Qingdao is a major city in the east of Shandong Province on China's Yellow Sea coast. It is a major nodal city of the One Belt, One Road Initiative that connects Asia with Europe, it has the highest GDP of any city in the province. Administered at the sub-provincial level, Qingdao has jurisdiction over six districts and four county-level cities; as of 2014, Qingdao had a population of 9,046,200 with an urban population of 6,188,100. Lying across the Shandong Peninsula and looking out to the Yellow Sea, it borders Yantai to the northeast, Weifang to the west and Rizhao to the southwest. Qingdao is a major seaport, naval base, industrial centre; the world's longest sea bridge, the Jiaozhou Bay Bridge, links the main urban area of Qingdao with Huangdao district, straddling the Jiaozhou Bay sea areas. It is the site of the Tsingtao Brewery, the second largest brewery in China. In 2018, Qingdao ranked 31st in the Global Financial Centres Index published by the Z/Yen Group and China Development Institute, the other Chinese cities on the list being Hong Kong, Beijing, Guangzhou, Chengdu and Dalian.
In 2007, Qingdao was named as one of China's top ten cities by the Chinese Cities Brand Value Report, released at the 2007 Beijing Summit of China Cities Forum. In 2009, Qingdao was named China's most livable city by the Chinese Institute of City Competitiveness. In 2018, Qingdao held the Shanghai Cooperation Organization summit. Jiāo'ào:: former name during the Qing dynasty. Qindao:: additional modern name for the area, refers according to locals to the shape of the coastline. Tsingtao: Postal romanisation Tsingtau: German name during their concession period, written in German romanisation of Chinese. Jiaozhou: a historical name which refers to the Jiaozhou Bay. Kiaochow, Kiautschou: romanisations of Jiaozhou. Human settlement in the area dates back 6,000 years; the Dongyi nationality, one of the important origins of the Chinese nation, lived here and created the Dawenkou and Dongyeshi cultures. In the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, the town of Jimo was established, the second largest one in the Shandong region.
The area in which Qingdao is located today was named Jiao'ao when it was administered by the Qing Dynasty on 14 June 1891. In 1891, the Qing Empire decided to make coastal Tsingtao a defense base against naval attack and began to improve its fortifications. Imperial German naval officials observed and reported on this activity during a formal survey of Jiaozhou Bay in May 1897. Subsequently, German troops occupied the fortification; the unmodernised and ineffective Qing Empire was forced to concede the area to Germany the following year, the Kiautschou Bay concession, as it became known, existed from 1898 to 1914. With an area of 552 square kilometres, it was located in the imperial province of Shandong on the southern coast of the Shandong Peninsula in northern China. Jiaozhou was romanised as Kiauchau or Kiao-Chau in English and Kiautschou in German. Qingdao was its administrative center. "The so-called Marktstrasse was nothing more than the old main street of the Chinese village of Tsingtao, the buildings lining it were the former homes of fishermen and farmers.
Having sold their property, they resettled their homes and fields in the villages further east." Upon gaining control of the area, the Germans outfitted the impoverished fishing village of "Tsingtao" with wide streets, solid housing areas, government buildings, electrification throughout, a sewer system and a safe drinking water supply, a rarity in large parts of Asia at that time and later. The area had the highest school density and the highest per capita student enrollment in all of China, with primary and vocational schools funded by the Imperial German treasury and Protestant and Roman Catholic missions. Commercial interests established the Germania Brewery in 1903, which became the world-famous Tsingtao Brewery. German cultural and commercial influences extended to other areas of Shandong Province, including the establishment of diverse commercial enterprises. Identified by the German authorities as a strategically important port, Qingdao was administered by the Imperial Department of the Navy rather than the Imperial Colonial Office.
