Macmillan Publishers Ltd is an international publishing company owned by Holtzbrinck Publishing Group. It operates in more than thirty others. Macmillan was founded in 1843 by Daniel and Alexander Macmillan, two brothers from the Isle of Arran, Scotland. Daniel was the business brain, while Alexander laid the literary foundations, publishing such notable authors as Charles Kingsley, Thomas Hughes, Francis Turner Palgrave, Christina Rossetti, Matthew Arnold and Lewis Carroll. Alfred Tennyson joined the list in 1884, Thomas Hardy in 1886 and Rudyard Kipling in 1890. Other major writers published by Macmillan included W. B. Yeats, Rabindranath Tagore, Nirad C. Chaudhuri, Seán O'Casey, John Maynard Keynes, Charles Morgan, Hugh Walpole, Margaret Mitchell, C. P. Snow, Rumer Godden and Ram Sharan Sharma. Beyond literature, the company created such enduring titles as Nature, the Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians and Sir Robert Harry Inglis Palgrave's Dictionary of Political Economy. George Edward Brett opened the first Macmillan office in the United States in 1869 and Macmillan sold its U.
S. operations to the Brett family, George Platt Brett, Sr. and George Platt Brett, Jr. in 1896, resulting in the creation of an American company, Macmillan Publishing called the Macmillan Company. With the split of the American company from its parent company in England, George Brett, Jr. and Harold Macmillan remained close personal friends. Macmillan Publishers re-entered the American market in 1954 under the name St. Martin's Press. Macmillan of Canada was founded in 1905. After retiring from politics in 1964, former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Harold Macmillan became chairman of the company, serving until his death in December 1986, he had been with the family firm as a junior partner from 1920 to 1940, from 1945 to 1951 while he was in the opposition in Parliament. Holtzbrinck Publishing Group purchased the company in 1999. Pearson acquired the Macmillan name in America in 1998, following its purchase of the Simon & Schuster educational and professional group. Holtzbrinck purchased it from them in 2001.
McGraw-Hill continues to market its pre-kindergarten through elementary school titles under its Macmillan/McGraw-Hill brand. The US operations of Holtzbrinck Publishing changed its name to Macmillan in October 2017, its audio publishing imprint changed its name from Audio Renaissance to Macmillan Audio, while its distribution arm was renamed from Von Holtzbrinck Publishers Services to Macmillan Publishers Services. With Pan Macmillan's purchase of Kingfisher, a British children's publisher, Roaring Brook Press publisher Simon Boughton would take oversee Kingfisher's US business in October 2007. By some estimates, as of 2009 e-books account for three to five per cent of total book sales, are the fastest growing segment of the market. According to The New York Times and other major publishers "fear that massive discounting by retailers including Amazon, Barnes & Noble and Sony could devalue what consumers are willing to pay for books." In response, the publisher introduced a new boilerplate contract for its authors that established a royalty of 20 per cent of net proceeds on e-book sales, a rate five per cent lower than most other major publishers.
Following the announcement of the Apple iPad on 27 January 2010—a product that comes with access to the iBookstore—Macmillan gave Amazon.com two options: continue to sell e-books based on a price of the retailer's choice, with the e-book edition released several months after the hardcover edition is released, or switch to the agency model introduced to the industry by Apple, in which both are released and the price is set by the publisher. In the latter case, Amazon.com would receive a 30 per cent commission. Amazon responded by pulling all Macmillan books, both physical, from their website. On 31 January 2010, Amazon chose the agency model preferred by Macmillan. In April 2012, the United States Department of Justice filed United States v. Apple Inc. naming Apple and four other major publishers as defendants. The suit alleged that they conspired to fix prices for e-books, weaken Amazon.com's position in the market, in violation of antitrust law. In December 2013, a federal judge approved a settlement of the antitrust claims, in which Macmillan and the other publishers paid into a fund that provided credits to customers who had overpaid for books due to the price-fixing.
