Religion is a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, worldviews, sanctified places, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements. However, there is no scholarly consensus over what constitutes a religion. Different religions may or may not contain various elements ranging from the divine, sacred things, faith, a supernatural being or supernatural beings or "some sort of ultimacy and transcendence that will provide norms and power for the rest of life". Religious practices may include rituals, commemoration or veneration, festivals, trances, funerary services, matrimonial services, prayer, art, public service, or other aspects of human culture. Religions have sacred histories and narratives, which may be preserved in sacred scriptures, symbols and holy places, that aim to give a meaning to life. Religions may contain symbolic stories, which are sometimes said by followers to be true, that have the side purpose of explaining the origin of life, the universe, other things.
Traditionally, faith, in addition to reason, has been considered a source of religious beliefs. There are an estimated 10,000 distinct religions worldwide, but about 84% of the world's population is affiliated with one of the five largest religion groups, namely Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism or forms of folk religion; the religiously unaffiliated demographic includes those who do not identify with any particular religion and agnostics. While the religiously unaffiliated have grown globally, many of the religiously unaffiliated still have various religious beliefs; the study of religion encompasses a wide variety of academic disciplines, including theology, comparative religion and social scientific studies. Theories of religion offer various explanations for the origins and workings of religion, including the ontological foundations of religious being and belief. Religion is derived from the ultimate origins of which are obscure. One possible interpretation traced to Cicero, connects lego read, i.e. re with lego in the sense of choose, go over again or consider carefully.
The definition of religio by Cicero is cultum deorum, "the proper performance of rites in veneration of the gods." Julius Caesar used religio to mean "obligation of an oath" when discussing captured soldiers making an oath to their captors. The Roman naturalist Pliny the Elder used the term religio on elephants in that they venerate the sun and the moon. Modern scholars such as Tom Harpur and Joseph Campbell favor the derivation from ligare bind, connect from a prefixed re-ligare, i.e. re + ligare or to reconnect, made prominent by St. Augustine, following the interpretation given by Lactantius in Divinae institutiones, IV, 28; the medieval usage alternates with order in designating bonded communities like those of monastic orders: "we hear of the'religion' of the Golden Fleece, of a knight'of the religion of Avys'". In the ancient and medieval world, the etymological Latin root religio was understood as an individual virtue of worship in mundane contexts. In general, religio referred to broad social obligations towards anything including family, neighbors and towards God.
Religio was most used by the ancient Romans not in the context of a relation towards gods, but as a range of general emotions such as hesitation, anxiety, fear. The term was closely related to other terms like scrupulus which meant "very precisely" and some Roman authors related the term superstitio, which meant too much fear or anxiety or shame, to religio at times; when religio came into English around the 1200s as religion, it took the meaning of "life bound by monastic vows" or monastic orders. The compartmentalized concept of religion, where religious things were separated from worldly things, was not used before the 1500s; the concept of religion was first used in the 1500s to distinguish the domain of the church and the domain of civil authorities. In the ancient Greece, the Greek term threskeia was loosely translated into Latin as religio in late antiquity; the term was sparsely used in classical Greece but became more used in the writings of Josephus in the first century CE. It was used in mundane contexts and could mean multiple things from respectful fear to excessive or harmfully distracting practices of others.
It was contrasted with the Greek word deisidaimonia which meant too much fear. The modern concept of religion, as an abstraction that entails distinct sets of beliefs or doctrines, is a recent invention in the English language; such usage began with texts from the 17th century due to events such the splitting of Christendom during the Protestant Reformation and globalization in the age of exploration, which involved contact with numerous foreign cultures with non-European languages. Some argue that regardless of its definition, it is not appropriate to apply the term religion to non-Western cultures. Others argue that using religion on non-western cultures distorts what people believe; the concept of religion was formed in the 16th and 17th centuries, despite the fact that ancient sacred texts like the Bible, the Quran, others did not have a word or a concept of religion in the original languages and neither did the peopl
A donation is a gift for charity, humanitarian aid, or to benefit a cause. A donation may take various forms, including money, services, or goods such as clothing, food, or vehicles. A donation may satisfy medical needs such as blood or organs for transplant. Charitable donations of goods or services are called gifts in kind. In the United States, in 2007, the Bureau of Labor Statistics found that American households in the lowest fifth in terms of wealth, gave on average a higher percentage of their incomes to charitable organizations than those households in the highest fifth. Charity Navigator writes that, according to Giving USA, Americans gave $298 billion in 2011; the majority of donations were from individuals from bequests and less than 1% from corporations. The largest sector to receive donations was religious organizations education. Giving has increased in 3 out of 4 years since 1971. Blackbaud reports; the percentage of total fundraising that comes from online giving was about 7% in 2012.
