Japanese National Railways
Japanese National Railways, abbreviated Kokutetsu or "JNR", was the business entity that operated Japan's national railway network from 1949 to 1987. As of June 1, 1949, the date of establishment of JNR, it operated 19,756.8 km of narrow gauge railways in all 46 prefectures of Japan. This figure expanded to 21,421.1 km in 1981, but reduced to 19,633.6 km as of March 31, 1987, the last day of JNR. JNR operated both freight services. Shinkansen, the world's first high-speed railway was debuted by JNR in 1964. By the end of JNR in 1987, four lines were constructed: Tōkaidō Shinkansen 515.4 km, completed in 1964 Sanyō Shinkansen 553.7 km, completed in 1975 Tōhoku Shinkansen 492.9 km, as of 1987 Jōetsu Shinkansen 269.5 km, completed in 1982 JNR operated bus lines as feeders, supplements or substitutions of railways. Unlike railway operation, JNR Bus was not superior to other local bus operators; the JR Bus companies are the successors of the bus operation of JNR. JNR operated ferries to connect railway networks separated by sea or to meet other local demands: Kanmon Ferry Shimonoseki Station – Mojikō Station Miyajima Ferry Miyajimaguchi Station – Miyajima Station Nihori Ferry Nigata Station – Horie Station Ōshima Ferry Ōbatake Station – Komatsukō Station Seikan Ferry Aomori Station – Hakodate Station Ukō Ferry Uno Station – Takamatsu Station Out of three routes assigned to JR companies in 1987, only the Miyajima Ferry remains active as of 2010.
A number of unions represented workers at JNR, including the National Railway Workers' Union, the National Railway Locomotive Engineers' Union, Doro-Chiba, a break-away group from Doro. The term Kokuyū Tetsudō "state-owned railway" referred to a network of railway lines operated by 17 private companies that were nationalized following the Railway Nationalization Act of 1906 and placed under the control of the Railway Institute; the Ministry of Railways and the Ministry of Transportation and Communications took over control of the network. The ministries used. During World War II, many JGR lines were dismantled to supply steel for the war effort. On June 1, 1949 by a directive of the U. S. General HQ in Tokyo, JGR was reorganized into Japanese National Railways, a state-owned public corporation. JNR enjoyed many successes, including the October 1, 1964 inauguration of high-speed Shinkansen service along the Tōkaidō Shinkansen line. However, JNR was not a state-run corporation. Rural sections without enough passengers began to press its management, pulling it further and further into debt.
In 1983, JNR started to close its unprofitable 83 local lines. By 1987, JNR's debt was over ¥27 trillion and the company was spending ¥147 for every ¥100 earned. By an act of the Diet of Japan, on April 1, 1987 JNR was privatized and divided into seven railway companies, six passenger and one freight, collectively called the Japan Railways Group or JR Group. Long-term liabilities of JNR were taken over by the JNR Settlement Corporation; that corporation was subsequently disbanded on October 22, 1998, its remaining debts were transferred to the national budget's general accounting. By this time the debt has risen to ¥30 trillion. Many lawsuits and labor commission cases were filed over the decades from the privatization in 1987. Kokuro and the National Railway Locomotive Engineers' Union, both prominent Japanese railway unions, represented a number of the JNR workers. Lists of workers to be employed by the new organizations were drawn up by JNR and given to the JR companies. There was substantial pressure on union members to leave their unions, within a year, the membership of the National Railway Workers' Union fell from 200,000 to 44,000.
Workers who had supported the privatization, or those who left Kokuro, were hired at higher rates than Kokuro members. There was a government pledge that no one would be "thrown out onto the street", so unhired workers were classified as "needing to be employed" and were transferred to the JNR Settlement Corporation, where they could be assigned for up to three years. Around 7,600 workers were transferred in this way, around 2,000 of them were hired by JR firms, 3,000 found work elsewhere. Mitomu Yamaguchi, a former JNR employee from Tosu in Saga prefecture, transferred to the JNR Settlement Corporation stated that their help in finding work consisted of giving him photocopies of recruitment ads from newspapers; this period ended in April 1990, 1,047 were dismissed. This included 966 Kokuro members. Twenty-three years after the original privatization, on June 28, 2010, the Supreme Court settled the dispute between the workers and the Japan Railway Construction and Technology Agency, the successor body to the JNR Settlement Corporation.