In 2010, Macmillan Education submitted to an investigation on grounds of fraudulent practices. The Macmillan division admitted to bribery in an attempt to secure a contract for an education project in southern Sudan; as a direct result of the investigation, sanctions were applied by the World Bank Group, namely a 6-year debarment declaring the company ineligible to be awarded Bank-financed contracts. In December 2011, Bedford and Worth Publishing Group, Macmillan's higher education group, changed its name to Macmillan Higher Education while retaining the Bedford and Worth name for its k–12 educational unit; that month, Brian Napack resigned as Macmillan president while staying on for transitional purposes. In May 2015, London-based Macmillan Science and Education merged with Berlin-based Springer Science+Business Media to form Springer Nature, jointly controlled by Holtzbrinck Publishing Group and BC Partners. US publishing divis
Richard McKay Rorty was an American philosopher. Educated at the University of Chicago and Yale University, he had strong interests and training in both the history of philosophy and contemporary analytic philosophy, the latter of which came to comprise the main focus of his work at Princeton University in the 1960s, he subsequently came to reject the tradition of philosophy according to which knowledge involves correct representation of a world whose existence remains wholly independent of that representation. Rorty had a long and diverse academic career, including positions as Stuart Professor of Philosophy at Princeton University, Kenan Professor of Humanities at the University of Virginia, Professor of Comparative Literature at Stanford University. Among his most influential books are Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature, Consequences of Pragmatism, Contingency and Solidarity. Rorty saw the idea of knowledge as a "mirror of nature" as pervasive throughout the history of western philosophy.
Against this approach, Rorty advocated for a novel form of American pragmatism, sometimes called neopragmatism, in which scientific and philosophical methods form a set of contingent "vocabularies" which people abandon or adopt over time according to social conventions and usefulness. Abandoning representationalist accounts of knowledge and language, Rorty believed, would lead to a state of mind he referred to as "ironism", in which people become aware of the contingency of their placement in history and of their philosophical vocabulary. Rorty tied this brand of philosophy to the notion of "social hope", he emphasized the reasons why the interpretation of culture as conversation, constitutes the crucial concept of a "postphilosophical" culture determined to abandon representationalist accounts of traditional epistemology, incorporating American pragmatist naturalism that considers the natural sciences as an advance towards liberalism. Richard Rorty was born on October 1931, in New York City.
His parents and Winifred Rorty, were activists and social democrats. His maternal grandfather, Walter Rauschenbusch, was a central figure in the Social Gospel movement of the early 20th century, his father experienced two nervous breakdowns in his life. The second breakdown, which he had in the early 1960s, was more serious and "included claims to divine prescience." Richard Rorty fell into depression as a teenager and in 1962 began a six-year psychiatric analysis for obsessional neurosis. Rorty wrote about the beauty of rural New Jersey orchids in his short autobiography, "Trotsky and the Wild Orchids." His colleague Jürgen Habermas's obituary for Rorty points out that Rorty's contrasting childhood experiences, such as beautiful orchids versus reading a book in his parents' house that defended Leon Trotsky against Stalin, created an early interest in philosophy. He describes Rorty as an ironist: Nothing is sacred to Rorty the ironist. Asked at the end of his life about the'holy', the strict atheist answered with words reminiscent of the young Hegel:'My sense of the holy is bound up with the hope that some day my remote descendants will live in a global civilization in which love is pretty much the only law.'