This was an increase from 6% in 2011 and is nearing the record level of 8% from 2010 when online giving spiked in response to Haitian earthquake relief efforts. Steve MacLaughlin notes in the report that "the Internet has now become the first-response channel of choice for donors during disasters and other emergency events." Blackbaud's 2015 Charitable Giving report revealed a 9% increase in online giving compared to 2014. In addition, online giving represented 7% of overall fundraising, with 14% of online donations made on mobile devices. Donations made on the international online giving day #GivingTuesday were up 52% from the previous year. Donations are given without return consideration; this lack of return consideration means that, in common law, an agreement to make a donation is an "imperfect contract void for want of consideration." Only when the donation is made does it acquire legal status as a transfer or property. In politics, the law of some countries may prohibit or restrict the extent to which politicians may accept gifts or donations of large sums of money from business or lobby groups.
Donations of money or property to qualifying charitable organizations are usually tax deductible. Because this reduces the state's tax income, calls have been raised that the state should pay more attention towards ensuring that charities use this'tax money' in suitable ways. There have been discussions on whether a donation of time should be tax deductible; the person or institution giving a gift is called the donor, the person or institution getting the gift is called the donee. It is possible to donate in the name of a third party, making a gift in honor or in memory of someone or something. Gifts in honor or memory of a third party are made for various reasons, such as holiday gifts, wedding gifts, in memory of somebody who has died, in memory of pets or in the name of groups or associations no longer existing. Memorial gifts are sometimes requested by their survivors directing donations to a charitable organization for which the deceased was a donor or volunteer, or for a cause befitting the deceased's priorities in life or manner of death.
Memorial donations are sometimes given by people if they are unable to attend the ceremony. Collaborative Consumption Audience effect Charitable contribution Crowdfunding & Humanitarian Crowdfunding Donation Gift economy Micro-donations Philanthropy Money-free economy Effective altruism
Effective altruism is a philosophy and social movement that uses evidence and reasoning to determine the most effective ways to benefit others. Effective altruism encourages individuals to consider all causes and actions and to act in the way that brings about the greatest positive impact, based upon their values, it is the broad, evidence-based approach that distinguishes effective altruism from traditional altruism or charity. While a substantial proportion of effective altruists have focused on the nonprofit sector, the philosophy of effective altruism applies more broadly to prioritizing the scientific projects and policy initiatives which can be estimated to save lives, help people, or otherwise have the biggest benefit. People associated with the movement include philosopher Peter Singer, Facebook cofounder Dustin Moskovitz, Cari Tuna, Oxford-based researchers William MacAskill and Toby Ord, professional poker player Liv Boeree, writer Jacy Reese. Effective altruism differs from other philanthropic practices because of its emphasis on quantitatively comparing charitable causes and interventions with the goal of maximizing certain human values.
In this way it is similar to consequentialism, which some leaders of the movement explicitly endorse. The views of the philosopher Peter Singer in particular helped give rise to the effective altruist movement. Singer's book The Life You Can Save argued for the basic philosophy of effective giving, claiming that people have a moral imperative to donate more because of the existence of extreme poverty. In the book, Singer argued that people should use charity evaluators to determine how to make their donations most effective. Singer gives a third of his income to charity. Effective altruists reject the view. For example, they believe that a person in a developing country has equal value to a person in one's own community. In the 1972 essay'Famine and Morality', Peter Singer wrote: It makes no difference whether the person I can help is a neighbor's child ten yards away from me or a Bengali whose name I shall never know, ten thousand miles away.... The moral point of view requires us to look beyond the interests of our own society.
Previously... this may hardly have been feasible. From the moral point of view, the prevention of the starvation of millions of people outside our society must be considered at least as pressing as the upholding of property norms within our society. In addition, many effective altruists think that future generations have equal moral value to existing people, focus on reducing existential risks to humanity. Others believe that the interests of non-human animals should be accorded the same moral weight as similar interests of humans and work to prevent the suffering of animals, such as those raised in factory farms. Although there is a growing emphasis on effectiveness and evidence among nonprofits, this is done with a single cause in mind, such as education or climate change. Effective altruists, seek to compare the relative importance of different causes and choose one objectively, a concept, referred to as cause neutrality. Effective altruists choose the highest priority causes based on whether activities in each cause area could efficiently advance broad goals, such as increasing human or animal welfare, focus their attention on interventions in high priority areas.
