Brevig Mission, Alaska
Brevig Mission is a city in Nome Census Area, Alaska. The population was 388 at the 2010 census, up from 276 in 2000. Brevig Mission is located at 65°20′3″N 166°29′35″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.6 square miles, of which, 2.6 square miles of it is land and 0.1 square miles of it is water. Brevig Mission first appeared on the 1950 U. S. Census as the unincorporated village of "Teller Mission." It returned again in 1960 under that name. In 1969, it was formally incorporated under its present name of Brevig Mission; as of the census of 2000, there were 276 people, 68 households, 53 families residing in the city. The population density was 106.3 people per square mile. There were 76 housing units at an average density of 29.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 7.97% White, 90.58% Native American, 1.45% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.72% of the population. There were 68 households out of which 52.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 30.9% were married couples living together, 25.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 20.6% were non-families.
14.7% of all households were made up of individuals and none had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 4.06 and the average family size was 4.35. In the city, the age distribution of the population shows 45.3% under the age of 18, 12.3% from 18 to 24, 28.6% from 25 to 44, 10.1% from 45 to 64, 3.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 20 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 118.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $21,875, the median income for a family was $16,786. Males had a median income of $11,250 versus $25,000 for females; the per capita income for the city was $7,278. About 43.3% of families and 48.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 50.8% of those under age 18 and none of those age 65 or over. Brevig Mission is served by the Bering Strait School District. Brevig Mission School serves grades Pre-K through 12. In the late 1990s, a team of scientists led by Johan Hultin exhumed the body of an Inuit woman, buried in the permafrost in a gravesite near Brevig Mission in an attempt to recover RNA of the 1918 influenza virus that killed her.
The pandemic caused by the 1918 influenza outbreak was by far the most devastating single disease outbreak in modern history, killing 50 to 100 million people during an 18-month period. In Brevig Mission alone, it killed 72 out of 80 residents in a 5-day period. Media related to Brevig Mission, Alaska at Wikimedia Commons
Alaska Time Zone
The Alaska Time Zone observes standard time by subtracting nine hours from Coordinated Universal Time. During daylight saving time its time offset is eight hours; the clock time in this zone is based on mean solar time at the 135th meridian west of the Greenwich Observatory. The zone includes nearly all of the U. S. is one hour behind the Pacific Time Zone. Standard time: Alaska Standard Time daylight saving time: Alaska Daylight Time The western Aleutian Islands observe Hawaii–Aleutian Time, one hour behind the remainder of the state. Effective from 2007, the local time changes from AKST to AKDT at 02:00 LST to 03:00 LDT on the second Sunday in March and returns at 02:00 LDT to 01:00 LST on the first Sunday in November. Two time zones have been referred to as the "Alaska Time Zone": a zone based on UTC−10:00 that covered much of Central Alaska in the early 20th century, a zone based on UTC−09:00 zone that has covered all of the state except the Aleutian Islands since 1983; the Standard Time Act of 1918 authorized the Interstate Commerce Commission to define each time zone.
The United States Standard Alaska Time was designated as UTC−10:00. Some references prior to 1967 refer to this zone as Central Alaska Standard Time or as Alaska Standard Time. In 1966, the Uniform Time Act renamed the UTC−10 zone to Alaska-Hawaii Standard Time, effective April 1, 1967; this zone was renamed in 1983 to Hawaii-Aleutian Standard Time when the majority of Alaska was moved out of the zone. Prior to 1983, the current Alaska Time Zone was known as the Yukon Time Zone, observing Yukon Standard Time; this time zone included a small portion of Alaska including Yakutat. The Alaska Panhandle communities were in the Pacific Time Zone, while most of the interior was on UTC−10:00. Nome and the Aleutians observed Bering Standard Time or UTC−11:00. In 1975, the Yukon Territory switched to Pacific Standard Time, leaving Yakutat the only land area in the zone. With the reorganization of Alaska's time zones in 1983 to place the entire state in either a zone based on UTC−09:00 or UTC−10:00, the Yukon Time Zone based on UTC−09:00 was renamed the Alaska Time Zone.