Rorty enrolled at the University of Chicago shortly before turning 15, where he received a bachelor's and a master's degree in philosophy, continuing at Yale University for a PhD in philosophy. He married another academic, Amélie Oksenberg, with whom he had a son, Jay, in 1954. After two years in the United States Army, he taught at Wellesley College for three years until 1961. Rorty divorced his wife and married Stanford University bioethicist Mary Varney in 1972, they had two children and Patricia. While Richard Rorty was a "strict atheist", Mary Varney Rorty was a practicing Mormon. Rorty was a professor of philosophy at Princeton University for 21 years. In 1981, he was a recipient of a MacArthur Fellowship known as the "Genius Award," in its first year of awarding, in 1982 he became Kenan Professor of the Humanities at the University Of Virginia. In 1997 Rorty became professor of comparative literature, at Stanford University, where he spent the remainder of his academic career. During this period he was popular, once quipped that he had been assigned to the position of "transitory professor of trendy studies."Rorty's doctoral dissertation, The Concept of Potentiality was an historical study of the concept, completed under the supervision of Paul Weiss, but his first book, The Linguistic Turn, was in the prevailing analytic mode, collecting classic essays on the linguistic turn in analytic philosophy.
However, he became acquainted with the American philosophical movement known as pragmatism the writings of John Dewey. The noteworthy work being done by analytic philosophers such as Willard Van Orman Quine and Wilfrid Sellars caused significant shifts in his thinking, which were reflected in his next book and the Mirror of Nature. Pragmatists hold that the meaning of a proposition is determined by its use in linguistic practice. Rorty combined pragmatism about truth and other matters with a Wittgensteinian philosophy of language which declares that meaning is a social-linguistic product, sentences do not'link up' with the world in a correspondence relation. Rorty wrote in his Contingency and Solidarity: Truth cannot be o
The Golden Rule is the principle of treating others as one's self would wish to be treated. It is a maxim, found in many religions and cultures; the Golden Rule can be considered an ethic of reciprocity in some religions, although other religions treat it differently. The maxim may appear as either a positive or negative injunction governing conduct: One should treat others as one would like others to treat oneself. One should not treat others in ways. What you wish upon others, you wish upon yourself; the idea dates at least to the early Confucian times according to Rushworth Kidder, who identifies that this concept appears prominently in Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, "the rest of the world's major religions". The concept of the Rule is codified in the Code of Hammurabi stele and tablets, 1754-1790 BC. 143 leaders encompassing the world's major faiths endorsed the Golden Rule as part of the 1993 "Declaration Toward a Global Ethic", including the Baha'i Faith, Brahma Kumaris, Christianity, Indigenous, Islam, Judaism, Native American, Neo-Pagan, Taoism, Unitarian Universalist and Zoroastrian.
According to Greg M. Epstein, " 'do unto others'... is a concept that no religion misses entirely," but belief in God is not necessary to endorse it. Simon Blackburn states that the Golden Rule can be "found in some form in every ethical tradition". Yet, as with any prominent maxim, the Golden Rule is not without its controversy; the term "Golden Rule", or "Golden law", began to be used in the early 17th century in Britain by Anglican theologians and preachers. The earliest affirmation of the maxim of reciprocity, reflecting the ancient Egyptian goddess Ma'at, appears in the story of The Eloquent Peasant, which dates to the Middle Kingdom: "Now this is the command: Do to the doer to make him do." This proverb embodies. A Late Period papyrus contains an early negative affirmation of the Golden Rule: "That which you hate to be done to you, do not do to another." In Mahābhārata, the ancient epic of India, there is a discourse in which the wise minister Vidura advises the King Yuddhiśhṭhira Listening to wise scriptures, sacrifice, respectful faith, social welfare, purity of intent, compassion and self-control—are the ten wealth of character.
O king aim for these, may you be steadfast in these qualities. These are the basis of rightful living; these are highest attainable things. All worlds are balanced on dharma encompasses ways to prosperity as well. O King, dharma is the best quality to have, desire the lowest. Hence, by self-control and by making dharma your main focus, treat others as you treat yourself. In Chapter 32 in the Part on Virtue of the Tirukkuṛaḷ, Tiruvalluvar says: "Do not do to others what you know has hurt yourself", he furthermore opined that it is the determination of the spotless not to do evil in return, to those who have cherished enmity and done them evil. The punishment to those who have done evil, is to put them to shame by showing them kindness, in return and to forget both the evil and the good done on both sides The Golden Rule in its prohibitive form was a common principle in ancient Greek philosophy. Examples of the general concept include: "Avoid doing what you would blame others for doing." – Thales "What you do not want to happen to you, do not do it yourself either.