Several organizations perform cause prioritization research to answer the question of what causes warrant the highest priority. Some common priorities among effective altruists include poverty in the developing world, the suffering of animals in factory farms, risks to civilization and planet Earth. Effective altruist organizations argue that some charities are far more effective than others, either because some do not achieve their goals or because of variability in the cost of achieving those goals; when possible, they seek to identify charities that are cost-effective, meaning that they achieve a large benefit for a given amount of money. For example, they select health interventions on the basis of their impact as measured by lives saved per dollar, quality-adjusted life years saved per dollar, or disability-adjusted life years averted per dollar; this measure of disease burden is expressed as the number of years lost due to ill-health, disability or early death. Some effective altruism organizations use randomized controlled trials as a primary form of evidence, as they are considered to be at the highest level of strong evidence in healthcare research.
Effective altruists argue that counterfactual reasoning is important to determine which course of action maximizes positive impact. Many people assume that the best way to help people is through direct methods, such as working for a charity or providing social services, but since charities and social-service providers can find people willing to work for them, effective altruists compare the amount of good somebody does in a conventional altruistic career to how much good would have been done had the next-best candidate been hired for the position. According to this reasoning, the impact of a career may be smaller. Effective altruist organizations make philanthropic recommendations for charities on the basis of the impact from marginal funding rather than evaluating the average value of all donations to the charity. Effective altruists avoid donating to organizations that have no "room for more funding" – those that face bottlenecks other than money which prevent them from spending the funds they have accumulated or are expected to receive.
For example, a medical charity might not be able to hire enough doctors or nurses to distribute the
Altruism is the principle and moral practice of concern for happiness of other human beings and/or animals, resulting in a quality of life both material and spiritual. It is a traditional virtue in many cultures and a core aspect of various religious traditions and secular worldviews, though the concept of "others" toward whom concern should be directed can vary among cultures and religions. In an extreme case, altruism may become a synonym of selflessness, the opposite of selfishness. In a common way of living, it doesn't deny the singular nature of the subject, but realizes the traits of the individual personality in relation to the others, with a true and personal interaction with each of them, it is focusing both on the whole community. In a Christian practice, it is the law of love direct to his neighbour; the word "altruism" was coined by the French philosopher Auguste Comte in French, as altruisme, for an antonym of egoism. He derived it from the Italian altrui, which in turn was derived from Latin alteri, meaning "other people" or "somebody else".
Altruism in biological observations in field populations of the day organisms is an individual performing an action, at a cost to themselves, but benefits, either directly or indirectly, another third-party individual, without the expectation of reciprocity or compensation for that action. Steinberg suggests a definition for altruism in the clinical setting, "intentional and voluntary actions that aim to enhance the welfare of another person in the absence of any quid pro quo external rewards". Altruism can be distinguished from feelings of loyalty, in that whilst the latter is predicated upon social relationships, altruism does not consider relationships. Much debate exists as to; the theory of psychological egoism suggests that no act of sharing, helping or sacrificing can be described as altruistic, as the actor may receive an intrinsic reward in the form of personal gratification. The validity of this argument depends on whether intrinsic rewards qualify as "benefits"; the term altruism may refer to an ethical doctrine that claims that individuals are morally obliged to benefit others.
Used in this sense, it is contrasted with egoism, which claims individuals are morally obligated to serve themselves first. The concept has a long history in ethical thought; the term was coined in the 19th century by the founding sociologist and philosopher of science, Auguste Comte, has become a major topic for psychologists, evolutionary biologists, ethologists. Whilst ideas about altruism from one field can affect the other fields, the different methods and focuses of these fields always lead to different perspectives on altruism. In simple terms, altruism is acting to help them. Marcel Mauss's book The Gift contains a passage called "Note on alms"; this note describes the evolution of the notion of alms from the notion of sacrifice. In it, he writes: Alms are the fruits of a moral notion of the gift and of fortune on the one hand, of a notion of sacrifice, on the other. Generosity is an obligation, because Nemesis avenges the poor and the gods for the superabundance of happiness and wealth of certain people who should rid themselves of it.
