Non-linear editing is a form of offline editing for audio and image editing. In offline editing, the original content is not modified in the course of editing. In non-linear editing, edits are modified by specialized software. A pointer-based playlist an edit decision list, for video or a directed acyclic graph for still images is used to keep track of edits; each time the edited audio, video, or image is rendered, played back, or accessed, it is reconstructed from the original source and the specified editing steps. Although this process is more computationally intensive than directly modifying the original content, changing the edits themselves can be instantaneous, it prevents further generation loss as the audio, video, or image is edited. A non-linear editing system is a video or audio editing digital audio workstation system that performs non-destructive editing on source material; the name is in contrast to 20th century methods of linear video film editing. A non-linear editing approach may be used when all assets are available as files on video servers or hard disks, rather than recordings on reels or tapes.
While linear editing is tied to the need to sequentially view film or hear tape, non-linear editing enables direct access to any video frame in a digital video clip, without having to play or scrub/shuttle through adjacent footage to reach it, as is necessary with video tape linear editing systems. When ingesting audio or video feeds, metadata are attached to the clip; those metadata can be attached manually. It is possible to access any frame by entering directly the timecode or the descriptive metadata. An editor can, for example at the end of the day in the Olympic Games retrieve all the clips related to the players who received a gold medal; the non-linear editing method is similar in concept to the cut and paste techniques used in IT. However, with the use of non-linear editing systems, the destructive act of cutting of film negatives is eliminated, it can be viewed as the audio/video equivalent of word processing, why it is called desktop video editing in the consumer space. Video and audio data are first captured to hard disk-based systems, or other digital storage devices.
The data are imported into servers employing any necessary transcoding, digitizing or transfer). Once imported, the source material can be edited on a computer using application software, any of a wide range of video editing software. Editing software records the editor's decisions in an edit decision list, exportable to other editing tools. Many generations and variations of the original source files can exist without storing many different copies, allowing for flexible editing, it makes it easy to change cuts and undo previous decisions by editing the EDL. Generation loss is controlled, due to not having to re-encode the data when different effects are applied. Compared to the linear method of tape-to-tape editing, non-linear editing offers the flexibility of film editing, with random access and easy project organization. In non-linear editing, the original source files are not modified during editing; this is one of the biggest advantages of non-linear editing compared to linear editing. With the EDLs, the editor can work on low-resolution copies of the video.
This makes it possible to edit both standard-definition broadcast quality and high definition broadcast quality quickly on desktop computers that may not have the power to process huge full-quality high-resolution data in real-time. The costs of editing systems have dropped such that non-linear editing tools are now within the reach of home users; some editing software can now be accessed free as web applications. The non-linear editing retrieves video media for editing; because these media exist on the video server or other mass storage that stores the video feeds in a given codec, the editing system can use several methods to access the material: Direct access The video server records feeds with a codec readable by the editing system, has network connection to the editor and allows direct editing. The editor previews material directly on the server and edits directly on the server without transcoding or transfer. Shared storage The video server transfers feeds to and from shared storage, accessible by all editors.
Media in the appropriate codec on the server need only transferred. If recorded with a different codec, media must be transcoded during transfer. In some cases, files on shared storage can be edited before the transfer is finished. Importing The editor downloads the material and edits it locally; this method can be used with the previous methods. As of January 2019, Davinci Resolve had a user base of more than 2 million using the free version alone; this is a comparable user base to Apple's Final Cut Pro X, which had 2 million users as of April 2017.. This is in comparison to 2011, when reports indicated, "Avid's Media Composer is still the most-used NLE on prime-time TV productions, being employed on up to 90 percent of evening broadcast shows". Globally, the positioning and popularity of once common video editing platforms has since changed as more NLEs exist; some notable NLEs are: Avid Media Composer Adobe Premiere Pro DaVinci Resolve Final Cut Pro X and its p
The 1997 King George VI and Queen Elizabeth Stakes was a horse race held at Ascot Racecourse on Saturday 26 July 1997. It was the 47th running of the King George Queen Elizabeth Stakes; the winner was Godolphin's Swain, a five-year-old bay horse trained at Newmarket, Suffolk by Saeed bin Suroor and ridden by John Reid. Swain's victory was the second in the race for the first Godolphin. In addition, Godolphin's leader Sheikh Mohammed, had won the race with Belmez, Opera House and King's Theatre. Reid was winning the second time after riding Ile de Bourbon to victory in 1978; the race attracted a field of eight runners: seven from the United Kingdom, one from France. The favourite for the race was the French-trained Helissio, named European Horse of the Year in 1996 when his wins included the Prix Lupin, Grand Prix de Saint-Cloud and Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe. In his first two starts of 1997, Helissio had won the Prix Ganay and a second Grand Prix de Saint-Cloud. Michael Stoute's Newmarket stable were represented by two five-year-old horses who had achieved significant international success: Singspiel had won the Canadian International Stakes, Japan Cup, Dubai World Cup and Coronation Cup whilst Pilsudski had claimed victories in the Grosser Preis von Baden, Breeders' Cup Turf and Eclipse Stakes.
