The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Institute for Supply Management
Institute for Supply Management is the oldest, the largest, supply management association in the world. Founded in 1915, the U. S.-based not-for-profit educational association serves professionals and organizations with a keen interest in supply management, providing them education, qualifications, publications and research. ISM has 50,000 members in more than 90 countries, it offers two qualifications, the Certified Professional in Supply Management and the Certified Professional in Supplier Diversity, and, in partnership with the W. P. Carey School of Business at Arizona State University, sponsors CAPS Research. ISM competes against several educational and membership organizations serving the supply chain profession, including APICS, the Next Level Purchasing Association, the National Contract Management Association, the American Purchasing Society, The Center for Purchasing and Supply Chain Management Excellence, the Chartered Institute of Procurement & Supply. Institute for Supply Management originated in 1915 as the National Association of Purchasing Agents.
In the early twentieth century and the function that it served and represented did not enjoy the full support of management, indifferent to it or unaware of its potential. Prior to 1915, local purchasing associations had formed in at least 10 major cities in the U. S. including one of the most active groups in Buffalo. There was a realization among some purchasers that they needed a national group to advance their profession and share useful information among members, but support was spotty. There was a certain level of distrust organizers had to overcome as buyers were strangers to each other and feared that their participation would reveal information that could benefit rival companies; as Charles A. Steele, president of N. A. P. A. Stated in 1923:...it had been a sort of unwritten rule that purchasers were one body of men who should not communicate with each other for fear that they might do the other fellow some good and themselves some harm. It was not a purchasing agent but a salesman working for the Thomas Publishing Company by the name of Elwood B.
Hendricks who realized the full potential of the buying function and was the driving force behind forming a national purchasing association. In 1913, Hendricks's plan began to bear fruit when he helped form the Purchasing Agents Association of New York, to become the nucleus of the national organization; the New York group applied for and received a charter for N. A. P. A. in 1915. The first local groups to affiliate with the new national association were New York City and Pittsburgh in 1915 and Columbus in 1916. South Bend, Chicago, St. Louis, Philadelphia and Los Angeles followed them in 1917. Buffalo affiliated with N. A. P. A. in 1918 and by 1920 there were over 30 affiliates. Hendricks efforts were so instrumental in the organization's success that it gave him an honorary lifetime membership; the goals of N. A. P. A. Were to: impress the business world with the importance of the purchasing function to economic well-being; the new national association was three affiliates strong when it held its first convention in New York in 1916 with 100 of its 250 members in attendance.
That year saw N. A. P. A. Launch a magazine, The Purchasing Agent, to have an immense impact on the success of the organization and evolve into the association's current Inside Supply Management magazine. In 1918 one thousand members were expected to attend that year's national convention; the new association soon began to make its presence felt on the national stage. Within five years, N. A. P. A. Membership had soared and it had 32 affiliates and many more would join over the coming decades. With the entry of the United States into World War I in 1917, N. A. P. A. offered its services to President Wilson to aid in the buying of materials. With the industrial war effort in high gear, materials were scarcer and procurement had become more complicated as the U. S. government "attempted to guide economic activity via centralized price and production controls." It was a time of opportunity. Purchasing agents nationwide began to exert themselves as departments in their plants that claimed purchasing rights were now too busy to interfere in procurement and purchasing agents proved to management they could help keep production up.