This is the ancient morality of the gift. The gods and the spirits accept that the share of wealth and happiness, offered to them and had been hitherto destroyed in useless sacrifices should serve the poor and children. Compare Altruism – perception of altruism as self-sacrifice. Compare explanation of alms in various scriptures. In the science of ethology, more in the study of social evolution, altruism refers to behaviour by an individual that increases the fitness of another individual while decreasing the fitness of the actor. In evolutionary psychology this may be applied to a wide range of human behaviors such as charity, emergency aid, help to coalition partners, courtship gifts, production of public goods, environmentalism. Theories of altruistic behavior were accelerated by the need to produce theories compatible with evolutionary origins. Two related strands of research on altruism have emerged from traditional evolutionary analyses and from evolutionary game theory a mathematical model and analysis of behavioural strategies.
Some of the proposed mechanisms are: Kin selection. That animals and humans are more altruistic towards close kin than to distant kin and non-kin has been confirmed in numerous studies across many different cultures. Subtle cues indicating kinship may unconsciously increase altruistic behavior. One kinship cue is facial resemblance. One study found that altering photographs so that they more resembled the faces of study participants increased the trust the participants expressed regarding depicted persons. Another cue is having the same family name if rare, this has been found to increase helpful behavior. Another study found more cooperative behavior the greater the number of perceived kin in a group. Using kinship terms in political speeches increased audience agreement with the speaker in one study; this effect was strong for firstborns, who are close to their families. Vested interests. People are to suffer if their friends and similar social ingroups suffer or disappear. Helping such group members may therefore benefit the altruist.
Making ingroup membership more no
Alms or almsgiving involves giving to others as an act of virtue, either materially or in the sense of providing capabilities free. It exists in a number of regions; the word, in the modern English language, comes from the Old English ælmesse, ælmes, from Late Latin eleemosyna, from Greek ἐλεημοσύνη eleēmosynē, from ἐλεήμων, eleēmōn, from ἔλεος, eleos. In Judaism, tzedakah - a Hebrew term meaning righteousness but used to signify charity - refers to the religious obligation to do what is right and just. Contemporary tzedakah is regarded as a continuation of the Biblical Maaser Ani, or poor-tithe, as well as Biblical practices including permitting the poor to glean the corners of a field, harvest during the Shmita, other practices. Tzedakah, along with prayer and repentance, is regarded as ameliorating the consequences of bad acts. In Judaism, Tzedakah is seen as one of the greatest deeds. Jewish farmers are commanded to leave the corners of their fields for the starving to harvest for food and are forbidden to pick up any grain, dropped during harvesting, as such food shall be left for the starving as well.
Famous Jewish scholar and sage Maimonides has been noted for creating a list of charity, with the most righteous form being allowing an individual to become self-sustaining and capable of giving others charity. 1) Enabling the recipient to become self-reliant 2) Giving when neither party knows the other's identity 3) Giving when you know the recipient's identity, but the recipient doesn't know your identity 4) Giving when you do not know the recipient's identity, but the recipient knows your identity 5) Giving before being asked 6) Giving after being asked 7) Giving less than you should, but giving it cheerfully 8) Giving begrudgingly In Islam, the concept of charitable giving is divided into voluntary giving, or Sadaqah, the Zakat, an obligatory practice governed by a specific set of rules within Islamic jurisprudence, intended to fulfill a well defined set of theological and social requirements. For that reason, while Zakat plays a much larger role within Islamic charity, Sadaqah is a better translation of Christian influenced formulations of the notion of'alms'.
Zakat is the third of the five pillars of Islam. Various rules attach to the practice but, in general terms, it is obligatory to give 2.5% of one's savings and business revenue and 5–10% of one's harvest to the poor. Possible recipients include the destitute, the working poor, those who are unable to pay off their own debts, stranded travelers and others who need assistance, with the general principle of zakaah always being that the rich should pay it to the poor. One of the most important principles of Islam is that all things belong to God and, wealth is held by human beings in trust; the literal meaning of the word Zakat is "to purify", "to develop" and "cause to grow". According to Shariah it is an act of worship. Our possessions are purified by setting aside a proportion for those in need; this cutting back, like the pruning of plants and encourages new growth. Zakat is the amount of money that every adult, mentally stable and financially able Muslim, male or female, has to pay to support specific categories of people.
