Voting is a method for a group such as a meeting or an electorate to make a decision or express an opinion, usually following discussions, debates or election campaigns. Democracies elect holders of high office by voting, residents of a place represented by an elected official are called constituents, and those constituents who cast a ballot for their chosen candidate are called voters. In a democracy, a government is chosen by voting in an election, in a representative democracy voting is the method by which the electorate appoints its representatives in its government. In a direct democracy, voting is the method by which the electorate directly make decisions, turn bills into laws, a secret ballot has come to be the practice to prevent voters from being intimidated and to protect their political privacy. Voting usually takes place at a station, it is voluntary in some countries, compulsory in others. Different voting systems use different types of votes, a Plurality voting system does not require the winner to achieve a vote majority, or more than fifty percent of the total votes cast.
In a voting system uses a single vote per race. A side effect of a vote per race is vote splitting, which tends to elect candidates that do not support centrism. An alternative to a system is approval voting. To understand why a vote per race tends to favor less centric candidates. If five marbles are assigned names and are placed up for election, the reason is that the three green marbles will split the votes of those who prefer green. In fact, in analogy, the only way that a green marble is likely to win is if more than sixty percent of the voters prefer green. If the experiment is repeated with other colors, the color that is in the majority will still rarely win, in other words, from a purely mathematical perspective, a single-vote system tends to favor a winner that is different from the majority. A development on the single system is to have two-round elections. The winner must receive a majority, which is more than half, if subsequent votes must be used, often a candidate, the one with the fewest votes or anyone who wants to move their support to another candidate, is removed from the ballot.
An alternative to the Two-round voting system is the single round instant-runoff voting system as used in elections in Australia, Ireland. Voters rank each candidate in order of preference, votes are distributed to each candidate according to the preferences allocated. If no single candidate has 50% or more votes than the candidate with the least votes is excluded, the process repeating itself until a candidate has 50% or more votes
In promotion and of advertising, a testimonial or show consists of a persons written or spoken statement extolling the virtue of a product. The term testimonial most commonly applies to the attributed to ordinary citizens. Testimonials can be part of communal marketing, social media such as Twitter have become increasingly popular mediums for celebrities to endorse brands and to attempt to influence purchasing behavior. According to Bloomberg News, social-media-ad spending was expected to reach a total of $4.8 billion at the end of 2012, advertising and marketing companies sponsor celebrities to tweet and influence thousands of their followers to buy brand products. For example, Ryan Seacrest gets paid to promote Ford products, companies that pay celebs to tweet for them subscribe to the Malcolm Gladwell theory of influence. Celebrity endorsements have proven successful in China, where increasing consumerism makes the purchase of an endorsed product into a status symbol. On August 1,2007, laws were passed banning healthcare professionals, testimonials from customers who are not famous have been effectively used in marketing for as long as marketing has existed. A past or current customer will present a word of mouth testimonial that a business can use in marketing.
Testimonials have reached a high in importance as the internet is now a plethora of reviews. Google+, TripAdvisor, and many more have become go to places for individuals who are seeking other customers reviews/testimonials about a particular business. To put the growth of industry into perspective, for example, Yelp. coms growth alone can be noted. Instagram especially has increasingly been useful in distributing testimonials on products and it is done by making use of the tagging feature that directly links to the original brand or the particular location that the picture was taken. Moreover, the description of the pictures are used to write either the review or sentences that compliments the product or place. However, it can only be called an endorsement deal when the company or label contacts the user directly to create such testimonial post, and the user receives commission. This is becoming a trend in Indonesia, especially amongst users with at least one thousand followers, the downside to such explosive importance in this arena is the massive amount of fraud in the form of fake reviews or opinion spam, testimonials that are not authentic.
Often, an owner will open multiple email addresses and corresponding Yelp. Accounts and write a multitude of testimonials seemingly by many customers of said business, the same owner may write negative reviews of competitors. From a NY Times article about the topic, On another forum, Digital Point
Ig Nobel Prize
The Ig Nobel Prizes are parodies of the Nobel Prizes given out each autumn for 10 unusual or trivial achievements in scientific research. They have been awarded since 1991, with the aim to honor achievements that first make people laugh. The awards can be veiled criticism or satire, but are used to point out that even absurd-sounding avenues of research can yield useful knowledge. The name is a play on the words ignoble and the Nobel Prize, the pronunciation used during the ceremony is /ˌɪɡnoʊˈbɛl/ IG-noh-BEL, not like the word ignoble. The Ig Nobels were created in 1991 by Marc Abrahams, editor and co-founder of the Annals of Improbable Research, awards were presented at that time for discoveries that cannot, or should not, be reproduced. The Ig Nobel Prizes recognize genuine achievements, with the exception of three awarded in the first year to fictitious scientists Josiah S. Carberry, Paul DeFanti. Most often, they draw attention to scientific articles that have some humorous or unexpected aspect.