It was during this time that N. A. P. A. Members helped establish purchasing courses at Harvard, it was a small step, but the first seeds of N. A. P. A.’s renowned purchasing education program had been planted. The association was deep in standards work and discussing a code of ethics for the purchasing profession. During the 1920s, it became clear to businesses. N. A. P. A.'s efforts to promote the field bore fruit and the business world began to view purchasing in a more favorable light. During World War I, N. A. P. A. Called for the centralization of War Department purchasing to reduce inefficiency and graft; the association began to flex its muscle and demanded standardization in the purchase and use of coal and the prosecution of profiteers. Its crusade for ethical standards resulted in the Purchasing Agent’s Creed that observers hailed for decades as one of the outstanding moral statements in modern business. In 1928, it released the Standards for Buying and Selling with the recognition that buying and selling should be mutually profitable and that cooperation would reduce the cost of p
Service economy can refer to one or both of two recent economic developments: The increased importance of the service sector in industrialized economies. The current list of Fortune 500 companies contains more service companies and fewer manufacturers than in previous decades; the relative importance of service in a product offering. The service economy in developing countries is concentrated in financial services, retail, human services, information technology and education. Products today have a higher service component than in previous decades. In the management literature this is referred to as the servitization of products or a product-service system; every product today has a service component to it. The old dichotomy between product and service has been replaced by a service-product continuum. Many products are being transformed into services. For example, IBM treats its business as a service business. Although it still manufactures computers, it sees the physical goods as a small part of the "business solutions" industry.
They have found that the price elasticity of demand for "business solutions" is much less than for hardware. There has been a corresponding shift to a subscription pricing model. Rather than receiving a single payment for a piece of manufactured equipment, many manufacturers are now receiving a steady stream of revenue for ongoing contracts. Full cost accounting and most accounting reform and monetary reform measures are thought to be impossible to achieve without a good model of the service economy. Since the 1950s, the global economy has undergone a structural transformation. For this change, the American economist Victor R. Fuchs called it “the service economy” in 1968, he believes that the United States has taken the lead in entering the service economy and society in the Western countries. The declaration heralded the arrival of a service economy that began in the United States on a global scale. With the rapid development of information revolution and technology, the service economy has shown new development trends.
This is seen in green economics and more specific theories within it such as Natural Capitalism, as having these benefits: Much easier integration with accounting for nature's services Much easier integration with state services under globalization, e.g. meat inspection is a service, assumed within a product price, but which can vary quite drastically with jurisdiction, with some serious effects. Association of goods movements in commodity markets with negative commodity public bads so that no commodity can be traded without assuming responsibility for damage done by its extraction, shipping and sale - its comprehensive outcome Easier integration with urban ecology and industrial ecology modelling Making it easier to relate to the Experience Economy of actual quality of life decisions made by human beings based on assumptions about service, integrating economics better with marketing theory about brand value e.g. products are purchased for their assumed reliability in some known process.
This assumes that the user's experience with the brand is far more important than its technical characteristicsProduct stewardship or product take-back are words for a specific requirement or measure in which the service of waste disposal is included in the distribution chain of an industrial product and is paid for at time of purchase. That is, paying for the safe and proper disposal when you pay for the product, relying on those who sold it to you to dispose of it; those who advocate it are concerned with the phases of product lifecycle and the comprehensive outcome of the whole production process. It is considered a pre-requisite to a strict service economy interpretation of "commodity" and "product" relationships, it is applied to paint and other goods that become toxic waste if not disposed of properly. It is most familiar as the container deposit charged for a deposit bottle. One pays a fee to buy the bottle, separately from the fee to buy. If one returns the bottle, the fee is returned, the supplier must return the bottle for re-use or recycling.
If not, one has paid the fee, this can pay for landfill or litter control measures that dispose of diapers or a broken bottle. Since the same fee can be collected by anyone finding and returning the bottle, it is common for people to collect these and return them as a means of gaining a small income; this is quite common for instance among homeless people in U. S. cities. Legal requirements vary: the bottle itself may be considered the property of the purchaser of the contents, or, the purchaser may have some obligation to return the bottle to some depot so it can be recycled or re-used. In some countries, such as Germany, law requires attention to the comprehensive outcome of the whole extraction, distribution and waste of a product, holds those profiting from these responsible for any outcome along the way; this is the trend in the UK and EU generally. In the United States, there have been many class action suits that are product stewardship liability - holding companies responsible for things the product does which it was never advertised to do.
Rather than let liability for these problems be taken up by the public sector or be haphazardly assigned one issue at a time to companies via lawsuits, many accounting reform efforts focus on achieving full cost accounting. This is the financial reflection of the comprehensive outcome - noting the gains and losses to all parties involved, not just those investing or purchasing; such moves have made moral purchasing