This category of people is defined in surah at-Taubah verse 60: "The alms are only for the poor and the needy, those who collect them, those whose hearts are to be reconciled, to free the captives and the debtors, for the cause of Allah, the wayfarers. Allah is knower, Wise.". The obligatory nature of Zakat is established in the Qur'an, the Sunnah, the consensus of the companions and the Muslim scholars. Allah states in Surah at-Taubah verses 34–35: "O ye who believe! There are indeed many among the priests and anchorites, who in Falsehood devour the substance of men and hinder from the way of Allah, and there are those who spend it not in the way of Allah. Announce unto them a most grievous penalty – On the Day when heat will be produced out of that in the fire of Hell, with it will be branded their foreheads, their flanks, their backs.- "This is the which ye buried for yourselves: taste ye the ye buried!". Muslims of each era have agreed upon the obligatory nature of paying Zakat for gold and silver, from those the other kinds of currency.
Zakat is obligatory when a certain amount of money, called the nisab is exceeded. Zakat is not obligatory; the nisab of gold and golden currency is 20 mithqal 85 grams of pure gold. One mithqal is 4.25 grams. The nisab of silver and silver currency is 200 dirhams, 595 grams of pure silver; the nisab of other kinds of money and currency is to be scaled to that of gold. Zakat is obligatory after the money has been in the control of its owner for the span of one lunar year; the owner needs to pay 2.5% of the money as Zakat.. The owner should deduct any amount of money he or she borrowed from others. If the owner had enough money to satisfy the nisab at the beginning of the year, but his wealth in any form increased, the owner needs to add the increase to the nisab amount owned at the beginning of the year pay Zakat, 2.5%, of the total at the end of the lunar year. There are minor d
A voluntary group or union is a group of individuals who enter into an agreement as volunteers, to form a body to accomplish a purpose. Common examples include trade associations, trade unions, learned societies, professional associations, environmental groups. Membership is not voluntary: in order for particular associations to function they might need to be mandatory or at least encouraged, as is common with many teachers unions in the US; because of this, some people use the term common-interest association to describe groups which form out of a common interest, although this term is not used or understood. Voluntary associations may be unincorporated. In the UK, the terms Voluntary Association or Voluntary Organisation cover every type of group from a small local Residents' Association to large Associations with multimillion-pound turnover that run large-scale business operations. In many jurisdictions no formalities are necessary to start an association. In some jurisdictions, there is a minimum for the number of persons starting an association.
Some jurisdictions require that the association register with the police or other official body to inform the public of the association's existence. This could be a tool of political control or intimidation, a way of protecting the economy from fraud. In many such jurisdictions, only a registered association is a juristic person whose members are not responsible for the financial acts of the association. Any group of persons may, of course, work as an informal association, but in such cases, each person making a transaction in the name of the association takes responsibility for that transaction, just as if it were that individual's personal transaction. There are many countries where the formation of independent Voluntary Associations is proscribed by law or where they are theoretically permitted, but in practice are persecuted. Voluntary groups are a broad and original form of nonprofit organizations, have existed since ancient history. In Ancient Greece, for example, there were various organizations ranging from elite clubs of wealthy men to private religious or professional associations.
In preindustrial societies, governmental administrative duties were handled by voluntary associations such as guilds. In medieval Europe, guilds controlled towns. Merchant guilds enforced contracts through embargoes and sanctions on their members, adjudicated disputes. However, by the 1800s, merchant guilds had disappeared. Economic historians have debated the precise role that merchant guilds played in premodern society and economic growth. In the United Kingdom, craft guilds were more successful than merchant guilds and formed livery companies which exerted significant influence on society. A standard definition of an unincorporated association was given by Lord Justice Lawton in the English trust law case Conservative and Unionist Central Office v Burrell: "unincorporated association" two or more persons bound together for one or more common purposes, not being business purposes, by mutual undertakings, each having mutual duties and obligations, in an organisation which has rules which identify in whom control of it and its funds rests and upon what terms and which can be joined or left at will.
In most countries, an unincorporated association does not have separate legal personality, few members of the association enjoy limited liability. However, in some countries they are treated as having separate legal personality for tax purposes. However, because of their lack of legal personality, legacies to unincorporated associations are sometimes subject to general common law prohibitions against purpose trusts. Associations that are organized for profit or financial gain are called partnerships. A special kind of partnership is a co-operative, founded on one person—one vote principle and distributes its profits according to the amount of goods produced or bought by the members. Associations may take the form of a non-profit organization or they may be not-for-profit corporations. Most associations have some kind of document or documents that regulate the way in which the body meets and operates; such an instrument is called the organization's bylaws, regulations, or agreement of association.
