Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a group of blood cancers that includes all types of lymphoma except Hodgkin lymphomas. Symptoms include enlarged lymph nodes, night sweats, weight loss and tiredness. Other symptoms may include bone pain, chest pain or itchiness; some forms are slow-growing, while others are fast-growing. Lymphomas are types of cancer that develop from a type of white blood cell. Risk factors include poor immune function, autoimmune diseases, Helicobacter pylori infection, hepatitis C, obesity and Epstein–Barr virus infection; the World Health Organization classifies lymphomas into five major groups, including one for Hodgkin's lymphoma. Within the four groups for NHL, there are over 60 specific types of lymphoma. Diagnosis is by examination of a bone lymph node biopsy. Medical imaging is done to help with cancer staging. Treatment depends on whether the lymphoma is slow- or fast-growing and if it is in one area or many areas. Treatments may include chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, stem cell transplantation, surgery or watchful waiting.
If the blood becomes overly thick due to high numbers of antibodies, plasmapheresis may be used. Radiation and some chemotherapy, increase the risk of other cancers, heart disease or nerve problems over the subsequent decades. In 2015, about 4.3 million people had non-Hodgkin lymphoma, 231,400 died. In the United States, 2.1% of people are affected at some point in their life. The most common age of diagnosis is between 75 years old; the five-year survival rate in the United States is 71%. The signs and symptoms of non-Hodgkin lymphoma vary depending upon its location within the body. Symptoms include enlarged lymph nodes, night sweats, weight loss, tiredness. Other symptoms may include chest pain, or itchiness; some forms are slow growing. Enlarged lymph nodes may cause lumps to be felt under the skin when they are close to the surface of the body. Lymphomas in the skin may result in lumps, which are itchy, red or purple. Lymphomas in the brain can cause weakness, problems with thinking and personality changes.
While an association between non-Hodgkin lymphoma and endometriosis has been described, these associations are tentative. The many different forms of lymphoma have different causes; these possible causes and associations with at least some forms of NHL include the following: Infectious agents: Epstein–Barr virus: associated with Burkitt's lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, follicular dendritic cell sarcoma, extranodal NK-T-cell lymphoma Human T-cell leukemia virus: associated with adult T-cell lymphoma Helicobacter pylori: associated with gastric lymphoma HHV-8: associated with primary effusion lymphoma, multicentric Castleman disease Hepatitis C virus: associated with splenic marginal zone lymphoma, lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma HIV infection Some chemicals, like polychlorinated biphenyls, diphenylhydantoin and phenoxy herbicides. Medical treatments, like radiation therapy and chemotherapy Genetic diseases, like Klinefelter syndrome, Chédiak–Higashi syndrome, ataxia–telangiectasia syndrome Autoimmune diseases, like Sjögren syndrome, celiac disease, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus.
Familial lymphoid cancer is rare. The familial risk of lymphoma is elevated for multiple lymphoma subtypes, suggesting a shared genetic cause. However, a family history of a specific subtype is most associated with risk for that subtype, indicating that these genetic factors are subtype-specific. Genome-wide association studies have identified 67 single nucleotide polymorphisms from 41 loci, most of which are subtype specific; the Center for Disease Control and Prevention included certain types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma as AIDS-defining cancers in 1987. Immune suppression rather than HIV itself is implicated in the pathogenesis of this malignancy, with a clear correlation between the degree of immune suppression and the risk of developing NHL. Additionally, other retroviruses such as HTLV may be spread by the same mechanisms that spread HIV, leading to an increased rate of co-infection; the natural history of HIV infection has been changed over time. As a consequence, rates of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in people infected with HIV has declined in recent years.
The traditional treatment of NHL includes chemotherapy and stem cell transplants. There have been developments in immunotherapy used in the treatment of NHL; the most common chemotherapy used for B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma is R-CHOP, a regimen of four drugs plus rituximab. Globally, as of 2010, there were 210,000 deaths, up from 143,000 in 1990. Rates of non-Hodgkin lymphoma increases with age. Up to 45 years NHL is more common among males than females. Andrew Kishore, Andrew Kishore is many national award winner, he suffering Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma-NHL Age adjusted data from 2012-2016 shows about 19.6 cases of NHL per 100,000 adults per year, 5.6 deaths per 100,000 adults per year, around 694,704 people living with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. About 2.2 percent of men and women will be diagnosed with NHL at some point during their lifetime. The American Cancer Society lists non-Hodgkin lymphoma as one of the most common cancers in the United States, accounting for about 4% of all cancers. In Canada, NHL is sixth most common cancer in females.