" – Sextus the Pythagorean. The oldest extant reference to Sextus is by Origen in the third century of the common era. "Do not do to others that which angers you when they do it to you." – Isocrates The Pahlavi Texts of Zoroastrianism were an early source for the Golden Rule: "That nature alone is good which refrains from doing to another whatsoever is not good for itself." Dadisten-I-dinik, 94,5, "Whatever is disagreeable to yourself do not do unto others." Shayast-na-Shayast 13:29 Seneca the Younger, a practitioner of Stoicism expressed the Golden Rule in his essay regarding the treatment of slaves: "Treat your inferior as you would wish your superior to treat you." According to Simon Blackburn, the Golden Rule "can be found in some form in every ethical tradition". A rule of altruistic reciprocity was first stated positively in a well-known Torah verse: You shall not take vengeance or bear a grudge against your kinsfolk. Love your neighbor as yourself: I am the LORD. Hillel the Elder, used this verse as a most important message of the Torah for his teachings.
Once, he was challenged by a gentile who asked to be converted under the condition that the Torah be explained to him while he stood on one foot. Hillel accepted him as a candidate for conversion to Judaism but, drawing on Leviticus 19:18, briefed the man: What is hateful to you, do not do to your fellow: this is the whole Torah. Hillel recognized brotherly love as the fundamental principle of Jewish ethics. Rabbi Akiva agreed and suggested that the principle of love must have its foundation in Genesis chapter 1, which teaches that all men are the offspring of Adam, who was
A. J. Ayer
Sir Alfred Jules "Freddie" Ayer cited as A. J. Ayer, was an English philosopher known for his promotion of logical positivism in his books Language and Logic and The Problem of Knowledge, he was educated at Eton College and Oxford University, after which he studied the philosophy of logical positivism at the University of Vienna. From 1933 to 1940 he lectured on philosophy at Oxford. During the Second World War Ayer was a Special Operations Executive and MI6 agent, he was Grote Professor of the Philosophy of Mind and Logic at University College London from 1946 until 1959, after which he returned to Oxford to become Wykeham Professor of Logic at New College. He was president of the Aristotelian Society from 1951 to 1952 and knighted in 1970, he was known for his advocacy of humanism, was the second President of the British Humanist Association. Ayer was born in St John's Wood, in north west London, to a wealthy family from continental Europe, his mother, Reine Citroën, was from the Dutch-Jewish family who founded the Citroën car company in France.
His father, Jules Ayer, was a Swiss Calvinist financier. Ayer was educated at Ascham St Vincent's School, a former boarding preparatory school for boys in the seaside town of Eastbourne in Sussex, in which he started boarding at the comparatively early age of seven for reasons to do with the First World War, Eton College, a boarding school in Eton in Berkshire, it was at Eton that Ayer first became known for his characteristic precocity. Although interested in furthering his intellectual pursuits, he was keen on sports rugby, reputedly played the Eton Wall Game well. In the final examinations at Eton, Ayer came second in his year, first in classics. In his final year, as a member of Eton's senior council, he unsuccessfully campaigned for the abolition of corporal punishment at the school, he won a classics scholarship to Oxford. After graduation from Oxford University Ayer spent a year in Vienna, returned to England and published his first book, Language and Logic in 1936; the first exposition in English of Logical Positivism as newly developed by the Vienna Circle, this made Ayer at age 26 the'enfant terrible' of British philosophy.