The Alaska Time Zone applies to the territory of the state of Alaska east of 169°30′ W. Given that the UTC−09:00 time corresponds to the solar time at 9 × 15° = 135° W, the westernmost locales of the Alaska Time Zone are off by up to 169°30′ − 135° = 34°30′ from local solar time; this means that when a clock set to Alaska time, at a location just east of 169°30′ W, shows noon, local solar time is around 9:42 a.m. When UTC−08:00 is applied in the summer, this effect becomes more apparent. For example, on June 12 at noon AKDT, the solar time at the extreme westerly points of the Alaskan time zone will be only 8:42 a.m. Few people notice this, however, as these locations are uninhabited, for the few people who do live there, the long days in the summer and short days in the winter make the sunrise and sunset times less important than areas closer to the equator. By contrast, in Juneau, much closer to the 135° west meridian, mean solar noon occurs around 11:57 a.m. close to clock noon. In Anchorage, visitors from more southerly latitudes are surprised to see the sun set at 11:41 p.m. on the summer solstice while the'solar time' is 9:41 p.m.
This is because at 150° W, Anchorage is one solar hour ahead of the legal time zone and observes daylight saving time as well. Some local residents refer to this phenomenon as "double daylight time". In Fairbanks, the same circumstances cause sunset to occur at 12:47 a.m. the next calendar day and the solar sunset is at 10:47 p.m. Without daylight saving time, another anomaly is that on the winter solstice in Nome, the sunrise is after "noon" clock time, at 12:02 p.m. about 4 hours before sunset at 3:56 p.m. The territory of the state of Alaska spans as much longitude as the contiguous United States so the use of two time zones will lead to some distortions. Alaska would "naturally" fall into four time zones, but political and logistical considerations have led to the use of two, leading to the distortions mentioned above. Anchorage, Alaska Fairbanks, Alaska Juneau, Alaska Time in Alaska Time zone Effects of time zones on North American broadcasting The official U. S. time for the Alaska Time Zone dead link
Northwest Arctic Borough, Alaska
Northwest Arctic Borough is a borough located in the U. S. state of Alaska. As of the 2010 census, the population was 7,523; the borough seat is Kotzebue. The borough was formed on June 2, 1986. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 40,749 square miles, of which 35,573 square miles is land and 5,176 square miles is water. By land area, it is larger in total area than the state of Indiana, its coastline is limited by the Chukchi Sea. The Kotzebue Sound, a significant wildlife area, is a prominent water body within the Northwest Arctic Borough; the largest polar bear sighted in history, a male weighing 2209 pounds, was sighted at Kotzebue sound. North Slope Borough, Alaska - north Yukon-Koyukuk Census Area, Alaska - east Nome Census Area, Alaska - south Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge Chamisso Wilderness Bering Land Bridge National Preserve Cape Krusenstern National Monument Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve Gates of the Arctic Wilderness Kobuk Valley National Park Kobuk Valley Wilderness Koyukuk National Wildlife Refuge Noatak National Preserve Noatak Wilderness Selawik National Wildlife Refuge Selawik Wilderness At the 2000 census, there were 7,208 people, 1,780 households and 1,404 families residing in the borough.
