Nominalism is a philosophical view which comes at least in two varieties. In one of them it is the rejection of abstract objects, in the other it is the rejection of universals; the opposite of nominalism is realism. Plato was the first writer in Western philosophy to state a realist i.e. non-nominalist position:... We customarily hypothesize a single form in connection with each of the many things to which we apply the same name.... For example, there are many beds and tables.... But there are only one of the bed and one of the table. What about someone who believes in beautiful things, but doesn't believe in the beautiful itself…? Don't you think he is living in a dream rather than a wakened state? The Platonic universals corresponding to the names "bed" and "beautiful" were the Form of the Bed and the Form of the Beautiful, or the Bed Itself and the Beautiful Itself. Platonic Forms were the first universals posited as such in philosophy. Our term "universal" is due to the English translation of Aristotle's technical term katholou which he coined specially for the purpose of discussing the problem of universals.

Katholou is a contraction of the phrase kata holou, meaning "on the whole". Aristotle famously rejected certain aspects of Plato's Theory of Forms, but he rejected nominalism as well:...'Man', indeed every general predicate, signifies not an individual, but some quality, or quantity or relation, or something of that sort. The first philosophers to explicitly describe nominalist arguments were the Stoics Chrysippus. In medieval philosophy, the French philosopher and theologian Roscellinus was an early, prominent proponent of nominalism. Nominalist ideas can be found in the work of Peter Abelard and reached their flowering in William of Ockham, the most influential and thorough nominalist. Abelard's and Ockham's version of nominalism is sometimes called conceptualism, which presents itself as a middle way between nominalism and realism, asserting that there is something in common among like individuals, but that it is a concept in the mind, rather than a real entity existing independently of the mind.

Ockham argued that only individuals existed and that universals were only mental ways of referring to sets of individuals. "I maintain", he wrote, "that a universal is not something real that exists in a subject... but that it has a being only as a thought-object in the mind ". As a general rule, Ockham argued against assuming any entities that were not necessary for explanations. Accordingly, he wrote, there is no reason to believe that there is an entity called "humanity" that resides inside, say and nothing further is explained by making this claim; this is in accord with the analytical method that has since come to be called Ockham's razor, the principle that the explanation of any phenomenon should make as few assumptions as possible. Critics argue. If the same concept is and non-arbitrarily applied to two individuals, there must be some resemblance or shared property between the two individuals that justifies their falling under the same concept and, just the metaphysical problem that universals were brought in to address, the starting-point of the whole problem.

If resemblances between individuals are asserted, conceptualism becomes moderate realism. In modern philosophy, nominalism was revived by Pierre Gassendi. In contemporary analytic philosophy, it has been defended by Rudolf Carnap, Nelson Goodman, H. H. Price, D. C. Williams; the debate between realism and nominalism took place in Indian philosophy. Certain orthodox Hindu schools defended the realist position, saying that the referent of the word is both the individual thing perceived by the subject of knowledge and the class to which the thing belongs. According to Indian realism, both the individual and the class have objective existence, with the second underlying the former; the Buddhists those of the Yogacara school, took the nominalist position. These concepts are not real. Words, as linguistic conventions, are useful to thought and discourse, but so, it should not be accepted that words apprehend reality as it is. Dignaga, a Yogacara philosopher, formulated a nominalist theory of meaning called apoha, or theory of exclusions.

The theory seeks to explain how it is possible for words to refer to classes of objects if no such class has an objective existence. Dignaga's thesis is that classes do not refer to positive qualities that their members share in common. On the contrary, classes are exclusions; as such, the "cow" class, for example, is composed of all exclusions common to individual cows: they are all non-horse, non-elephant, etc. Among Hindu realists, this thesis was criticized for being negative. Nominalism arose in reaction to the problem of universals accounting for the fact that some things are of the same type. For example and Kitzler are both cats, or, the fact that certain properties are repeatable, such as: the grass, the shirt, Kermit the Frog are green. One wants to know by virtue of what are Fluffy and Kitzler both cats, what makes the grass, the shirt, Kermit green; the Platonist answer is that all the green things are green in virtue of the existence

