 people on it drowned, including the Gambells and their daughter. After their death, Sivuqaq was renamed in the Gambells' honor. On June 22, 1955, during the Cold War, a US Navy P2V Neptune with a crew of 11 was attacked by two Soviet fighters in international waters over the Bering Straits between Siberia and Alaska, crashed near Gambell, where the crew was rescued The Soviet Government, in response to a US diplomatic protest, was unusually conciliatory, stating that: There was an exchange of shots after a Soviet fighter advised the US plane that it was over Soviet territory and should leave.
The incident took place under heavy cloud cover and poor visibility, although the alleged violation of Soviet airspace could be the responsibility of US commanders not interested in preventing such violations. The Soviet military was under strict orders to "avoid any action beyond the limits of the Soviet state frontiers." The Soviet Government "expressed regret in regard to the incident." The Soviet Government, "taking into account... conditions which do not exclude the possibility of a mistake from one side or the other," was willing to compensate the US for 50% of damages sustained—the first such offer made by the Soviets for any Cold War shootdown incident. The US Government stated that it was satisfied with the Soviet expression of regret and the offer of partial compensation, although it said that the Soviet statement fell short of what the available information indicated. Gambell and Savoonga received joint title to most of the land on St. Lawrence Island under the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act of 1971.
The An-24 incident at Gambell, Alaska occurred February 27, 1974, when a Soviet Antonov An-24LR "Toros" ice reconnaissance aircraft landed at Gambell, Alaska. On August 30, 1975, Wien Air Alaska Flight 99 crashed. 10 of the 32 passengers and crew on board were killed. Gambell is located on the northwest cape of St. Lawrence Island in the Bering Sea, 325 km southwest of Nome, it is 58 km from the Chukchi Peninsula in the Russian Far East. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 30.4 square miles, of which, 10.9 square miles of it is land and 19.5 square miles of it is water. The town is served by Gambell Airport. Gambell has a tundra climate. Gambell first appeared on the 1910 U. S. Census as an unincorporated village, it formally incorporated in 1963. As of the census of 2000, there were 649 people, 159 households, 121 families residing in the city; the population density was 59.5 people per square mile. There were 187 housing units at an average density of 17.2 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city was 95.69% Native American, 3.54% White, 0.46% Asian, 0.31% from two or more races. 0.31% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 159 households out of which 51.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.4% were married couples living together, 18.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.3% were non-families. 18.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 0.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 4.08 and the average family size was 4.82. In the city, the population was spread out with 38.5% under the age of 18, 10.6% from 18 to 24, 27.4% from 25 to 44, 17.6% from 45 to 64, 5.9% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age was 26 years. For every 100 females, there were 132.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 143.3 males. The median income for a household in the city was $31,458, the median income for a family was $30,625. Males had a median income of $30,625 versus $22,250 for females.
The per capita income for the city was $8,764. About 30.6% of families and 28.5% of the population
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
Chukotsky District is an administrative and municipal district, one of the six in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Russia. It is the easternmost district of the autonomous okrug and the closest part of Russia to the United States, it borders with the Chukchi Sea in the north, the Bering Sea in the east, Providensky District in the south, the Kolyuchinskaya Bay in the west. The area of the district is 30,700 square kilometers, its administrative center is the rural locality of Lavrentiya. Population: 4,838 ; the population of Lavrentiya accounts for 30.2% of the district's total population. The district is populated by indigenous peoples, the majority being either Chukchi or Yupik; the sparse nature of the population means that this is the only district in the autonomous okrug without any urban localities. The selo of Uelen is located in the district, a focal point for indigenous artwork of the region as a whole and the birthplace of Yuri Rytkheu, the first internationally recognized Chukchi writer. Chukotsky District covers the northern half of the Chukchi Peninsula, at the northeastern tip of Eurasia.