In the Second World War he served as an officer in the Welsh Guards, chiefly in intelligence. Ayer was commissioned second lieutenant into the Welsh Guards from Officer Cadet Training Unit on 21 September 1940. After the war he returned to Oxford University where he became a fellow and Dean of Wadham College, he thereafter taught philosophy at London University from 1946 until 1959, when he started to appear on radio and television. He was an extrovert and social mixer who liked dancing and attending the clubs in London and New York, he was obsessed with sport: he had played rugby for Eton, was a noted cricketer and a keen supporter of Tottenham Hotspur football team, where he was for many years a season ticket holder. For an academic, Ayer was an unusually well-connected figure in his time, with close links to'high society' and the establishment. Presiding over Oxford high-tables, he is described as charming, but at times he could be intimidating. Ayer was married four times to three women, his first marriage was from 1932–1941 to Renée, who subsequently married philosopher Stuart Hampshire, Ayer's friend and colleague.
In 1960 he married Alberta Constance Wells. Ayer's marriage to Wells was dissolved in 1983 and that same year he married Vanessa Salmon, former wife of politician Nigel Lawson, she died in 1985 and in 1989 he remarried Dee Wells, who survived him. Ayer had a daughter with Hollywood columnist Sheilah Graham Westbrook. From 1959 to his retirement in 1978, Sir Alfred held the Wykeham Chair, Professor of Logic at Oxford, he was knighted in 1970. After his retirement, Ayer taught or lectured several times in the United States, including serving as a visiting professor at Bard College in the fall of 1987. At a party that same year held by fashion designer Fernando Sanchez, Ayer 77, confronted Mike Tyson, forcing himself upon the little-known model Naomi Campbell; when Ayer demanded that Tyson stop, the boxer asked, "Do you know who the fuck I am? I'm the heavyweight champion of the world," to which Ayer replied, "And I am the former Wykeham Professor of Logic. We are both pre-eminent in our field. I suggest that we talk about this like rational men".
Ayer and Tyson began to talk, allowing Campbell to slip out. In 1988, one year before his death, Ayer wrote an article entitled, "What I saw when I was dead", describing an unusual near-death experience. Of the experience, Ayer first said that it "slightly weakened my conviction that my genuine death... will be the end of me, though I continue to hope that it will be." However, a few days he revised this, saying "what I should have said is that my experiences have weakened, not my belief that there is no life after death, but my inflexible attitude towards that belief". Ayer died on 27 June 1989. From 1980 to 1989, Ayer lived at 51 York Street, where a memorial plaque was unveiled on 19 November 1995. In Language and Logic, Ayer presents the verification principle as the only valid basis for philosophy. Unless logical or empirical verification is possible, statements like "God exists" or "charity is good" are not true or untrue but meaningless, may thus be excluded or ignored. Religious language in particular was unverifiable and as such nonsense.
He criticises C. A. Mace's opini
In philosophical ethics, the term, naturalistic fallacy, was introduced by British philosopher G. E. Moore in his 1903 book Principia Ethica. Moore argues it would be fallacious to explain that, good reductively, in terms of natural properties such as pleasant or desirable. Moore's naturalistic fallacy is related to the is–ought problem, which comes from David Hume's A Treatise of Human Nature. However, unlike Hume's view of the is–ought problem, Moore did not consider the naturalistic fallacy to be at odds with moral realism; the term, “naturalistic fallacy” should not be confused with the appeal to nature fallacy, some examples of which are: "Something is natural. Such inferences are common in discussions of medicine, environmentalism, gender roles and carnism; the term naturalistic fallacy is sometimes used to describe the deduction of an ought from an is. In using his categorical imperative, Kant deduced that experience was necessary for their application, but experience on its own or the imperative on its own could not identify an act as being moral or immoral.