In 2010, Sir Andre Geim was awarded a Nobel Prize in physics for his work with graphene, the prizes are presented by genuine Nobel laureates, originally at a ceremony in a lecture hall at MIT, but now in Sanders Theater at Harvard University. It contains a number of running jokes, including Miss Sweetie Poo, the awards ceremony is traditionally closed with the words, If you didnt win a prize—and especially if you did—better luck next year. The ceremony is co-sponsored by the Harvard Computer Society, the Harvard–Radcliffe Science Fiction Association, throwing paper planes onto the stage is a long-standing tradition at the Ig Nobels. In past years, physics professor Roy J. Glauber swept the stage clean of the airplanes as the official Keeper of the Broom for years, Glauber could not attend the 2005 awards because he was traveling to Stockholm to claim a genuine Nobel Prize in Physics. The Parade of Ignitaries brings various supporting groups into the hall, at the 1997 ceremonies, a team of cryogenic sex researchers distributed a pamphlet titled Safe Sex at Four Kelvin.
Delegates from the Museum of Bad Art are often on hand to some pieces from their collection. The ceremony is recorded and broadcast on National Public Radio and is shown live over the Internet, the recording is broadcast every year, on the Friday after U. S. Thanksgiving, on the public radio program Science Friday. In recognition of this, the audience chants the first name of the shows host. Two books have published as of 3 September 2009 with write-ups on some of the winners, The Ig Nobel Prize and The Ig Nobel Prize 2. An Ig Nobel Tour has been a part of National Science week in the United Kingdom since 2003. The tour has traveled to Australia several times, Aarhus University in Denmark in April 2009, Italy
The various category winners are awarded a copy of a golden statuette, officially called the Academy Award of Merit, which has become commonly known by its nickname Oscar. The awards, first presented in 1929 at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel, are overseen by AMPAS, the awards ceremony was first broadcast on radio in 1930 and televised for the first time in 1953. It is now live in more than 200 countries and can be streamed live online. The Academy Awards ceremony is the oldest worldwide entertainment awards ceremony and its equivalents – the Emmy Awards for television, the Tony Awards for theater, and the Grammy Awards for music and recording – are modeled after the Academy Awards. The 89th Academy Awards ceremony, honoring the best films of 2016, were held on February 26,2017, at the Dolby Theatre, in Los Angeles, the ceremony was hosted by Jimmy Kimmel and was broadcast on ABC. A total of 3,048 Oscars have been awarded from the inception of the award through the 88th, the first Academy Awards presentation was held on May 16,1929, at a private dinner function at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel with an audience of about 270 people.
The post-awards party was held at the Mayfair Hotel, the cost of guest tickets for that nights ceremony was $5. Fifteen statuettes were awarded, honoring artists and other participants in the industry of the time. The ceremony ran for 15 minutes, winners were announced to media three months earlier, that was changed for the second ceremony in 1930. Since then, for the rest of the first decade, the results were given to newspapers for publication at 11,00 pm on the night of the awards. The first Best Actor awarded was Emil Jannings, for his performances in The Last Command and he had to return to Europe before the ceremony, so the Academy agreed to give him the prize earlier, this made him the first Academy Award winner in history. With the fourth ceremony, the system changed, for the first six ceremonies, the eligibility period spanned two calendar years. At the 29th ceremony, held on March 27,1957, until then, foreign-language films had been honored with the Special Achievement Award. The 74th Academy Awards, held in 2002, presented the first Academy Award for Best Animated Feature, since 1973, all Academy Awards ceremonies always end with the Academy Award for Best Picture.