The population density was 0.18 per square mile. There were 2,540 housing units at an average density of 0 per square mile; the racial makeup of the borough was 12.32% White, 0.21% Black or African American, 82.46% Native American, 0.89% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.36% from other races, 3.70% from two or more races. 0.79% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 40.00 % "Eskimo" at home. There were 1,780 households of which 55.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.90% were married couples living together, 19.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.10% were non-families. 16.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 2.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.87 and the average family size was 4.36. Age distribution was 41.50% under the age of 18, 10.00% from 18 to 24, 28.10% from 25 to 44, 15.50% from 45 to 64, 5.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 24 years. For every 100 females, there were 114.50 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 120.70 males. Noatak Red Dog Mine List of airports in the Northwest Arctic Borough Official website Borough map: Alaska Department of Labor Summaries of Division of Subsistence research projects in northwest Alaska / Division of Subsistence, Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Hosted by the Alaska State Publications Program. Subsistence wildlife harvests in five northwest Alaska communities, 2001-2003: results of a household survey / by Kawerak, Inc. Maniilaq Association, the Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Hosted by Alaska State Publications Program
Chukotsky District is an administrative and municipal district, one of the six in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Russia. It is the easternmost district of the autonomous okrug and the closest part of Russia to the United States, it borders with the Chukchi Sea in the north, the Bering Sea in the east, Providensky District in the south, the Kolyuchinskaya Bay in the west. The area of the district is 30,700 square kilometers, its administrative center is the rural locality of Lavrentiya. Population: 4,838 ; the population of Lavrentiya accounts for 30.2% of the district's total population. The district is populated by indigenous peoples, the majority being either Chukchi or Yupik; the sparse nature of the population means that this is the only district in the autonomous okrug without any urban localities. The selo of Uelen is located in the district, a focal point for indigenous artwork of the region as a whole and the birthplace of Yuri Rytkheu, the first internationally recognized Chukchi writer. Chukotsky District covers the northern half of the Chukchi Peninsula, at the northeastern tip of Eurasia.
Prior to 1957, the district was larger, as its territory covered not only present-day Chukotsky District, but present-day Providensky District, as well as a substantial territory now included in Iultinsky District. Uelen—the easternmost settlement on the Eurasian landmass and famous for its whale bone carving—is located on the district's territory, it features the most easterly point on the Eurasian landmass: Cape Dezhnev, named after Russian navigator Semyon Dezhnyov. It was the setting for a Dalstroy gulag site and the alleged starting point for Clemens Forell's epic journey in the novel As Far as My Feet Will Carry Me; the district includes Big Diomede Island, sometimes called Tomorrow Island since it is twenty-one hours ahead of its partner Little Diomede, despite being only 1 kilometer away across the sea. For the indigenous peoples, life has been rather static for the last few millennia, judging from archaeological excavations; the region contains about eighty archaeological and historical sites, many of which are in the vicinity of present-day villages.
From the view of non-indigenous people, the area now known as Chukotsky District was a formidable place and was only and tentatively explored in comparison with other areas of Chukotka. Semyon Dezhnyov and his Cossacks nearly had their entire fleet destroyed as they attempted to sail around the cape that would bear his name on their way to the Anadyr River in the mid-17th century. Eighty years Vitus Bering sailed through the strait which now bears his name, five years the first maps of the coastline were drawn by the Second Kamchatka Expedition. However, it was not for a further fifty-five years that the coast of the region was visited by James Cook, a permanent Russian presence in the form of trading posts in any of the villages was not established until the early 1900s. Prior to the establishment of the current administrative arrangement, Chukotsky Uyezd was founded with its seat in Provideniya Bay in 1909, in 1912, the seat was moved to Uelen with one of the first schools in the area opening there four years later.
There were. These settlements were destined to become local hubs and model Soviet villages Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, local indigenous people rely more on their traditional hunting skills and are considering the resettling a number of these villages due to the lack of centralized relocation; the table below outlines some of the more important historical localities within the district. Chukotsky District has the highest percentage of indigenous peoples in the whole of Chukotka, with 85% of people being of native origin; the native peoples are Chukchi, but there are small populations of Evens and Yupik. The remaining 15% of the population is of non-indigenous origin Russian; these people either migrated to the Far East or are the descendants of those who did, enticed by the higher pay, large pensions, more generous allowances permitted to those prepared to endure the cold and the isolation, as well as those who were exiled here as a result of the Stalin's purges or after having been released from the gulag.
Unlike with most other districts of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Chukotsky District's economy is much more focused on traditional marine hunting and reindeer herding. This is in part because, at around 85%, Chukotsky District has the highest percentage of indigenous peoples in the autonomous okrug. There is next to no industrial activity in this district, with the population involved in reindeer herding and seal hunting, with an administrative program in place to ensure that local indigenous peoples receive material incentives to continue with their traditional way of life. Although many native rural localities in the autonomous okrug have historical museums documenting the culture of the indigenous peoples, Chukotsky District has a strong cultural tradition, with Uelen being a notable hub for whale bone carving. Famous for its walrus ivory carvings, Uelen has long been a major artistic center in the region, with several of the leading exponents of the craft, such as Vukvutagin, Vukvol and Khukhutan, working out of Uelen.
