Mersch is a commune and town in central Luxembourg, capital of the canton of Mersch. It is situated at the confluence of the rivers Alzette and Eisch; as of 2001, the town of Mersch, which lies in the centre of the commune, has a population of 3,345. Other towns within the commune include Beringen, Moesdorf, Reckange and Schoenfels. Mersch is the home of Luxembourg's national literary archive; the town is the site of one of the six regional headquarters of the Grand Ducal Police. Mersch Castle is one of the castles belonging to the Valley of the Seven Castles. Located in the centre of the town, its history goes back to the 13th century. Today the castle houses the administrative offices of the local commune; some 3 kilometres north of Mersch, Pettingen Castle in the village of Pettingen is one of the best preserved fortified castles in the country. Mersch is connected to the centre and north of the country on Line 10 trains serving Mersch railway station. Media related to Mersch at Wikimedia Commons
Luxembourg the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a small landlocked country in western Europe. It is bordered by Belgium to the west and north, Germany to the east, France to the south, its capital, Luxembourg City, is one of the three official capitals of the European Union and the seat of the European Court of Justice, the highest judicial authority in the EU. Its culture and languages are intertwined with its neighbours, making it a mixture of French and German cultures, as evident by the nation's three official languages: French and the national language, Luxembourgish; the repeated invasions by Germany in World War II, resulted in the country's strong will for mediation between France and Germany and, among other things, led to the foundation of the European Union. With an area of 2,586 square kilometres, it is one of the smallest sovereign states in Europe. In 2018, Luxembourg had a population of 602,005, which makes it one of the least-populous countries in Europe, but by far the one with the highest population growth rate.
Foreigners account for nearly half of Luxembourg's population. As a representative democracy with a constitutional monarch, it is headed by Grand Duke Henri and is the world's only remaining grand duchy. Luxembourg is a developed country, with an advanced economy and one of the world's highest GDP per capita; the City of Luxembourg with its old quarters and fortifications was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1994 due to the exceptional preservation of the vast fortifications and the old city. The history of Luxembourg is considered to begin in 963, when count Siegfried I acquired a rocky promontory and its Roman-era fortifications known as Lucilinburhuc, ′little castle′, the surrounding area from the Imperial Abbey of St. Maximin in nearby Trier. Siegfried's descendants increased their territory through marriage and vassal relations. At the end of the 13th century, the Counts of Luxembourg reigned over a considerable territory. In 1308, Henry VII, Count of Luxembourg became King of the Germans and Holy Roman Emperor.
The House of Luxembourg produced four Holy Roman Emperors during the high Middle Ages. In 1354, Charles IV elevated the County to the Duchy of Luxembourg. Since Sigismund had no male heir, the Duchy became part of the Burgundian Circle and one of the Seventeen Provinces of the Habsburg Netherlands. Over the centuries, the City and Fortress of Luxembourg, of great strategic importance situated between the Kingdom of France and the Habsburg territories, was built up to be one of the most reputed fortifications in Europe. After belonging to both the France of Louis XIV and the Austria of Maria Theresia, Luxembourg became part of the First French Republic and Empire under Napoleon; the present-day state of Luxembourg first emerged at the Congress of Vienna in 1815. The Grand-Duchy, with its powerful fortress, became an independent state under the personal possession of William I of the Netherlands with a Prussian garrison to guard the city against another invasion from France. In 1839, following the turmoil of the Belgian Revolution, the purely French-speaking part of Luxembourg was ceded to Belgium and the Luxembourgish-speaking part became what is the present state of Luxembourg.