The Academy awards Nicholl Fellowships in Screenwriting, see § Awards of Merit categories The best known award is the Academy Award of Merit, more popularly known as the Oscar statuette. The five spokes represent the branches of the Academy, Writers, Producers. The model for the statuette is said to be Mexican actor Emilio El Indio Fernández, sculptor George Stanley sculpted Cedric Gibbons design. The statuettes presented at the ceremonies were gold-plated solid bronze
An election is a formal decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold public office. Elections have been the usual mechanism by which modern representative democracy has operated since the 17th century, Elections may fill offices in the legislature, sometimes in the executive and judiciary, and for regional and local government. This process is used in many other private and business organizations. Electoral reform describes the process of introducing fair electoral systems where they are not in place, psephology is the study of results and other statistics relating to elections. To elect means to choose or make a decision, and so other forms of ballot such as referendums are referred to as elections. Elections were used as early in history as ancient Greece and ancient Rome, and throughout the Medieval period to select rulers such as the Holy Roman Emperor, in Vedic period of India, the raja of a gana was apparently elected by the gana. The raja belonged to the noble Kshatriya varna, and was typically a son of the previous raja, the gana members had the final say in his elections.
The Pala king Gopala in early medieval Bengal was elected by a group of feudal chieftains, such elections were quite common in contemporary societies of the region. In Chola Empire, around 920 CE, in Uthiramerur, palm leaves were used for selecting the village committee members, the leaves, with candidate names written on them, were put inside a mud pot. To select the members, a young boy was asked to take out as many leaves as the number of positions available. This was known as the Kudavolai system, ancient Arabs used election to choose their caliph and Ali, in the early medieval Rashidun Caliphate. Questions of suffrage, especially suffrage for minority groups, have dominated the history of elections, the dominate cultural group in North America and Europe, often dominated the electorate and continue to do so in many countries. Early elections in such as the United Kingdom and the United States were dominated by landed or ruling class males. However, by 1920 all Western European and North American democracies had universal male suffrage.
Despite legally mandated universal suffrage for males, political barriers were sometimes erected to prevent fair access to elections. The question of who may vote is an issue in elections. In Australia Aboriginal people were not given the right to vote until 1962, suffrage is typically only for citizens of the country, though further limits may be imposed. However, in the European Union, one can vote in municipal elections if one lives in the municipality and is an EU citizen, the nationality of the country of residence is not required
A caucus is a meeting of supporters or members of a specific political party or movement. The term originated in the United States, but has spread to Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, as the use of the term has been expanded, the exact definition has come to vary among political cultures. The origin of the caucus is debated, but it is generally agreed that it first came into use in the British colonies of North America. He has a large House, and he has a moveable Partition in his Garrett, which he takes down, there they smoke tobacco till you cannot see from one End of the Garrett to the other. In the early days of the Republic a very different method was pursued in order to place the candidates for the highest office in the land before the people, in the first place, as to the origin of the caucus. In the early part of the century a number of caulkers connected with the shipping business in the North End of Boston held a meeting for consultation. That meeting was the germ of the caucuses which have formed so prominent a feature of our government ever since its organization.
No wholly satisfactory etymology has been documented, james Hammond Trumbull suggested to the American Philological Association that it comes from an Algonquian word for counsel, cau´-cau-as´u. The word might derive from the Algonquian cawaassough, meaning an advisor, talker. This explanation was favoured by Charles Dudley Warner, an analogical Latin-type plural cauci is occasionally used. The degree to which caucuses are used can be a key defining element, in United States politics and government, caucus has several distinct but related meanings. Members of a party or subgroup may meet to coordinate members actions, choose group policy. There is no provision for the role of parties in the United States Constitution. In the first two elections, the Electoral College handled nominations and elections in 1789 and 1792 which selected George Washington. After that, Congressional party or a state legislature party caucus selected the partys presidential candidates, these caucuses were replaced by the party convention starting in 1832 following the lead of the Anti-Masonic Party 1831 convention.
Since 1980 such caucuses have become, in the aggregate, an important component of the nomination process. Another meaning is a sub grouping of officials with shared affinities or ethnicities who convene, often but not always to advocate, lobby or to vote collectively, on policy. At the highest level, in Congress and many state legislatures, there can be smaller caucuses in a legislative body, including those that are multi-partisan or even bicameral
The criteria to stand as a candidate depend on the individual legal system, however they may include the age of a candidate, endorsement by a political party and profession. Each U. S. State has its own ballot access laws to determine who may appear on ballots. Example, With Plurality voting, an old but common way to pick the winner, suppose 55% liberals and 45% conservatives vote in a district. Plurality races, known as First past the post, tend to cause consolidation among political parties for this reason. However, proponents of ballot access reform say that reasonably easy access to the ballot does not lead to a glut of candidates, even where many candidates do appear on the ballot. The 1880s reform movement that led to officially designed secret ballots had some salutary effects, the OSCE published a report on the 2004 United States election, among other things, noted restrictive ballot access laws. Since 1985, Democrats and Republicans have repeatedly introduced in the United States House of Representatives a bill that would set maximum ballot access requirements for House elections, the bill has only made it to the House floor once, in 1998, when it was defeated 62–363.