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
The Seward Peninsula is a large peninsula on the western coast of the U. S. state of Alaska. It projects about 320 kilometers into the Bering Sea between Norton Sound, the Bering Strait, the Chukchi Sea, Kotzebue Sound, just below the Arctic Circle; the entire peninsula is about 330 kilometers long and 145 km -225 km wide. Like Seward, Alaska, it was named after William H. Seward, the United States Secretary of State who fought for the U. S. purchase of Alaska. The Seward Peninsula is a remnant of the Bering land bridge, a thousand mile wide swath of land connecting Siberia with mainland Alaska during the Pleistocene Ice Age; this land bridge aided in the migration of humans, as well as plant and animal species from Asia to North America. Archeological discoveries throughout the Chukotka Peninsula and Seward Peninsula show proof that Inupiat people have been living in the region for thousands of years. Excavations at sites such as the Trail Creek Caves and Cape Espenberg in the Bering Land Bridge National Preserve as well as Cape Denbigh to the south have provided insight into the timeline of prehistorical migrations from Asia to the Seward Peninsula.
Most of the peninsula is in the Nome Census Area. These are the communities on the Seward Peninsula, with 2005 state population estimates: Other locations on the Seward Peninsula include the mining towns of Council, Candle and Taylor. While still frequented by locals of neighboring communities, there are no longer year round residents in these locations. There is a United States Coast Guard LORAN station at Port Clarence; the U. S. Air Force operates a radar station at the "Tin City" site, 7 miles southeast of Wales; the Seward Peninsula has several distinct geologic features. The Devil Mountain Lakes on the northern portion of the peninsula are the largest maar lakes in the world, they were formed over 21,000 years ago as the result of an underground steam explosion. The Killeak Lakes and White Fish Lake are volcanic maar lakes of notable size on the northern Seward Peninsula. Four mountain ranges line the southern side of the peninsula, the most prominent being the Kigluaik Mountains; the highest point in the range and the peninsula is the peak of 4,714-foot Mount Osborn.
Other mountain ranges on the Seward Peninsula include the Bendeleben Mountains, Darby Mountains, York Mountains. The Lost Jim Lava Flow north of Kuzitrin Lake is a lava field formed 1,000 to 2,000 years ago, which covers 88 square miles. Several geothermal hot springs are located throughout the peninsula, including Serpentine Hot Springs, Pilgrim Hot Springs, Granite Mountain, Clear Creek and Lava Creek; the Seward Peninsula has several rivers. The largest include the Koyuk, Niukluk, Tubuktilik, Kiwalik and Agiupuk Rivers; these play a vital role in the subsistence lifestyles of many peninsula residents and ease travel and fishing. Most peninsula rivers have at least a small yearly run of several varieties of salmon, as well as Dolly Varden, Arctic Grayling, whitefish of various species, Northern Pike, Burbot. Most rivers on the Seward Peninsula freeze in mid-October; the Seward Peninsula is the western-most limit of distribution for the Black spruce, Picea mariana, a dominant overstory species of the region.
Alaska's reindeer herding was concentrated on Seward Peninsula since the first shipment of reindeer were imported there from eastern Siberia in 1892. It was believed that migrating caribou, could be prevented from mingling with the domesticated reindeer on the Peninsula because of the geography of the peninsula, thereby avoiding loss of reindeer that might wander off with caribou. However, in 1997 the domesticated reindeer joined the Western Arctic Caribou Herd on their summer migration and disappeared. Cape Prince of Wales, the westernmost point on the mainland of the Americas, is on the western tip; the cape is only 51 miles from Cape Dezhnev, the closest point on the Russian mainland. In August 2011 Russia announced an ambitious project to construct a rail tunnel under the Bering Strait, linking the Seward Peninsula in Alaska with the Chukchi Peninsula in Russia. If completed, the project would cost an estimated US $65 billion and would be the world's longest tunnel at 103 km long; the peninsula was named after William H. Seward, the United States Secretary of State who negotiated the Purchase of Alaska from Russia in 1867