The agency said it would pay 20 billion yen 22 million yen per worker, to 904 plaintiffs. However, as the workers were not reinstated, it was not a full
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Nonai Station is a railway station on the Aoimori Railway Line in the city of Aomori, Aomori Prefecture, operated by the third-sector railway operator Aoimori Railway Company. Nonai Station is served by the Aoimori Railway Line, is 111.2 kilometers from the starting point of the line at Metoki Station. It is 728.5 kilometers from Tokyo. Nonai Station has two opposed side platforms built on an embankment and connected by a pedestrian underpass; the station building is unattended. Nonai Station was opened on July 16, 1893 as a station on the Nippon Railway in the former village of Nonai, it became a station on the Tōhoku Main Line of the Japanese Government Railways, the pre-war predecessor to the Japanese National Railways, after the nationalization of the Nippon Railway on November 1, 1906. With the privatization of JNR on April 1, 1987, the station came under the operational control of East Japan Railway Company; the section of the Tōhoku Main Line including this station was transferred to Aoimori Railway on December 4, 2010.
A new station building 1.5 kilometers southwest of the old one was completed in March 2011. The old station was demolished. Aomori municipal bus For Aomori Station For Asamushi-Onsen Station JR Bus Tōhoku For Aomori Station For Asamushi-Onsen Station List of railway stations in Japan Official website
Asamushi Onsen is the site of a hot spring, in Aomori City in Aomori Prefecture, Japan. It was developed as the downtown beside the onsen town and is sometimes known as "Atami in Tohoku" after the famous Atami Onsen in Shizuoka, central Japan. According to tradition, the hot spring was discovered by Ennin during the Heian period, it was first used for steaming hemp, leading to the name, though the kanji character used for the name differs. When Hōnen visited in 1190, he popularized the custom of bathing in the hot spring. During the Edo period, a honjin for use by the daimyō of Hirosaki Domain during his sankin kōtai trips to Edo was developed at Asamushi. During the Meiji period, Asamushi is mentioned in the writings of the author Dazai Osamu. About 30 hotels and Japanese-style inns are in the town. Attractions include the Wonderland Asamushi amusement park; the Matsu no Yu communal onsen and Michi no Eki Asamushi Onsen are among the bathing facilities. There are hiking trails on the mountains behind the onsen town, with an overlook providing views of Mutsu Bay and the island of Yunoshima.
Yunoshima Katakuri Festival in April Asamushi Nebuta Festival in mid-July, August 14 Fireworks on August 1 The resort is served by Asamushi-Onsen Station on the Aoimori Railway Line, as well as by Michinoeki Asamushi-Onsen Station for Aomori city buses. Visitors traveling to the resort by automobile can take Route 4 east from the center of Aomori. Nanbuya Ryokan Co. Ltd. All Rights Reserved
Hiranai is a town located in Aomori Prefecture, Japan. As of 1 March 2019, the town had an estimated population of 11,074 in 4,969 households, a population density of 51 persons per km², it is the most populated town in Higashitsugaru District. The total area of the town is 217.08 km2. The name Hiranai is thought to have originated from the Ainu who inhabited the area; the Ainu words for pira and nay are said to be the original name of the area, due to its geography as a river valley in the interior of the mountainous Natsudomari Peninsula. However, the current Japanese pronunciation and meaning of the town's name, Hiranai is descriptive of the valley, but is based on the flat area inside of the mountains or the bay that surrounds it. During the Edo period, Hiranai was a village. On September 17, 1656, the village became part of Kuroishi Domain controlled by the Tsugaru clan. In July 1871, with the abolition of the han system, Kuroishi Domain became Kuroishi Prefecture, was merged into the newly created Aomori Prefecture in September 1871.
During the cadastral reform of 1889, Natsudomari Peninsula was divided into the three villages of Naka-Hiranai, Nishi-Hiranai, Higashi-Hiranai. On October 1, 1928, Naka-Hiranai became a town. Nishi-Hiranai village's train station, Nishi-Hiranai Station opened in 1939; the station was built to provide access to the Aomori Sanatorium, a facility to treat the soldiers who were injured during the Pacific War. The climate of Natsudomari Peninsula and the proximity to Asamushi Onsen was of benefit to the wounded soldiers. After the war's conclusion, the sanatorium was closed. On 15 July 1945, four sea planes of the Imperial Japanese Army's Giretsu Kuteitai docked off the east coast of Natsudomari Peninsula were bombed. Off the northern coast of the peninsula a ship was sunk, leaving 9 injured. On the 9th and 10th of August of the same year Grumman TBF Avengers bombed the entirety of the town and a troop transport ship, the Hanasaki Maru, was sunk. One person was wounded. On March 31, 1955, Kominato merged with Higashi-Hiranai to form the town, Hiranai.