The lifetime probability of developing a lymphoid cancer is 1 in 44 for males, 1 in 51 for females. On average, according to data for the 2014–2016 period, around 13,900 people are diagnosed
The Vetterli rifles were a series of Swiss army service rifles in use from 1869 to 1889, when they were replaced with Schmidt–Rubin rifles. Modified Vetterlis were used by the Italian Army; the Swiss Vetterli rifles combined the American Winchester Model 1866's tubular magazine with a regular bolt featuring for the first time two opposed rear locking lugs. This novel type of bolt was a major improvement over Chassepot bolt actions; the Vetterli was the first repeating bolt-action rifle to feature a self-cocking action and a small caliber bore. Due to the Swiss Federal Council's early 1866 decision to equip the army with a breechloading repeating rifle, the Vetterli rifles were, at the time of their introduction, the most advanced military rifles in Europe; the Vetterli was the replacement for the Eidgenössischer Stutzer 1851, an Amsler-Milbank metallic cartridge conversion from previous Swiss muzzle-loading rifles. The model 1867 was the first iteration of Vetterli rifles, it was accepted into service in February 1868.
The model 1867, like its successors, featured a 12-round under barrel tubular magazine and bolt action feed system. The primary distinguishing feature of the Model 1867 was the external hammer. Before the Model 1867 was put into full production, the rifle designer, Friedrich Vetterli, updated the rifle by replacing the external hammer with an internal cocking bolt spring, rounded front barrel band and placing the cleaning rod on the left side of the rifle, it was discovered soon after that the cleaning rod in its current placement was damaged and was subsequently moved to the under-barrel position. The model was designated the Model 1869; the 1869 Repetiergewehr Vetterli was the first iteration of Vetterli rifles to go into full mass production. It was designed by Johann-Friedrich Vetterli, a Swiss riflemaker, who worked in France and England before becoming director of the Schweizerische Industrie Gesellschaft's armament factory in Neuhausen Switzerland, he adapted his rifle into a single-shot centerfire variant procured by the Italian Army.
In 1871 the Model 1869 was updated by removing the loading magazine cutoff switch. This change was designated the Model 1869/71 Even while manufacture of the M1869/71 was underway, a new 1871 model was put into production, it omitted some redundant parts and featured a modified sight as well as a stronger barrel and stronger iron hoops. The Stutzer variant of the 1871 rifle was used to equip the Scharfschützen companies of the army; the Stutzer were featured a shorter barrel. The Kavallerie-Repetierkarabiner was another shortened variant of the 1871 rifle for use by the cavalry, which at that time was still armed with percussion pistols. To accelerate the sluggish production of the Vetterli rifles, the federal authorities built a new arms factory in Berne, the Eidgenössische Waffenfabrik, in 1875; that factory produced the 1878 variant of the Vetterli rifle. Its some 25 improvements included a new bayonet and lug, improved sights and a finger hook on the trigger guard. A Stutzer variant with a Stecher action, but otherwise identical to the rifle, was produced.
The Italian Army adopted a modified Vetterli design, however as a single-shot, in 1870. Unlike the Swiss model, it was chambered for a centrefire cartridge, the 10.35×47mmR. In 1887, the Italian military updated its single-shot Model 1870 Vetterli rifles with a four-round Vitali box magazine. During World War I, like many nations Italy faced a shortage of modern infantry rifles; as a stop-gap measure, hundreds of thousands of Vetterli-Vitali rifles and a few carbines and musquetoons were converted in Rome and Gardone to fire the 6.5x52mm Carcano round, by adding a 6.5mm barrel liner and a Carcano-style magazine. These conversions were never meant for extended firing with standard 6.5x52mm loads, as the smokeless powder 6.5×52mm cartridge generates higher pressure than the black powder 10.35×47mmR, but have withstood modern CIP proof firing without difficulty. Surplus Vetterli rifles were used in "surprising number" by civilians in the U. S. for hunting deer through 1972. Ernst Hostettler. Hand- und Faustfeuerwaffen der Schweizer Armee von 1842 bis heute.