Ballot access laws in the United States vary widely from state to state, the figure for 2016 and 2018 statewide ballot access is 35,412 valid signatures. Be aware that the validity of signatures generally means that 20–30% more signatures will need to be collected to ensure that the goal is achieved, to retain ballot access in the following election, a party has to poll 20% in a statewide race. Arizona, To gain ballot access, a new party must gather signatures on a county–by–county basis. The Democratic and Republican parties have ballot access by voter registrations, in 2008, the Arizona Green Party gathered enough signatures to gain ballot access. Colorado has relatively lax ballot access requirements, but requirements differ for major and minor parties, for major party primary candidates, C. R. S. 1-4-801 requires statewide candidates obtain 1,500 valid signatures per congressional district, US House and State legislature candidates need 1000 signatures. For minor party candidate, the requirements are eased under C. R. S 1-4-802.
For US Senate,1,000 signatures are required, for US House,800 signatures, for State Senate,600 signatures, sometimes these requirements are relaxed even further based on the voting statistics of the district. Georgia In 2016 Georgia required a 3rd party presidential candidate to produce 7,500 signatures of registered voters to gain ballot access, the number would have been about 50,334. On 2016-04-13, the Georgia secretary of state appealed the decision without seeking a stay until the state legislature acts to change the requirement, Kentucky uses a three-tier system for ballot access, using the results of the previous presidential election as the gauge. If a partys presidential candidate achieves less than 2% of the vote within the state
Accordingly, individuals are assigned worth and stature based on the harmony of their actions with a specific code of honour, and the moral code of the society at large. Dr. Samuel Johnson, in his A Dictionary of the English Language, defined honour as having several senses, the first of which was nobility of soul, and a scorn of meanness. This sort of honour derives from the perceived virtuous conduct and personal integrity of the person endowed with it and this sort of honour is not so much a function of moral or ethical excellence, as it is a consequence of power. Finally, with respect to sexuality, honour has traditionally been associated with chastity or virginity, or in case of married men and women, some have argued that honour should be seen more as a rhetoric, or set of possible actions, than as a code. Honour as a code of behaviour defines the duties of an individual within a social group, margaret Visser observes that in an honour-based society a person is what he or she is in the eyes of other people. A code of honour differs from a code, socially defined and concerned with justice, in that honour remains implicit rather than explicit.
One can distinguish honour from dignity, which Wordsworth assessed as measured against an individuals conscience rather than against the judgement of a community, compare the sociological concept of face. In the early period, a lords or ladys honour was the group of manors or lands he or she held. The word was first used indicating an estate which gave its holder dignity, the concept of honour appears to have declined in importance in the modern West, conscience has replaced it in the individual context, and the rule of law has taken over in a social context. Popular stereotypes would have it surviving more definitively in more tradition-bound cultures, feudal or other agrarian societies, which focus upon land use and land ownership, may tend to honour more than do contemporary industrial societies. Note that Saint Anselm of Canterbury in Cur Deus Homo extended the concept of honour from his own society to postulate Gods honour. An emphasis on the importance of honour exists in traditional institutions as the military and in organisations with a military ethos.