The growing Imperial German Navy based their Far East Squadron there, allowing the warships to conduct operations throughout the western Pacific. Beginning January 1898, the marines of III. Seebataillon were based at Tsingtao. Construction of the Jiaoji Railway began on September 23, 1899, was completed in 1904. Before the outbreak of World War I, ships of the German naval forces under Admiral Count von Spee were located at central Pacific colonies on routine missions; the fleet rendezvoused in the Marianas Islands to plan a transit back to Germany rather than be trapped in the Pacific by more powerful and numerous Allied fleets. After a minor British naval attack on the German colony on Shandong in 1914, Japanese Empire troops occupied the city and the surrounding province during the Siege of Tsingtao after Japan's declaration of war on Germany in accordance with the Anglo-Japanese Alliance. China protested Japan's violation of her neutrality but was not able to interfere in the military operations.
The decision of the Paris Peace Conference and the Versailles Treaty negotiations not to restore Chinese rule over the previous foreign concessions in Qingdao after the Great War triggered the May Fourth M
Shin Ramyun/Ramyeon is a brand of instant noodle produced by the South Korean food company Nongshim since October 1986. It is now exported to over 100 countries, is the highest selling instant noodle brand in South Korea. Shin Ramyun is well known for its spicy flavor, it is produced in two kinds: Shin Ramyun, the original one, Shin Ramyun Black, introduced in 2011. A standard package of Shin Ramyun consists of noodles, a sachet of flavoring powder, a sachet of vegetable flakes. Shin Ramyun Black contains extra beef stock soup. Shin Ramyun was introduced in October 1986 by Nongshim; the Nongshim R&D team came up with the idea of Sogogijanguk, a cabbage and beef stew, one of the most popular traditional South Korean dishes. After Shin Ramyun was introduced, Nongshim’s market share hit 46.3% in 1987, exceeded 50% for the first time in 1988. With the market share of over 20% just by itself, Shin Ramyun is a leading brand of the instant noodles in Korea. In August 2014, Nongshim revised its recipe for noodle blocks across its line for a chewier consistency, along with a revamped external packaging.
In 2015, Shin Ramyun achieved. Shin Ramyun is listed on the National Brand Consumption Index as the number 1 brand in South Korea for its brand awareness and brand power; the name of Shin Ramyun is from a Chinese character Shin, which means "spicy". Shin Ramyun uses red and black packaging with the emphasized calligraphic word "辛"; the meaning of the Chinese character is shown on the background of the package. Nongshim decided to emphasize the Chinese character Shin for their brand with a belief that a single Chinese character delivers the brand image better than hangul. Additionally, the character is the surname of both the founder of Nongshim and his elder brother, who started Lotte. Shin Ramyun was first introduced in 1986; the main ingredients of Shin Ramyun are seasoned red-pepper sauce. In the U. S, there are two types of Shin Ramyun: a cup/bowl type. A package of Shin Ramyun is 120g, there are 4 sizes of Shin Ramyun cup/bowls: Shin Cup Noodle Soup, Shin Bowl Noodle Soup, Shin Ramyun M-Cup and Shin Big Bowl Noodle Soup.
In Japan, there is Shin Ramyun mini cup. Shin Ramyun Black was introduced in April 2011, 25 years after Shin Ramyun was first introduced to the market. Shin Ramyun Black is a different version of Shin Ramyun with an additional seolleongtang powder on top of its flavor. Other ingredients include boiled beef slices and shitake mushrooms. In the U. S. there are two types of Shin Ramyun Black: a cup/bowl type. There is a Shin Black M-Cup. Shin Ramyun is the most popular instant noodle brand to date in South Korea, it is now accounting for one quarter of the Korean instant noodle market. Shin Ramyun is now exported to over 100 countries around the world, is produced in three countries: the United States and South Korea; as of 2015, accumulated sold. As part of the marketing strategies, Nongshim uses “사나이 울리는 신라면 ”; the word Sanai is a word to describe the man while emphasizing the masculineness. Most of its commercials include a famous male celebrity with his family, eating Shin Ramyun at home; these commercials emphasize being family friendly, being Korean, being folksiness.