Víctor Alba who went as Pere Pagès i Elies was a Spanish anti-Stalinist communist politician, journalist and Spanish university professor. Alba began beginning his studies at the University of Barcelona, he started his career as a political journalist at a young age. Affiliated with the Bloque Obrero y Campesino, he worked for the Workers' Party of Marxist Unification when the BOC combined with it. During the Spanish Civil War, he was the director of La Batalla, the organ of expression for the POUM. After the capture of the Basque region by Francoist forces in May 1937 he was arrested and jailed for six years in Valencia. After leaving prison, he went into exile in France, where he worked alongside Albert Camus, in 1947 moved to Mexico, where he published various works. In Mexico he began a prolific literary production, in Spanish, French and English, became director of the Social Training center. In 1957, he moved north to the United States, working with various international groups and became a professor of the University of Kansas and in the Kent State University in Ohio.
Identifying as a Marxist, he adopted social-democratic and anti-communist views during his exile. In 1974 he retired from Kent State University, returning to Spain where he died in 2003. Alba wrote many works in various languages: Els supervivents. Ed. Catalonia. México, DF, 1950. Novela sobre la Barcelona de posguerra. Reeditada en Barcelona, 1996. Historia del comunismo en América Latina. Ed. Occidentales. México DF, 1953. Mexicanos Para La Historia Biblioteca Minima Mexicana 1955 The Latin Americans. Praeger, Nueva York, 1969 Retorn a Catalunya. Portic, Barcelona, 1970. Catalunya sense cap ni peus. Portic, Barcelona, 1971. Homo sapiens catalanibus. Portic, Barcelona, 1974 USA, centre de la revolució mundial. Portic, Barcelona, 1974. Catalonia. A Profile. Praeger, Nueva York, 1975 El pájaro africano. Planeta, Barcelona, 1975. Novela finalista del Premio Planeta de 1975. El marxisme a Catalunya. 1919–1939. I-Historia del BOC. II-Historia del POUM. III-Andreu Nin. IV-Joaquim Maurín, Pòrtic, Barcelona, 1974–1975. Els problemes del moviment obrer de Catalunya.
Portic, Barcelona, 1976. Historia de la resistencia antifranquista, 1939–1955. Planeta, Barcelona, 1978. Todos somos herederos de Franco. Planeta, Barcelona, 1979 Sísifo y su tiempo. Laertes. Barcelona, 1996. Memorias. Works by or about Víctor Alba in libraries http://www.fundanin.org/iglesias-alba.htm https://web.archive.org/web/20070927225858/http://www.march.es/ceacs/biblioteca/proyectos/linz/Herramientas/PDF/personajes.pdf Víctor Alba works Geocities at the Wayback Machine
The Jam Factory is a shopping and entertainment centre, located in Chapel Street, South Yarra, a suburb of Melbourne, Australia. The Jam Factory is owned by Newmark Capital Limited, it is the headquarters of Village Roadshow. The Jam Factory was established as the Victorian Brewery in 1858, having a value of 150 pounds; the brewery shut down in 1876, with the building and land being purchased the same year by Robert Wright and Robert Payne, who started the Victoria Preserving Company. By 1880, it was named the Red Cross preserving company. During the fruit season it employed 230 people, was the largest employer in Prahran. Mr William Peacock bought the premises and turned it into the'OK' Jam Co in 1895 and resold it to Henry Jones of the Henry Jones IXL Pty Ltd company and the Henry Jones IXL household brand name. Jam production continued in the building for this firm until 1970. At a cost of $20 million the site was redeveloped and opened on 9 October 1979 as a shopping centre catering to modern fashions, in 1995 was redeveloped as the Jam Factory.
The shopping centre housed the first Australian Borders shop opening in 1998. It has since closed, along with the rest of the bankrupt chain, in 2011, when its regional parent company, RedGroup Retail, went into administration; the Borders space is now occupied by Topshop. The Jam Factory was chosen by Brazin Limited to be the first site to reintroduce Virgin Megastores in Australia opening in 2002, it has since been closed by Sanity Entertainment in 2010 with the Virgin space now occupied by the country's first Urban by Target store. Before these major tenants closed their Jam Factory outlets, its owner, announced in June 2008 a $700 million redevelopment that did not proceed, it would have seen the historic factory building demolished and replaced with a new style shopping centre, apartment towers built on the car park closest to Virgin Megastore/Urban by Target, 8000 square metres of office space, a 100-room hotel. Challenger attempted to sell the entire site in May 2009 for about $110 million without success.