Prior to 1957, the district was larger, as its territory covered not only present-day Chukotsky District, but present-day Providensky District, as well as a substantial territory now included in Iultinsky District. Uelen—the easternmost settlement on the Eurasian landmass and famous for its whale bone carving—is located on the district's territory, it features the most easterly point on the Eurasian landmass: Cape Dezhnev, named after Russian navigator Semyon Dezhnyov. It was the setting for a Dalstroy gulag site and the alleged starting point for Clemens Forell's epic journey in the novel As Far as My Feet Will Carry Me; the district includes Big Diomede Island, sometimes called Tomorrow Island since it is twenty-one hours ahead of its partner Little Diomede, despite being only 1 kilometer away across the sea. For the indigenous peoples, life has been rather static for the last few millennia, judging from archaeological excavations; the region contains about eighty archaeological and historical sites, many of which are in the vicinity of present-day villages.
From the view of non-indigenous people, the area now known as Chukotsky District was a formidable place and was only and tentatively explored in comparison with other areas of Chukotka. Semyon Dezhnyov and his Cossacks nearly had their entire fleet destroyed as they attempted to sail around the cape that would bear his name on their way to the Anadyr River in the mid-17th century. Eighty years Vitus Bering sailed through the strait which now bears his name, five years the first maps of the coastline were drawn by the Second Kamchatka Expedition. However, it was not for a further fifty-five years that the coast of the region was visited by James Cook, a permanent Russian presence in the form of trading posts in any of the villages was not established until the early 1900s. Prior to the establishment of the current administrative arrangement, Chukotsky Uyezd was founded with its seat in Provideniya Bay in 1909, in 1912, the seat was moved to Uelen with one of the first schools in the area opening there four years later.
There were. These settlements were destined to become local hubs and model Soviet villages Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, local indigenous people rely more on their traditional hunting skills and are considering the resettling a number of these villages due to the lack of centralized relocation; the table below outlines some of the more important historical localities within the district. Chukotsky District has the highest percentage of indigenous peoples in the whole of Chukotka, with 85% of people being of native origin; the native peoples are Chukchi, but there are small populations of Evens and Yupik. The remaining 15% of the population is of non-indigenous origin Russian; these people either migrated to the Far East or are the descendants of those who did, enticed by the higher pay, large pensions, more generous allowances permitted to those prepared to endure the cold and the isolation, as well as those who were exiled here as a result of the Stalin's purges or after having been released from the gulag.
Unlike with most other districts of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Chukotsky District's economy is much more focused on traditional marine hunting and reindeer herding. This is in part because, at around 85%, Chukotsky District has the highest percentage of indigenous peoples in the autonomous okrug. There is next to no industrial activity in this district, with the population involved in reindeer herding and seal hunting, with an administrative program in place to ensure that local indigenous peoples receive material incentives to continue with their traditional way of life. Although many native rural localities in the autonomous okrug have historical museums documenting the culture of the indigenous peoples, Chukotsky District has a strong cultural tradition, with Uelen being a notable hub for whale bone carving. Famous for its walrus ivory carvings, Uelen has long been a major artistic center in the region, with several of the leading exponents of the craft, such as Vukvutagin, Vukvol and Khukhutan, working out of Uelen.
Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge
The Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge is a United States National Wildlife Refuge covering about 19.16 million acres in southwestern Alaska. It is the second-largest National Wildlife Refuge in the country, only smaller than the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, it is a coastal plain extending to the Bering Sea, covering the delta created by the Yukon and Kuskokwim rivers. The delta includes extensive wetlands near sea level that are inundated by Bering Sea tides, it is bordered on the east by the largest state park in the United States. The refuge is administered from offices in Bethel. U. S. President Theodore Roosevelt first set aside southwestern Alaska refuge lands in 1909. Other lands were added through the years until December 2, 1980, when President Jimmy Carter signed the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act into law, which created the Yukon Delta National Wildlife Reserve by consolidating existing refuges and adding additional lands; the large islands Nelson and Nunivak are located within the refuge.