Under English law, an unincorporated association consists of two or more members bound by the rules of a society which has at some point in time, been founded. Several theories have been proposed as to the way. A transfer may be considered to have been made to the association's members directly as joint tenants or tenants in common. Alternatively, the funds transferred may be considered to have been under the terms of a private purpose trust. Many purpose trusts fail for want of a beneficiary and this may therefore may result in the gift failing. However, some purpose trusts are valid, accordingly, some cases have decided that the rights associated with unincorporated associations are held on this basis; the dominant theory, however, is that the rights are transferred to the members or officers perhaps on trust for the members, but
In economics, a public good is a good, both non-excludable and non-rivalrous in that individuals cannot be excluded from use or could be enjoyed without paying for it, where use by one individual does not reduce availability to others or the goods can be consumed by more than one person. This is in contrast to a common good, non-excludable but is rivalrous to a certain degree. Public goods include knowledge, official statistics, national security, common language, flood control systems and street lighting. Public goods that are available everywhere are sometimes referred to as global public goods. Examples of public good knowledge is mens and youth health awareness, environmental issues, maintaining biodiversity and interpreting contemporary history with a cultural lexicon about protected cultural heritage sites and monuments and entertaining tourist attractions and universities. Many public goods may at times be subject to excessive use resulting in negative externalities affecting all users.
Public goods problems are closely related to the "free-rider" problem, in which people not paying for the good may continue to access it. Thus, the good may be overused or degraded. Public goods may become subject to restrictions on access and may be considered to be club goods. There is a good deal of debate and literature on how to measure the significance of public goods problems in an economy, to identify the best remedies. There is an important conceptual difference between the sense of "a" public good, or public "goods" in economics, the more generalized idea of "the public good", "a shorthand signal for shared benefit at a societal level". In a non-economic sense, the term is used to describe something, useful for the public such as education, although this is not a "public good" in the economic sense. However, services like education exhibit jointness of supply, i.e. the situation in which the cost of supplying a good to many users is the same, or nearly the same, as supplying it to one user.
Public goods exhibit jointness of supply, albeit with no diminishment of the benefits with increased consumption. Paul A. Samuelson is credited as the first economist to develop the theory of public goods. In his classic 1954 paper The Pure Theory of Public Expenditure, he defined a public good, or as he called it in the paper a "collective consumption good", as follows: which all enjoy in common in the sense that each individual's consumption of such a good leads to no subtractions from any other individual's consumption of that good... This is the property. A pure public good exhibits a second property called non-excludability: that is, it is impossible to exclude any individuals from consuming the good. However, many goods may satisfy the two public good conditions only to a certain extent or only some of the time; these goods are known as impure public goods. The opposite of a public good is a private good. A loaf of bread, for example, is a private good. A good, rivalrous but non-excludable is sometimes called a common-pool resource.
Such goods raise similar issues to public goods: the mirror to the public goods problem for this case is the'tragedy of the commons'. For example, it is so difficult to enforce restrictions on deep-sea fishing that the world's fish stocks can be seen as a non-excludable resource, but one, finite and diminishing. Elinor Ostrom proposed additional modifications to the classification of goods to identify fundamental differences that affect the incentives facing individuals Replacing the term "rivalry of consumption" with "subtractability of use". Conceptualizing subtractability of use and excludability to vary from low to high rather than characterizing them as either present or absent. Overtly adding a important fourth type of good—common-pool resources—that shares the attribute of subtractability with private goods and difficulty of exclusion with public goods. Forests, water systems and the global atmosphere are all common-pool resources of immense importance for the survival of humans on this earth.
Changing the name of a "club" good to a "toll" good since many goods that share these characteristics are provided by small scale public as well as private associations. The definition of non-excludability states that it is impossible to exclude individuals from consumption. Technology now allows radio or TV broadcasts to be encrypted such that persons without a special decoder are excluded from the broadcast. Many forms of information goods have characteristics of public goods. For example, a poem can be read by many people without reducing the consumption of that good by others; the information in most patents can be used by any party without reducing consumption of that good by others. Official statistics provide a clear example of information goods that are public goods, since they are created to be non-excludable. Creative works may be excludable in some circumstances, however: the individual who wrote the poem may decline to share it with others by not publishing it. Copyrights and patents both encourage the creation of such non-rival goods by providing temporary monopolies, or, in the terminology of public goods, providing a legal mechanism to enforce