Predictor@home was a distributed computing project that used BOINC. It was established by The Scripps Research Institute to predict protein structure from protein sequence in the context of the 6th biannual CASP, or Critical Assessment of Techniques for Protein Structure Prediction. A major goal of the project was the testing and evaluating of new algorithms to predict both known and unknown protein structures; the project was most run by the University of Michigan. Predictor@home was complementary to Folding@home. Whereas the latter aims to study the dynamics of protein folding, Predictor@home aimed to specify what the final tertiary structure will be; the two projects differ in the infrastructure they use. Predictor@home used BOINC, whereas Folding@home maintains its own software outside of BOINC. However, for a time, Predictor@home competed with other BOINC protein structure prediction projects, such as Rosetta@home; each uses different methods of and reliably predicting the final tertiary structure.
Predictor@home is inactive. Predictor@Home began as a successful "folding" style project with many users. Though it was quite successful, a "disagreement" between the project administration and the user base caused a mass exodus of participating users which resulted in the loss of productive viability and the project shut down; this is quite notable because it was the first BOINC project to have experienced a "user rejection" on such a scale. On September 6, 2006, Predictor@home was temporarily taken off line, with no new work units being sent out. In May, 2008, the project reverted to Alpha status. Over the summer of 2008, the project servers were moved to the University of Michigan. Since December 2008, the project has not sent out any work for some months. BOINC stats sites are unable to obtain updated XML data, as this has been suspended by the project team. On June 10, 2009, the Predictor@home web site and forums ceased to function and appear to have been shut down. List of distributed computing projects Rosetta@home SIMAP Grid computing Protein structure prediction Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing
Robert Alan'Bob' Pritzker was an American businessman and member of the wealthy Pritzker family. Pritzker was born to a Jewish family, the Pritzker family, in Chicago, the son of Fanny and A. N. Pritzker, he has two brothers: Jay Pritzker. Robert Pritzker received a bachelor's degree in industrial engineering from the Illinois Institute of Technology in 1946 and an honorary doctorate in 1984, he taught night courses at IIT and began serving on the Board of Trustees in 1962, served as a University Regent until the time of his death. He taught evening classes at the University of Chicago Graduate School of Business in the late 1970s and through the 1980s, his class consisted of cases developed from actual business take-overs he was involved with, students had to recommend whether or not to purchase the companies under study. Pritzker started The Marmon Group, an international association of autonomous manufacturing and service companies. Marmon's assets constitute half of the Pritzker family fortune.
Robert's success can be attributed to his unique business structure, in which employees are trusted to make more key decisions, independent of the central office, than in other typical manufacturing settings. This independence allows for more creativity, increases speed and productivity. Concurrently, Pritzker spent a year as Chairman of the National Association of Manufacturers. In 2002, Bob Pritzker retired from his position of President of The Marmon Group and assumed the role of President of Colson Associates, Inc. a holding company of caster, plastics moldling and medical companies, including Acumed, OsteoMed, Precision Edge Surgical Products Company, among others. Pritzker was married three times: His first wife was Audrey Gilbert, whom he divorced in 1979. In 1981, she married again to Albert B. Ratner, the co-chairman of Cleveland-based real estate developer Forest City Enterprises. Pritzker and Gilbert had three children:Jennifer N. Pritzker – retired Lt Colonel in the U. S. Army and founder of the Pritzker Military Library.
Jennifer has three children: William. Linda Pritzker – psychotherapist and ordained Tibetan Buddhist lama. Karen Pritzker Vlock – married to investor Michael Vlock. In 1980, he married Australian Irene Dryburgh, whom he met while she worked at a Hyatt hotel in Australia. Prior to their divorce in 1989, they had two children:Matthew Pritzker – is a real-estate entrepreneur, the head of the Matthew Pritzker Company, former owner of Chicago-based HomeMade Pizza Company, State Street Pictures. Liesel Pritzker Simmons – a child actress who starred in A Little Princess and played the U. S. President's daughter in the film Air Force One, she co-founded with her mother the IDP Foundation, dedicated to "developing innovative and replicable programs through sustainable initiatives that move away from aid based models and lead to greater progress in the achievement of Education for All for the most deprived." His third wife, whom he married in 1994, was Sao Mayari Sargent, the daughter of the Austrian author Inge Sargent, her first husband Sao Kya Seng, last Saopha of Hsipaw State in Shan State, Burma.
Robert Pritzker preferred to fly coach despite having access to a family-owned corporate jet: "If I ask my managers to go coach how can I go first class? That's leadership."Pritzker's nephew and namesake, J. B. became Governor of Illinois in 2019. List of billionaires Forbes.com: Forbes World's Richest People – Robert Pritzker Colson Associates, Inc. Robert Pritzker at Find a Grave