In 1968, the Clarence Rhode National Wildlife Range was designated as a National Natural Landmark by the National Park Service. It is home to about 35 villages and 25,000 people, many of Yup'ik Eskimo origin and dependent on a subsistence lifestyle; the refuge's coastal region bordering the Bering Sea is a rich, productive wildlife habitat supporting one of the largest concentrations of water fowl in the world. This national wildlife refuge is home to mammalian species such as muskrat, brown bear, moose, black bear, Canadian lynx, beaver, two species of fox, river otter, wolverine, polar bear, wolf packs. More than one million ducks and half a million geese use the area for breeding purposes each year. There are very large seasonal concentrations of northern pintails, grebes and cranes; some of the 150,000 plus Mulchatna caribou herd migrate onto the eastern tundra areas during the fall and winter. Walruses and porpoises can be found in the waters as well as beluga and minke whales. List of largest National Wildlife Refuges List of largest wilderness areas in the United States Official website
King Island (Alaska)
King Island is an island in the Bering Sea, west of Alaska. It is south of Wales, Alaska. King island is a small island located about 40 miles offshore, south of the village of Wales and about 90 miles northwest of Nome; the island is about 1 mile wide with steep slopes on all sides. It was named by James Cook, first European to sight the island in 1778, for Lt. James King, a member of his party, it is part of the Bering Sea unit of the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge. The island was once the winter home of a group of about 200 Inupiat who called themselves Aseuluk, meaning "people of the sea," or Ukivokmiut, from Ukivok, the village of King Island and "miut," meaning "people of" or "group of people"; the Ukivokmiut spent their summers engaging in subsistence hunting and gathering on King Island and on the mainland near the location of present-day Nome, Alaska. Their winters were spent in other subsistence activities hunting and fishing on the ice. Subsistence activities on and around the island included hunting seals and walruses, crab fishing, gathering bird eggs and other foods.
The spring and summer was the important time of gathering to the Ukivokmiut, while the winters were the time of dance. Due to the limited daylight during the winter, the days were spent dancing in the "Qagri", or men's communal house; as an example, the month of December is known to the Ukivokmuit as "Sauyatugvik" or the time of drumming. After the establishment of Nome, the islanders began to sell intricate carvings to residents of Nome during the summer. In the mid-1900s the Bureau of Indian Affairs closed the school on Ukivok, forcefully taking the children of Ukivok to go to school on mainland Alaska, leaving the elders and adults to gather the needed food for winter; because the children were not on the island to help gather food, the adults and elders had no choice but to move to mainland Alaska to make their living. By 1970, all King Island people had moved to mainland Alaska year-round. Although the King Islanders have moved off the island, they have kept a distinct cultural identity, living a similar life as they had on the island.
Some King Islanders still return to the island to gather subsistence foods, such as seal. In 2005 and 2006 the National Science Foundation funded a research project which brought a few King Island natives back to the island; some participants had not been back to the island in 50 years. The King Island Community awaits the project's results. King Island first appeared on the 1880 U. S. Census as the unincorporated native Inuit village of "Ookivagamute." In 1890, it returned as Ukivok. It next appeared in 1910 as King Island and would continue to report until 1960, with the exception of 1950 when no figure was reported, it next reported as Ukivok again, classified as a native village in 1980 and 1990, but with no residents. It has not reported since. King Island Native Community Ancient mask returned to Alaska ghost village, MSNBC, January 18, 2008 Photogallery of traditional ecological knowledge of King Island, Oregon State University, October 28, 2008 Munoz photographs - King Island early 1950s Survey of a King Island kayak Deanna M Kingston, "King Island", Encyclopedia of the Arctic, A-F p 1090, Routledge, 2012.
Curtis, Edward P The North American Indian. Volume 20 - The Alaskan Eskimo. P 99-103 https://web.archive.org/web/20130512233632/http://www.kawerak.org/tribalHomePages/kingIsland/ http://www.alaskadispatch.com/article/king-island-living-community-and-mystical-place
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
Bering Land Bridge National Preserve
The Bering Land Bridge National Preserve is one of the most remote United States national park areas, located on the Seward Peninsula. The National Preserve protects a remnant of the Bering Land Bridge that connected Asia with North America more than 13,000 years ago during the Pleistocene ice age; the majority of this land bridge now lies beneath the waters of the Bering Seas. During the glacial epoch this bridge was a migration route for people and plants whenever ocean levels fell enough to expose the land bridge. Archeologists disagree whether it was across this Bering Land Bridge called Beringia, that humans first migrated from Asia to populate the Americas, or whether it was via a coastal route. Bering Land Bridge National Monument was established in 1978 by Presidential proclamation under the authority of the Antiquities Act; the designation was modified in 1980 to a national preserve with the passage of the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act, which would allow both subsistence hunting by local residents and sport hunting.