Psy, a South Korean singer, well known for his song "Gangnam Style," and Park Ji-Sung, a South Korean footballer filmed Shin Ramyun commercials. Nongshim has many jingles for their products. Adding a simple yet catchy jingle at the end of their commercials is one of Nongshim’s important marketing strategies, they are easy to remember, most people in South Korea are aware of them. In China, Nongshim uses a slogan: 사나이라면 매운맛을 먹을 줄 알아야지 (Traditional Chinese: 吃不了辣味非好漢; this slogan is from a famous phrase in China “不到長城非好漢 ” by Mao Zedong. Being aware of the historical importance of Baduk in China, Nongshim has been sponsoring an annual Baduk Championship, “Shin Ramyun Cup Baduk Championship” as part of their marketing strategies since 1999. In Japan, Nongshim has set April 10 as a Shin Ramyun day since 2010; the date was chosen for its similarity in pronunciation with “Hot ” when a Japanese pronounces 4 and 10 in English. A Japanese word “うまからっ” is used to describe the flavor of Shin Ramyun; as part of the main marketing projects, Nongshim offers “Shin Ramyun Kitchen Car,” a food truck that offers consumers a chance to taste Shin Ramyun, since 2013.
Every year, the truck travels across Japan for seven months, promoting Shin Ramyun to Japanese consumers. As of 2016 April, the truck has hosted a total of 150 tasting sessions, travelled more than 100,000 kilometers. List of instant noodle brands Noodle soup Food portal The official website of Nongshim Shin Ramyun, Ramen of Choice in North Korea
Dongjak District is one of the 25 gu that make up the city of Seoul, South Korea. Its name was derived from the Dongjaegi Naruteo Ferry, on the Han River which borders the district to the north, it was the 17th gu created in Seoul, after being separated from Gwanak District on April 1, 1980. The main symbol of Dongjak District is the snowy heron. A cartoon character named'Roya', a baby snowy heron, can be seen on signs and light poles throughout the gu. According to the official website, use of the snowy heron is meant to symbolize the "clean and noble spirit" of Dongjak's people; the emblem, found at most official buildings, depicts the snowy heron soaring into the sky. Dongjak is home to some KOSPI200 companies, including Nongshim, Honam Petrochemical, Yuhan. Dongjak District is divided into 15 dong: Daebang-dong Heukseok-dong Noryangjin-dong 1, 2 Sadang-dong 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Sangdo-dong 1, 2, 3, 4 Sindaebang-dong 1, 2 Dongjak District is home to Chongshin University, the Seoul campus of Chung-Ang University, Soongsil University.
Noryangjin-dong near Noryangjin Station is known for private institutes or Hagwons, for college admission test and civil service examinations. There are many notable sights in Dongjak District; the most famous is the National Cemetery in Dongjak-dong. Additionally, several temples are in the ward; the Noryangjin Fish Market is notable: Almost half of the fish brought to the city comes through here. Boramae Park is a large park, used as an airfield during the Korean War, it now has several decommissioned aircraft on display. The park has a large jogging track, workout equipment, a rock climbing wall, skate park, basketball courts, badminton courts, tennis courts and Boramae Buddhist Temple. KorailSeoul Subway Line 1 ← Daebang — Noryangjin → Seoul MetroSeoul Subway Line 2 Circle Line ← Sadang → ← Sindaebang → Seoul Subway Line 4 ← Dongjak — Isu — Sadang Station → Seoul Subway Line 7 ← Isu — Namseong — Soongsil University — Sangdo — Jangseungbaegi — Sindaebangsamgeori → Seoul Metro Line 9 CorporationSeoul Subway Line 9 ← Noryangjin — Nodeul — Heukseok — Dongjak → Surrey, British Columbia, Canada Pinggu, China Dunhua, China Tahara, Japan Bayankhongor, Mongolia Dongjak-gu website
Lotte Corporation, is a Japanese and Korean multinational conglomerate. Lotte began its history on June 1948 in Tokyo by Japanese-Korean businessman Shin Kyuk-ho. Shin expanded Lotte to his ancestral country, South Korea with the establishment of Lotte Confectionery in Seoul on April 3, 1967. Lotte grew to become South Korea's fifth largest business conglomerate. Lotte Corporation consists of over 90 business units employing 60,000 people engaged in such diverse industries as candy manufacturing, hotels, fast food, financial services, heavy chemicals, electronics, IT, construction and entertainment. Lotte runs additional businesses in China, Malaysia, Vietnam, United States, United Kingdom, Philippines and Poland. Today, Lotte is the largest confectionery manufacturer in South Korea. Lotte was founded in June 1948 in Tokyo, by Korean Businessman Shin Kyuk-ho, two years after he graduated from Waseda Jitsugyo High School. Called Lotte Co. Ltd, the company has grown from selling chewing gum to children in post-war Japan to becoming a major multinational corporation.