We can have no certain knowledge of morality from them, being incapable of deducing how things ought to be from the fact that they happen to be arranged in a particular manner in experience. Bentham, in discussing the relations of law and morality, found that when people discuss problems and issues they talk about how they wish it would be as opposed to how it is; this can be seen in discussions of positive law. Bentham criticized natural law theory because in his view it was a naturalistic fallacy, claiming that it described how things ought to be instead of how things are. According to G. E. Moore's Principia Ethica, when philosophers try to define good reductively, in terms of natural properties like pleasant or desirable, they are committing the naturalistic fallacy....the assumption that because some quality or combination of qualities invariably and accompanies the quality of goodness, or is invariably and accompanied by it, or both, this quality or combination of qualities is identical with goodness.
If, for example, it is believed that whatever is pleasant is and must be good, or that whatever is good is and must be pleasant, or both, it is committing the naturalistic fallacy to infer from this that goodness and pleasantness are one and the same quality. The naturalistic fallacy is the assumption that because the words'good' and, say,'pleasant' describe the same objects, they must attribute the same quality to them. In defense of ethical non-naturalism, Moore's argument is concerned with the semantic and metaphysical underpinnings of ethics. In general, opponents of ethical naturalism reject ethical conclusions drawn from natural facts. Moore argues that good, in the sense of intrinsic value, is ineffable: it cannot be defined because it is not a natural property, being "one of those innumerable objects of thought which are themselves incapable of definition, because they are the ultimate terms by reference to which whatever'is' capable of definition must be defined". On the other hand, ethical naturalists eschew such principles in favor of a more empirically accessible analysis of what it means to be good: for example, in terms of pleasure in the context of hedonism.
That "pleased" does not mean "having the sensation of red", or anything else whatever, does not prevent us from understanding what it does mean. It is enough for us to know that "pleased" does mean "having the sensation of pleasure", though pleasure is indefinable, though pleasure is pleasure and nothing else whatever, yet we feel no difficulty in saying that we are pleased; the reason is, of course, that when I say "I am pleased", I do not mean that "I" am the same thing as "having pleasure". And no difficulty need be found in my saying that "pleasure is good" and yet not meaning that "pleasure" is the same thing as "good", that pleasure means good, that good means pleasure. If I were to imagine that when I said "I am pleased", I meant that I was the same thing as "pleased", I should not indeed call that a naturalistic fallacy, although it would be the same fallacy as I have called naturalistic with reference to Ethics. In §7, Moore argues that a property is either a complex of simple properties, or else it is irreducibly simple.
Complex properties can be defined in terms of their constituent parts but a simple property has no parts. In addition to good and pleasure, Moore suggests that colour qualia are undefined: if one wants to understand yellow, one must see examples of it, it will do no good to read the dictionary and learn that yellow names the colour of egg yolks and ripe lemons, or that yellow names the primary colour between green and orange on the spectrum, or that the perception of yellow is stimulated by electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength of between 570 and 590 nanometers, because yellow is all that and more, by the open question argument. Bernard Williams called Moore's use of the term, naturalistic fallacy, a "spectacular misnomer", the question being metaphysical, as opposed to rational; some people use the phrase, naturalistic fallacy or appeal to nature, in a different sense, to characterize inferences of the form "Something is natural. Such inferences are common in discussions of medicine, homosexuality and veganism.
The naturalistic fallacy is the idea. It was the basis for social Darwinism, the belief that helping the poor a
The Ten Commandments known as the Decalogue, are a set of biblical principles relating to ethics and worship, which play a fundamental role in Judaism and Christianity. The commandments include instructions to worship only God, to honour one's parents, to keep the sabbath day holy, as well as prohibitions against idolatry, murder, theft and coveting. Different religious groups follow different traditions for numbering them; the Ten Commandments appear twice in the books of Exodus and Deuteronomy. Modern scholarship has found influences in Hittite and Mesopotamian laws and treaties, but is divided over when the Ten Commandments were written and who wrote them. In biblical Hebrew, the Ten Commandments are called עשרת הדברים and in Mishnaic Hebrew עשרת הדברות, both translatable as "the ten words", "the ten sayings", or "the ten matters"; the Tyndale and Coverdale English biblical translations used "ten verses". The Geneva Bible used "tenne commandements", followed by the Bishops' Bible and the Authorized Version as "ten commandments".