The preserve includes a variety of geological features. The preserve has seen recent volcanic activity, with lake-filled maars. Hot springs are a popular destination for tourists; the preserve lies with 2,697,391 acres. The preserve extends along the coast from a point to the west of Deering along Goodhope Bay to Cape Espenberg westward along the shore of the Chukchi Sea; the boundary moves inland to avoid the village of Shishmaref and the Shishmaref Inlet rejoins the coast to include Ikpek Lagoon. A narrow corridor connects the Ikpek Lagoon section to the main preserve; the interior portions extend to and across the Continental Divide as far as the Bendeleben Mountains. The region around the continental divide includes volcanic areas such as Serpentine Hot Springs and lava fields between the Noxapaga River and the Kuzitrin River; the preserve's high point is Mount Boyan on the south border. There are no roads into the preserve. Access to the preserve is by bush planes or boats during summer months and by ski planes, snowmobiles or dog sleds during the winter.
Bering Land Bridge National Preserve contains several sites of geological and prehistorical significance. Serpentine Hot Springs is the preserve's most visited location. Other notable locations in the preserve include the Trail Creek Caves, Devil Mountain Lakes, the Lost Jim Lava Flow; the Seward Peninsula is a remnant of the Beringia subcontinent that linked Alaska and Siberia during periods of low sea levels during ice ages. The region was untouched by glaciers during the ice age; the preserve lands can be described by five physiographic zones: the northern coastal plan, the rolling stream-dissected uplands, the Imuruk lava plateau, the Kuzitrin flats, the Bendeleben Mountains. The Seward Peninsula is composed of metamorphic blueschist, with deposits of sand, silt, loess and a few glacier-deposited moraines; the area around Cape Espenberg includes a series of relict beach ridges like those found farther north at Cape Krusenstern. These deposits are found in the coastal plain, where they form a system of lagoons and barrier bars or spits.
The rolling uplands lie inland and to the south of the coastal plain. The Serpentine Hot Springs and Trail Creek Caves are in this region of limestone and other minerals. Volcanic activity in the interior has left areas of basalt on the Imuruk lava plateau; the volcanic activity has been recent — the Lost Jim lava flow is estimated to be only 1,000 to 2,000 years old, produced from around 75 vents. The largest vent is the Lost Jim Cone, about 75 feet high. One remnant of volcanism is the presence of hot springs; the Serpentine Hot Springs produce water at a temperature of 140 °F to 170 °F, have been used for millennia by local people. Granite tors are another volcanic remnant, exposed by erosion. Bering Land Bridge has the four largest and northernmost maar lakes in the world, formed by phreatomagmatic eruptions leaving round craters; the ages of the lakes range from 100,000–200,000 years at Whitefish Maar, to 50,000 years at North Killeak Maar, 40,000 years at South Killeak Maar, 17,500 years at Devil Mountain Maar.
The action of ice and permafrost produces features such as pingos. Serpentine Hot Springs known as Arctic Hot Springs, is located in the Bering Land Bridge National Preserve; the springs are referred to as Iyat, the Inupiaq word for cooking pot. Serpentine Hot Springs is on the northern part of the Seward Peninsula at 65°51′N, 164°43′W; the springs are situated on the right bank of Hot Springs Creek which flows to the Serpentine River, 47 miles NW of Imuruk Lake. Serpentine Hot Springs was described by Arthur J. Collier in U. S. Geological Survey Bulletin. Collier noted that Charles McLennan, who with a dog team and Inupiat assistants, was the first white man to reach the hot springs in May, 1900. McLennan may have staked a mining claim nearby but left the country by September, 1901. Another miner, John Sirene, maintained a garden at the springs. Miners used the area intermittently until around 1915, when prospectors built a cabin, a bathing pool, 10 to 12 feet in diameter nearby. A runway may have been constructed in 1923 and a bunkhouse was dragged in by Alaska Road Commission workers in 1949.
In 1953, the nearby village of Shishmaref received $53,000 in state funds to construct a public bath house. It is possible that the springs were used traditionally by Inupiat residents for cooking, for healing and spiritual purposes. Anthropologists who studied the Inupiat in the area reporte