On May 20, 1963, Emperor Shōwa and Empress Kōjun visited Hiranai to plant a Japanese red pine in the Yogoshiyama Forest Park for the 14th Annual Tree Planting Event and National Greening Convention. In 2012, Hiranai won a competition amongst towns and cities in Aomori Prefecture for who could produce the best advertisement film for their town; the film was titled, It's not "The Town that Nobody Knows"! as a play on the pronunciation of the town's name and that the town isn't well known. The commercial features a child looking for the town, but nobody knows where that is, she is told that she is looking for Hiranai and that it's not a town that nobody knows. This phrase from the film is well-known by the town's citizens. Per Japanese census data, the population of Hiranai has decreased by 29.5% over the past 40 years. Hiranai occupies the Natsudomari Peninsula, the northern end of the Ōu Mountain Range that juts into central Mutsu Bay; the town's population is concentrated near the Japan National Route 4 passing through the east and west of the town and the Aoimori Railway Line.
The town office is in the settlement of Kominato, the central part of Hiranai centered around the valley of the Kominato River. The Kominato River begins in the mountains in the south of Hiranai, flows north through the mountains until it reaches the flat land the town is situated on. After passing through Kominato, it joins the Morita River, which empties into Mutsu Bay shortly after their confluence; the southern part of Hiranai is mountainous. The edges of the town make up the bulk of the Asamushi-Natsudomari Prefectural Natural Park; the town has a cold humid continental climate characterized by warm short summers and long cold winters with heavy snowfall. The average annual temperature in Hiranai is 9.8 °C. The average annual rainfall is 1262 mm with September as the wettest month; the temperatures are highest on average in August, at around 22.8 °C, lowest in January, at around -2.0 °C. Aomori Noheji Tōhoku Shichinohe The economy of Hiranai is dependent on commercial fishing; some of the locally caught seafood include sea urchin roe, sea cucumber, scallops and squid.
Tourism plays a role in the economy, with beaches in close proximity to the city of Aomori in summer, ski resorts in winter, onsen all year drawing tourists. Hiranai has three public elementary schools and three public middle schools operated by the town government, it has one public high school operated by the Aomori Prefectural Board of Education, although it is scheduled to be closed in 2021. The town has one private high school. Aoimori Railway Company - Aoimori Railway Line Nishi-Hiranai - Kominato - Shimizugawa - Karibasawa National Route 4 Aomori Prefecture Route 9 Aomori Prefecture Route 123 Aomori Prefecture Route 206 Aomori Prefecture Route 207 Aomori Prefecture Route 209 Aomori Prefecture Route 210 Aomori Prefecture Route 215 Aomori Prefecture Route 269 Shimokita Kōtsū Kōnan Bus Company Aomori City Bus Yogoshiyama Forest Park is run by the town featuring multiple attractions, with more than 3,000 kinds of succulent plants grouped in a large greenhouse of 990 square meters from different parts of the world, including the Americas and Africa.
Cacti and flowers of tropical origin bloom year-round. The park has ski and snowboarding facilities, including a ski lift; the Kominato shallow shore or swan nesting area (浅所海岸, asadok
The Tōhoku region, Northeast region, or Northeast Japan consists of the northeastern portion of Honshu, the largest island of Japan. This traditional region consists of six prefectures: Akita, Fukushima, Iwate and Yamagata. Tōhoku retains a reputation as a scenic region with a harsh climate. In the 20th century, tourism became a major industry in the Tōhoku region. In mythological times, the area was known as Azuma and corresponded to the area of Honshu occupied by the native Ainu; the area was the Dewa and the Michinoku regions, a term first recorded in Hitachi-no-kuni Fudoki. There is some variation in modern usage of the term "Michinoku". Tōhoku's initial historical settlement occurred between the seventh and ninth centuries, well after Japanese civilization and culture had become established in central and southwestern Japan; the last stronghold of the indigenous Emishi on Honshu and the site of many battles, the region has maintained a degree of autonomy from Kyoto at various times throughout history.