Most major English versions use "commandments."The English name "Decalogue" is derived from Greek δεκάλογος, the latter meaning and referring to the Greek translation δέκα λόγους, deka logous, "ten words", found in the Septuagint at Exodus 34:28 and Deuteronomy 10:4. The stone tablets, as opposed to the commandments inscribed on them, are called לוחות הברית, Lukhot HaBrit, meaning "the tablets of the covenant". Different religious traditions divide the seventeen verses of Exodus 20:1–17 and their parallels at Deuteronomy 5:4–21 into ten "commandments" or "sayings" in different ways, shown in the table below; some suggest. All scripture quotes above are from the King James Version. Click on verses at top of columns for other versions. Traditions: LXX: Septuagint followed by Orthodox Christians. P: Philo, same as the Septuagint, but with the prohibitions on killing and adultery reversed. S: Samaritan Pentateuch, with an additional commandment about Mount Gerizim as 10th. T: Jewish Talmud, makes the "prologue" the first "saying" or "matter" and combines the prohibition on worshiping deities other than Yahweh with the prohibition on idolatry.
A: Augustine follows the Talmud in combining verses 3–6, but omits the prologue as a commandment and divides the prohibition on coveting in two and following the word order of Deuteronomy 5:21 rather than Exodus 20:17. C: Catechism of the Catholic Church follows Augustine. L: Lutherans follow Luther's Large Catechism, which follows Augustine but subordinates the prohibition of images to the sovereignty of God in the First Commandment and uses the word order of Exodus 20:17 rather than Deuteronomy 5:21 for the ninth and tenth commandments. R: Reformed Christians follow John Calvin's Institutes of the Christian Religion, which follows the Septuagint; the biblical narrative of the revelation at Sinai begins in Exodus 19 after the arrival of the children of Israel at Mount Sinai. On the morning of the third day of their encampment, "there were thunders and lightnings, a thick cloud upon the mount, the voice of the trumpet exceeding loud", the people assembled at the base of the mount. After "the LORD came down upon mount Sinai", Moses went up and returned and prepared the people, in Exodus 20 "God spoke" to all the people the words of the covenant, that is, the "ten commandments" as it is written.
Modern biblical scholarship differs as to whether Exodus 19-20 describes the people of Israel as having directly heard all or some of the decalogue, or whether the laws are only passed to them through Moses. The people were afraid to hear more and moved "afar off", Moses responded with "Fear not." He drew near the "thick darkness" where "the presence of the Lord" was to hear the additional statutes and "judgments", all which he "wrote" in the "book of the covenant" which he read to the people the next morning, they agreed to be obedient and do all that the LORD had said. Moses escorted a select group consisting of Aaron and Abihu, "seventy of the elders of Israel" to a location on the mount where they worshipped "afar off" and they "saw the God of Israel" above a "paved work" like clear sapphire stone, and the LORD said unto Moses, Come up to me into the mount, be there: and I will give thee tablets of stone, a law, commandments which I have written. 13 And Moses rose up, his minister Joshua: and Moses went up into the mount of God.
The mount was covered by the cloud for six days, on the seventh day Moses went into the midst of the cloud and was "in the mount forty days and forty nights." And Moses said, "the LORD delivered unto me two tablets of stone written with the finger of God. Before the full forty days expired, the children of Israel collectively decided that something had happened to Moses, compelled Aaron to fashion a golden calf, he "built an altar before it" and the people "worshipped" the calf. After the full forty days and Joshua came down from the mountain with the tablets of stone: "And it came to pass, as soon as he came nigh unto the camp, that he saw the calf, the dancing: and Moses' anger waxed hot, he cast the tablets out of his hands, brak