The source of the company's name is Japanese, but German. Shigemitsu was impressed with Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's The Sorrows of Young Werther and named his newly founded company Lotte after the character Charlotte in the novel. Lotte's current marketing slogan in Japan is "The sweetheart of your mouth, Lotte". Lotte Corporation – Lotte group's world headquarters – are located in Myeongdong and Lotte Holdings Co. Ltd. in Shinjuku, Tokyo. It is controlled by the founder Shin Kyuk-Ho's extended family. Lotte group's major businesses are food products, finance, amusement parks, trade and sports. Food Products: Lotte Confectionery, Lotte Chilsung, Lotteria, E Wedel, Lotte Ham/Lotte Milk, Lotte Samkang, Angel-in-us, T. G. I. Friday's, Lotte Cool, Lotte Fresh Delica, Lotte Pharm. Lotte Shopping Food Division, Lotte Kolson Shopping: Lotte Duty Free, Lotte Shopping, Lotte Mart, Lotte Department Store, Lotte-Assi Plaza Entertainment: Lotte Cinema, Lotte Entertainment Finance: Lotte Insurance, Lotte Card, Lotte Capital Housing: Lotte Castle High Rise Apartment Complex Amusement parks: Lotte Cinema, Lotte World in Seoul, one of the world's largest indoor theme parks.
Hotels: Lotte Super Tower 123, skyscraper in Seoul, South Korea, 2014 and Busan Lotte Tower skyscraper in Busan, South Korea, 2013, Lotte City Hotel in Daejeon, Lotte New York Palace in New York City Trade: Lotte international IT / Electronics: Korea Fuji Film, Lotte Canon, Lotte IT, Lotte.com, Mobidomi Heavy chemicals / construction / machinery: Honam Petrochemical, KP Chemical, Lotte Engineering & Construction, Lotte Engineering & Machinery, Lotte Aluminum Car rental: Lotte rent-a-car Transport service: Andi Mack-Lotte Transport Corporation Lotte owns professional baseball teams Chiba Lotte Marines in Japan Lotte Giants in Busan, South Korea. Korea R&D Center: 23,4-ga, Yangpyeong-dong, Yeongdeungpo-gu, South Korea Japan R&D Center: Saitama, Japan In June 2016, companies of the group were raided by South Korean prosecutors, investigating into a possible slush fund as well as breach of trust involving transactions among the group's companies; the investigation forced its Hotel Lotte unit to abandon an initial public offering and Lotte Chemical Corp to withdraw from bidding for Axiall Corp.
Vice chairman, Lee In-won, was found dead in August same year. He was suspected of suicide just hours before being questioned by prosecutors. Lee was considered the top lieutenant of Chairman Shin Dong-bin. Lotte Card Lotte Capital Lotte Chilsung Lotte Confectionery Lotte Department Store Lotte World Tower Shin Dong-bin known as Akio Shigemitsu Official website Official website
King, or king regnant is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen regnant, while the title of queen on its own refers to the consort of a king. In the context of prehistory and contemporary indigenous peoples, the title may refer to tribal kingship. Germanic kingship is cognate with Indo-European traditions of tribal rulership. In the context of classical antiquity, king may translate in Latin as rex and in Greek as archon or basileus. In classical European feudalism, the title of king as the ruler of a kingdom is understood to be the highest rank in the feudal order subject, at least nominally, only to an emperor. In a modern context, the title may refer to the ruler of one of a number of modern monarchies; the title of king is used alongside other titles for monarchs: in the West, emperor, duke or grand duke, in the Middle East, sultan or emir, etc. The term king may refer to a king consort, a title, sometimes given to the husband of a ruling queen, but the title of prince consort is sometimes granted instead.