The haiku poet Matsuo Bashō wrote Oku no Hosomichi during his travels through Tōhoku. The region is traditionally known as a less developed area of Japan; the catastrophic 9.0-Magnitude earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011, inflicted massive damage along the east coast of this region, killed 15,894 people and was the costliest natural disaster which left 500,000 people homeless along with radioactive fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster. Masamune, feudal lord of Date clan, expanded trade in the Tōhoku region. Although faced with attacks by hostile clans, he managed to overcome them after a few defeats and ruled one of the largest fiefdoms of the Tokugawa shogunate, he worked on many projects to beautify the region. He is known to have encouraged foreigners to come to his land. Though he funded and promoted an envoy to establish relations with the Pope in Rome, he was motivated at least in part by a desire for foreign technology, similar to that of other lords, such as Oda Nobunaga.
Further, once Tokugawa Ieyasu outlawed Christianity, Masamune reversed his position, though disliking it, let Ieyasu persecute Christians in his domain. For 270 years, Tōhoku remained a place of tourism and prosperity. Matsushima, for instance, a series of tiny islands, was praised for its beauty and serenity by the wandering haiku poet Matsuo Bashō, he showed sympathy for Christian traders in Japan. In addition to allowing them to come and preach in his province, he released the prisoner and missionary Padre Sotelo from the hands of Tokugawa Ieyasu. Date Masamune allowed Sotelo as well as other missionaries to practice their religion and win converts in Tōhoku; the most used subdivision of the region is dividing it to "North Tōhoku" consisting of Aomori and Iwate Prefectures and "South Tōhoku" consisting of Yamagata and Fukushima Prefectures. The population collapse of Tōhoku, which began before the year 2000, has accelerated, now including dynamic Miyagi. Despite this, Sendai City has grown due to the disaster.
The population collapse of Aomori and Akita Prefectures, Honshu's 3 northernmost, began in the early 1980s after an initial loss of population in the late 1950s. Fukushima Prefecture, prior to 1980, had traditionally been the most populated, but today Miyagi is the most populated and urban by far. Tōhoku, like most of Japan, is mountainous, with the Ōu Mountains running north-south; the inland location of many of the region's lowlands has led to a concentration of much of the population there. Coupled with coastlines that do not favor seaport development, this settlement pattern resulted in a much greater than usual dependence on land and rail transportation. Low points in the central mountain range make communications between lowlands on either side of the range moderately easy. Tōhoku was traditionally considered the granary of Japan because it supplied Sendai and the Tokyo-Yokohama market with rice and other farming commodities. Tōhoku provided 20 percent of the nation's rice crop; the climate, however, is harsher than in other parts of Honshū due to the stronger effect of the Siberian High, permits only one crop a year on paddy fields.
In the 1960s, steel, chemical and petroleum refining industries began developing. Designated citiesSendai Core citiesIwaki Koriyama Akita Morioka Aomori Hachinohe Other citiesAizuwakamatsu Daisen Date Fukushima Goshogawara Hachimantai Hanamaki Higashimatsushima Higashine Hirakawa Hirosaki Ichinoseki Ishinomaki Iwanuma Kakuda Kamaishi Kaminoyama Katagami Kazuno Kesennuma Kitaakita Kitakami Kitakata Kuji Kurihara Kuroishi Minamisōma Misawa Miyako Motomiya Murayama Mutsu Nagai Nan'yō Natori Nihonmatsu Nikaho Ninohe Noshiro Obanazawa Oga Ōdate Ōfunato Ōsaki Ōshū Rikuzentakata Sagae Sakata Semboku Shinjō Shiogama Shirakawa Shiroishi Sōma Sukagawa Tagajō Takizawa Tamura Tendō Tome Tomiya Tōno Towada Tsugaru Tsuruoka Yamagata Yokote Yonezawa Yurihonjō Yuzawa Mount Bandai Three Mountains of Dewa Hakkōda Mountains Mount Hayachine Mount Iwaki Lake Tazawa Lake Towada Kitakami River Oirase River Valley the islands of Matsushima Bay Mount Osore Sanriku Coastline Bandai-Asahi National Park Miss Veedol Beach Rikuchu Kaigan National Park Towada-Hachimantai National Park 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami 2006 Kuril Islands earthquake Geography of Japan Tōhoku dialect List of regions in Japan Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth..