Western observers generally see these honour killings as a way of men using the culture of honour to control female sexuality, various sociologists and anthropologists have contrasted cultures of honour with cultures of law. A culture of law has a body of laws which all members of society must obey and this requires a society with the structures required to enact and enforce laws. Historians have especially examined the American South, social scientists have looked at specialized subcultures such as South Asian Muslims in Britain. Others have compared multiple modern nations, due to the lack of strong institutions, cultivating a reputation for swift and disproportionate revenge increases the safety of ones person and property against aggressive actors. Thinkers ranging from Montesquieu to Steven Pinker have remarked upon the mindset needed for a culture of honour, however cultures of honour can appear in places like modern inner-city slums. The three conditions exist here as well, lack of resources and theft have a high rewards compared to the alternatives, and law enforcement is generally lax or corrupt
New International Encyclopedia
The New International Encyclopedia was an American encyclopedia first published in 1902 by Dodd and Company. It descended from the International Cyclopaedia and was updated in 1906,1914 and 1926, the New International Encyclopedia was the successor of the International Cyclopaedia. Initially, the International Cyclopaedia was largely a reprint of Aldens Library of Universal Knowledge, the local Cyclopaedia was much improved by editors Harry Thurston Peck and Selim Peabody. The title was changed to New International Encyclopedia in 1902, with editors Harry Thurston Peck, Daniel Coit Gilman, in 1906 the New International Encyclopedia was expanded from 17 volumes to 20. The 2nd edition appeared in 1914 in 24 volumes, set up from new type and it was very strong in biography. The 1926 material was printed in Cambridge, Massachusetts, by The University Press, boston Bookbinding Company of Cambridge produced the covers. Thirteen books enclosing twenty-three volumes comprise the encyclopedia, which includes a supplement after Volume 23, each book contains about 1600 pages.
A great deal of material is recorded in the New International Encyclopedia. An early description of Adolf Hitler and his activities from 1920 to 1924 is in the supplement to the 1926 edition, many of the names used to describe the scientific identities of plants and animals are now obsolete. Numerous colorful maps which display the nations, colonies, the maps are valuable for their depictions of national and colonial borders in Europe and Africa at the time of World War I. Drawings and photographs are plentiful, more than 500 men, and some women and composed the information contained in the New International Encyclopedia. Editors of the First Edition Daniel Coit Gilman, LL. D, President of Johns Hopkins University, President of Carnegie Institution. Frank Moore Colby, M. A. formerly Professor in New York University, editors of the Second Edition Frank Moore Colby, M. A. Talcott Williams, LL. D. Director of the School of Journalism, Columbia University, media related to New International Encyclopedia at Wikimedia Commons 1914 second ed
A political party is a group of people who come together to contest elections and hold power in the government. The party agrees on some proposed policies and programmes, with a view to promoting the good or furthering their supporters interests. While there is some international commonality in the way political parties are recognized, and in how they operate, there are many differences. Many political parties have a core, but some do not. In many democracies, political parties are elected by the electorate to run a government, many countries, such as Germany and India, have several significant political parties, and some nations have one-party systems, such as China and Cuba. The United States is in practice a two-party system, but with smaller parties participating. Its two most important parties are the Democratic Party and the Republican Party, the first political factions, cohering around a basic, if fluid, set of principles, emerged from the Exclusion Crisis and Glorious Revolution in late 17th century England.
The leader of the Whigs was Robert Walpole, who maintained control of the government in the period 1721–1742, as the century wore on, the factions slowly began to adopt more coherent political tendencies as the interests of their power bases began to diverge. The Whig partys initial base of support from the aristocratic families widened to include the emerging industrial interests. A major influence on the Whigs were the political ideas of John Locke. They acted as a united, though unavailing, opposition to Whig corruption and they finally regained power with the accession of George III in 1760 under Lord Bute. Out of this chaos, the first distinctive parties emerged, the first such party was the Rockingham Whigs under the leadership of Charles Watson-Wentworth and the intellectual guidance of the political philosopher Edmund Burke. A coalition including the Rockingham Whigs, led by the Earl of Shelburne, took power in 1782, the new government, led by the radical politician Charles James Fox in coalition with Lord North, was soon brought down and replaced by William Pitt the Younger in 1783.
It was now that a genuine two-party system began to emerge, by the time of this split the Whig party was increasingly influenced by the ideas of Adam Smith, founder of classical liberalism. As Wilson and Reill note, Adam Smiths theory melded nicely with the political stance of the Whig Party. The modern Conservative Party was created out of the Pittite Tories of the early 19th century, in the late 1820s disputes over political reform broke up this grouping. A government led by the Duke of Wellington collapsed amidst dire election results, following this disaster Robert Peel set about assembling a new coalition of forces. However, a consensus reached on these issues ended party politics in 1816 for a decade, Party politics revived in 1829 with the split of the Democratic-Republican Party into the Jacksonian Democrats led by Andrew Jackson, and the Whig Party, led by Henry Clay