A king dowager is the male equivalent of the queen dowager. A king father is a king dowager, the father of the reigning sovereign; the English term king is derived from the Anglo-Saxon cyning, which in turn is derived from the Common Germanic *kuningaz. The Common Germanic term was borrowed into Estonian and Finnish at an early time, surviving in these languages as kuningas; the English term "King" translates, is considered equivalent to, Latin rēx and its equivalents in the various European languages. The Germanic term is notably different from the word for "King" in other Indo-European languages, it is a derivation from the term *kunjom "kin" by the -inga- suffix. The literal meaning is that of a "scion of the kin", or "son or descendant of one of noble birth"; the English word is of Germanic origin, refers to Germanic kingship, in the pre-Christian period a type of tribal kingship. The monarchies of Europe in the Christian Middle Ages derived their claim from Christianisation and the divine right of kings influenced by the notion of sacral kingship inherited from Germanic antiquity.
The Early Middle Ages begin with a fragmentation of the former Western Roman Empire into barbarian kingdoms. In Western Europe, the kingdom of the Franks developed into the Carolingian Empire by the 8th century, the kingdoms of Anglo-Saxon England were unified into the kingdom of England by the 10th century. With the breakup of the Carolingian Empire in the 9th century, the system of feudalism places kings at the head of a pyramid of relationships between liege lords and vassals, dependent on the regional rule of barons, the intermediate positions of counts and dukes; the core of European feudal manorialism in the High Middle Ages were the territories of the former Carolingian Empire, i.e. the kingdom of France and the Holy Roman Empire. In the course of the European Middle Ages, the European kingdoms underwent a general trend of centralisation of power, so that by the Late Middle Ages there were a number of large and powerful kingdoms in Europe, which would develop into the great powers of Europe in the Early Modern period.
In the Iberian Peninsula, the remnants of the Visigothic Kingdom, the petty kingdoms of Asturias and Pamplona, expanded into the kingdom of Portugal, the Crown of Castile and the Crown of Aragon with the ongoing Reconquista. In southern Europe, the kingdom of Sicily was established following the Norman conquest of southern Italy; the Kingdom of Sardinia was claimed as a separate title held by the Crown of Aragon in 1324. In the Balkans, the Kingdom of Serbia was established in 1217. In eastern-central Europe, the Kingdom of Hungary was established in AD 1000 following the Christianisation of the Magyars; the kingdoms of Poland and Bohemia were established within the Holy Roman Empire in 1025 and 1198, respectively. In Eastern Europe, the Kievan Rus' consolidated into the Grand Duchy of Moscow, which did not technically claim the status of kingdom until the early modern Tsardom of Russia. In northern Europe, the tribal kingdoms of the Viking Age by the 11th century expanded into the North Sea Empire under Cnut the Great, king of Denmark and Norway.
The Christianization of Scandinavia resulted in "consolidated" kingdoms of Sweden and Norway, by the end of the medieval period the pan-Scandinavian Kalmar Union. Fifteen kings are recognized as the heads of state of sovereign states. Most of these are heads of state of constitutional monarchies. Thomas J. Craughwell, 5,000 Years of Royalty: Kings, Princes, Emperors & Tsars. David Cannadine, Simon Price, Rituals of Royalty: Power and Ceremonial in Traditional Societies. Jean Hani, Sacred Royalty: From the Pharaoh to the Most Christian King. Media related to Kings at Walter Alison. "King". Encyclopædia Britannica. 15. Pp. 805–806
Ansungtangmyun is a brand of ramyeon produced by Nongshim in South Korea since 1983, is the third highest-selling brand of noodles in South Korea. It is made with beef stock from cows in Anseong. Food portal List of noodles List of instant noodle brands Media related to Ansungtangmyun at Wikimedia Commons Official website Ansungtangmyun - Nongshim