Luxembourg is a founding member of the European Union, OECD, United Nations, NATO, Benelux. The city of Luxembourg, the country's capital and largest city, is the seat of several institutions and agencies of the EU. Luxembourg served on the United Nations Security Council for the years 2013 and 2014, a first in the country's history; as of 2018, Luxembourgish citizens had visa-free or visa-on-arrival access to 186 countries and territories, ranking the Luxembourgish passport 5th in the world, tied with Austria, the Netherlands, Portugal, the United Kingdom and the United States. The recorded history of Luxembourg begins with the acquisition of Lucilinburhuc situated on the Bock rock by Siegfried, Count of Ardennes, in 963 through an exchange act with St. Maximin's Abbey, Trier. Around this fort, a town developed, which became the centre of a state of great strategic value. In the 14th and early 15th centuries, three members of the House of Luxembourg reigned as Holy Roman Emperors. In 1437, the House of Luxembourg suffered a succession crisis, precipitated by the lack of a male heir to assume the throne, which led to the territories being sold by Duchess Elisabeth to Philip the Good of Burgundy.
In the following centuries, Luxembourg's fortress was enlarged and strengthened by its successive occupants, the Bourbons, Habsburgs and the French. After the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, Luxembourg was disputed between Prussia and the Netherlands; the Congress of Vienna formed Luxembourg as a Grand Duchy within the German Confederation. The Dutch king became, in the grand duke. Although he was supposed to rule the grand duchy as an independent country with an administration of its own, in reality he treated it to a Dutch province; the Fortress of Luxembourg was manned by Prussian troops for the German Confederation. This arrangement was revised by the 1839 First Treaty of London, from which date Luxembourg's full independence is reckoned. At the time of the Belgian Revolution of 1830–1839, by the 1839 Treaty establishing full independence, Luxembourg's territory was reduced by more than half, as the predominantly francophone western part of the country was transferred to Belgium. In 1842 Luxembourg joined the German Customs Union (Zoll
Schieren is a commune and town in central Luxembourg. It is part of the canton of Diekirch; as of 2011, the town of Schieren itself, which lies in the west of the commune, has a population of 1,497. It is located on the rail line to Ettelbruck. Schieren was formed on 1 July 1850, when it was detached from the commune of Ettelbruck, along with the commune of Erpeldange; the law forming Schieren was passed on 22 January 1850. In 1894, Schieren established a fire station with five volunteer firefighters, it has a notable church. Media related to Schieren at Wikimedia Commons Commune of Schieren official website Unofficial website on local activities
Vallée de l'Ernz
Vallée de l'Ernz is a commune in northern Luxembourg, in the canton of Diekirch. The commune of Vallée de l'Ernz was formed on 1 January 2012 from the former communes of Ermsdorf and Medernach; the law creating the Vallée de l'Ernz was passed on 24 May 2011. It has an area of 39.73 km2. Media related to Vallée de l'Ernz at Wikimedia Commons
Heffingen is a commune and small town in central Luxembourg, in the canton of Mersch. As of 2005, the town of Heffingen, which lies in the centre of the commune, has a population of 598. Another town within the commune is Reuland. Heffingen is where a homo sapiens of over 8000 years old, was found. Media related to Heffingen at Wikimedia Commons
Lorentzweiler is a commune and small town in central Luxembourg, in the canton of Mersch. It is situated on the river Alzette; as of 2005, the town of Lorentzweiler, which lies in the centre of the commune, has a population of 743. Other towns within the commune include Blaschette and Helmdange, Hunsdorf. Media related to Lorentzweiler at Wikimedia Commons
Colmar-Berg is a commune and town in central Luxembourg, in the canton of Mersch. It is situated at the confluence of the rivers Alzette; as of 2005, the town of Colmar-Berg, which lies in the east of the commune, has a population of 1,711. Colmar-Berg is the site of the Grand Duke of Berg Castle, it is the site of a Goodyear tyre factory. The commune was known as simply'Berg' until 25 March 1991; the "Centre de Formation pour Conducteurs" is in Colmar-Berg. Every person has to make an "Obligatory Course" after they got their driving license in order for it to become a definitive license; this has to be done in the timespan after three months and before two years after the person passed their practical driving test. Media related to Colmar-Berg at Wikimedia Commons