Swain was the representative of the Godolphin stable: trained in France, he had finished third in the 1995 Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe and won the Coronation Cup in 1996. The other runners were Kingfisher Mill, Predappio Hardwicke Stakes and Strategic Choice. Helissio headed the betting at odds of 11/10 ahead of Singspiel and Kingfisher Mill. Swain started at odds of 16/1; the race was run on soft ground in misty conditions. Helissio took the lead at the start but was headed by Kingfisher Mill, before regaining the advantage five furlongs from the finish. Helissio led the field into the straight, pursued by Swain and Singspiel. Swain moved into the lead two furlongs from the finish but was challenged by Pilsudski and Singspiel on the outside, whilst Helissio stayed on along the rail. In the closing stages Swain was driven out by Reid to win by a length from Pilsudski with Helissio a lengths and a quarter back in third and Singspiel weakening into fourth place. Shantou finished next ahead of Strategic Choice and the injured Kingfisher Mill.
Sponsor: De Beers Purse: £478,400.
Voyage of the Moonstone is the twenty-first book of the award-winning Lone Wolf book series created by Joe Dever. Lone Wolf books rely on a combination of luck. Certain statistics such as combat skill and endurance attributes are determined randomly before play; the player is allowed to choose which Kai disciplines or skills he or she possess. This number depends directly on. With each additional book completed, the player chooses one additional Kai discipline. In this first book, the player starts with five disciplines; the Moonstone is a legendary artefact, created by the godlike Shianti. It contains wisdom, the sum of their divine knowledge. Lone Wolf - Supreme Master of the Kai - has succeeded in retrieving it from the clutches of Naar, the King of the Darkness. Now the Moonstone must be returned to its creators who are exiled upon the remote Isle of Lorn in southern Magnamund. Someone must take the fabled artefact to the Shianti and Lone Wolf has chosen you, the most promising warrior, among the ranks of the New Order Kai, to carry out this vital mission.
Armed with the special weapons and skills of a Grand Master, you embark upon a secret voyage to the distant Isle of Lorn. However, your mission becomes a life and death struggle when you encounter intrigue and danger en route. Gamebooks - Lone Wolf Origins of Lone Wolf Book entry
Causewayhead or Causey Head, was an early, short lived railway station near Causewayhead, Cumbria on the Carlisle & Silloth Bay Railway & Dock Company's branch from Carlisle to Silloth The station served the small hamlet of Causewayhead and its rural surrounds. Its timetable entries show trains calling on Saturdays Only, it only appeared in public timetables from November 1856 to April 1859. The 18 September 1856 entry in a contemporary journal states that "...generally call at Causeway Head to quench the thirst of the Steam Horse. They pump the water out of the beck."By 1866 no trace of a station could be seen on OS maps, though a building - certainly the crossing keeper's cottage - is clear. It is possible that this was a "lose it" stopping place where no platforms were built; the level crossing required the services of a Crossing Keeper until the line closed in 1964. The line through the crossing closed on 7 September 1964; the North British Railway leased the line from the Carlisle & Silloth Bay Railway & Dock Company in 1862, absorbed them in 1880, The NBR, in turn, was absorbed into the London and North Eastern Railway in 1923, passing to British Railways in 1948.
Quick, Michael. Railway passenger stations in Great Britain: a chronology. Oxford: Railway and Canal Historical Society. ISBN 978-0-901461-57-5. OCLC 612226077. "The line with period photographs". Holme St Cuthbert History Group. "Bits about the line". Portsmouth University. "The station and line". Rail Map Online
Xenon is a 1988 vertical scrolling shooter video game, the first developed by The Bitmap Brothers, published by Melbourne House, owned by Mastertronic. It was featured. Xenon was followed in 1989 by Xenon 2: Megablast. According to the game's instruction manual, the player assumes the role of Darrian, a future space pilot in the Federation at war with a mysterious and violent alien species called the Xenites that has lasted a decade. In response to a mayday transmission from Captain Xod following an attack on his trading fleet, Darrian is forced to travel through Xenite-occupied territory in order to support. Unlike most vertically scrolling shooters, the player craft has two modes, a flying plane and a ground tank; the transition between crafts can be initiated at any time during play, the mode chosen depends on the nature of the threat the player faces. Destroying some enemies released power-ups the player could catch to enhance their ship. Released for the Atari ST, Xenon was ported to other platforms: the Amiga, Amstrad CPC, Commodore 64, DOS, MSX and ZX Spectrum.
An arcade machine version of the game was released through Mastertronic's Arcadia division which ran on Commodore Amiga hardware. Xenon was universally well-received on launch, with reviewers from magazines covering a range of platforms all scoring the game highly. Only German magazine Power Play bucked the trend, awarding it a score of 4.5 out of 10. Xenon at MobyGames Xenon at SpectrumComputing.co.uk
The Tokyu 7000 series is an electric multiple unit train type operated by the private railway operator Tokyu Corporation on the Ikegami and Tamagawa lines in Japan since December 2007. Based on the 5000 series design, cars have three sets of doors per side; these trains use a Train Automatic Stopping Controller system allowing them to stop automatically at all stations. As of 1 April 2017, the fleet consisted of seven three-car sets, 7101 to 7107, formed. A further two sets, 7108 and 7109, were delivered from the J-TREC factory in Yokohama in November 2017. Car 2 is fitted with two single-arm pantographs. Seating is predominantly arranged longitudinally, with some transverse seating bays in the centre car; the first two three-car sets were delivered in November 2007. Tokyu EMU details Tokyu 7000 series