Japan encyclopedia. Cambr
An onsen is a Japanese hot spring. As a volcanically active country, Japan has thousands of onsens scattered throughout all of its major islands. Onsens shapes, including outdoor and indoor baths. Baths may be either publicly run by a municipality or often as part of a hotel, ryokan, or bed and breakfast; the presence of an onsen is indicated on signs and maps by the symbol ♨ or the kanji 湯. Sometimes the simpler hiragana character ゆ, understandable to younger children, is used. Traditionally, onsens were located outdoors, although a large number of inns have now built indoor bathing facilities as well. Nowadays, as most households have their own bath, the number of traditional public baths has decreased, but the number of sightseeing hot spring towns has increased. Onsens by definition use hot water from geothermally heated springs. Onsens are different from sentō, indoor public bath houses where the baths are filled with heated tap water. Traditionally and women bathed together at both onsens and sentōs, but gender separation has been enforced since the opening of Japan to the West during the Meiji Restoration.
The practice had contributed at the time to Western ideas of the Japanese as an inferior race. Mixed bathing persists at some special onsen in rural areas of Japan, which also provide the option of separate "women-only" baths or different hours for the two sexes. Men may cover their genitals with a small towel while out of the water, while women wrap their bodies in full-size towels. Children of either sex may be seen in the women's baths. In some prefectures of Japan, including Tokyo, where nude mixed bathing is banned, people are required to wear swimsuits or yugi, or yuami-gi, which are designed for bathing. At an onsen, as at a sentō, all guests are expected to wash and rinse themselves before entering the hot water. Bathing stations are equipped with stools, wooden buckets, toiletries such as soap and shampoo. Entering the onsen while still dirty or with traces of soap on the body is unacceptable. Bathers are not allowed to wear swimsuits in the baths. However, some modern onsen with a water park atmosphere require their guests to wear a swimming suit in their mixed baths.
Onsen guests bring a small towel with them to use as a wash cloth. The towel can provide a modicum of modesty when walking between the washing area and the baths; some onsen allow one to wear the towel into the baths, while others have posted signs prohibiting this, saying that it makes it harder to clean the bath. It is against the rules to immerse or dip towels in the onsen bath water, since this can be considered unclean. People set their towels off to the side of the water when enjoying the baths, or place their folded towels on top of their heads. Onsen vary from quiet to noisy. Bathers will engage in conversation in this relaxed situation. There are prohibitions against rowdiness in the washing and bathing areas. A small amount of excess energy and splashing around is tolerated from children, however. By 2015, around half of onsen operators had banned bathers with tattoos from using their facilities; the original reason for the tattoo ban was to keep out Yakuza and members of other crime gangs who traditionally have elaborate full-body decoration.
However, tattoo-friendly onsen do exist. A 2015 study by the Japan National Tourism Organisation found that more than 30% of onsen operators at hotels and inns across the country will not turn someone with a tattoo away. With the increase in foreign customers due to growing tourism, some onsens that banned tattoos are loosening their rules to allow guests with small tattoos to enter, provided they cover their tattoos with a patch or sticking plaster; the volcanic nature of Japan provides plenty of springs. When the onsen water contains distinctive minerals or chemicals, the onsen establishments display what type of water it is; some examples of types of onsen include: Sulphur onsen Sodium chloride onsen Hydrogen carbonate onsen Iron onsen Although millions of Japanese bathe in onsens every year with few noticeable side effects, there are still potential side effects to onsen usage, such as aggravating high blood pressure or heart disease. Legionella bacteria have been found in some onsens with poor sanitation.
Revelations of poor sanitary practices at some onsens have led to improved regulation by hot-spring communities to maintain their reputation. There have been reports of infectious disease found in hot bodies of water worldwide, such as various Naegleria species. While studies have found the presence of Naegleria in hot spring waters, the worrisome Naegleria fowleri amoeba has not been identified. Fewer than five cases have been seen in Japan, although not conclusively linked to onsen exposure. Many onsens display notices reminding anyone with sores, or lesions not to bathe. Additionally, in recent years onsens are adding chlorine to their waters to prevent infection, although many onsen purists seek natural, unchlorinated onsens that do not