Ed (given name)

Ed is a masculine given name a short form of Edward, Edmund, Edith, etc. It may refer to: Ed Asner, American actor Ed Balls, British politician Ed Begley, American actor Ed Begley Jr. American actor and environmentalist, son of Ed Begley Ed Buck, American Democrat political activist and fundraiser Ed Carpenter Ed Coleman Ed Conroy, American college basketball coach Ed Conroy, Canadian politician Ed Cook, American National Football League player Ed Cook, American college basketball player and head coach Ed Faron Ed Gein, American murderer and body snatcher Ed de Goey, Dutch former football goalkeeper Ed Green, American Major League Baseball pitcher Ed Harris, American actor, producer and screenwriter Ed Helms, American actor and comedian Ed Jenkins Ed Kennedy, Major League Baseball player Ed Kennedy, Major League Baseball player Ed Kubale, American football player and coach Ed Lee Ed Long Ed McMahon, American announcer and singer Ed Miliband, British politician Ed Mirvish, American-Canadian businessman and theatrical impresario Ed Montague, American Major League Baseball player Ed Montague, American Major League Baseball umpire Ed Newman, American All-Pro football player Ed O'Bannon, American basketball player Ed O'Neal, a member of the Dixie Melody Boys American Southern Gospel quartet Ed O'Neil, American football coach and former National Football League player Ed O'Neil, American Major League Baseball pitcher Ed O'Neill, American actor Ed Oliver, American football player Ed Price Ed Reynolds, American football player Ed Roberts Ed Schultz, American television and radio host, political commentator and former sports broadcaster Ed Shaw, American National Football League player Ed Skrein, English actor and rapper Ed Stasium, American record producer and engineer Ed Sullivan, American television personality and syndicated columnist and host of The Ed Sullivan Show Ed Taylor Ed Walker Ed Walsh, American Major League Baseball Hall-of-Fame pitcher and manager Ed Walsh Jr.

American Major League Baseball pitcher, son of Ed Walsh Ed Ward, Canadian retired National Hockey League player Ed Ward, American writer and radio commentator Ed. Weinberger, American screenwriter and television producer Ed Williams Ed Wood, American filmmaker, producer and writer Ed Wright Ed Young The title talking horse of Mr. Ed, a 1960s television sitcom Ed Green, on the television series Law & Order Ed Grimley and portrayed by Martin Short Ed Killifer, a villain in the James Bond film Licence to Kill Ed the Sock, a puppet on television One of the title characters of Ed, Edd n Eddy, an animated television series Ed the Hyena from Disney's The Lion King The title character of Ed the Happy Clown, a graphic novel Big Ed, a list of people and a fictional character with the nickname


Flesberg is a municipality in Viken county, Norway. It is part of the traditional region of Numedal; the administrative centre of the municipality is the village of Lampeland. The economy of Flesberg is dominated by forestry and agriculture, as well as the cluster of high-tech industries in neighbouring Kongsberg; the municipality is named after the old Flesberg farm. The first element is fles which means "rock" and the last element is berg which means "mountain"; the coat-of-arms is from modern times. They were granted on 10 March 1989; the arms show two tømmerklaver to represent forestry – and the letter F. Flesberg Stave Church was built around the year 1250. After reconstruction in 1735, the church conformed with cruciform plan; the municipality of Flesberg was established on 1 January 1838. The area of Jondalen was transferred from Flesberg to the neighboring municipality of Kongsberg on 1 January 1964; the municipality is divided into the parishes Flesberg and Svene. Most of the population lives in the four villages of Svene, Lampeland and Lyngdal.

The municipal area is 560 square kilometres. In the western part of Flesberg, the landscape rises steeply to the mountain area of Blefjell, a popular tourist destination; the following cities are twinned with Flesberg: - Falkenberg, Halland County, Sweden - Fosston, United States - Lejre, Region Sjælland, Denmark - Savitaipale, Etelä-Suomi, Finland Municipal fact sheet from Statistics Norway Buskerud travel guide from Wikivoyage