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Nonprofit organization

A nonprofit organization known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is an organization dedicated to furthering a particular social cause or advocating for a shared point of view. In economic terms, it is an organization using its surplus of the revenues to further achieve its ultimate objective, rather than distributing its income to the organization's shareholders, leaders, or members. Nonprofits are tax-exempt or charitable, meaning they do not pay income tax on the money that they receive for their organization, they can operate in religious, research, or educational settings. The key aspects of nonprofits are accountability, trustworthiness and openness to every person who has invested time and faith into the organization. Nonprofit organizations are accountable to the donors, volunteers, program recipients, the public community. Public confidence is a factor in the amount of money; the more nonprofits focus on their mission, the more public confidence they will have, as a result, more money for the organization.

The activities a nonprofit is partaking in can help build the public's confidence in nonprofits, as well as how ethical the standards and practices are. According to the National Center for Charitable Statistics, there are more than 1.5 million nonprofit organizations registered in the United States, including public charities, private foundations, other nonprofit organizations. Contributions to different charities reached $358.38 billion in 2014, an increase of 7.1% from the 2013 estimates. Out of these contributions, religious organizations received 32%, educational institutions received 15%, human service organizations received 12%. Between September 2010 and September 2014 25.3% of Americans over the age of 16 volunteered for a nonprofit. Nonprofits are not driven by generating profit, but they must bring in enough income to pursue their social goals. Nonprofits are able to raise money in different ways; this includes income from donations from individual foundations. Each NPO is unique in.

With an increase in NPO's within the last decade, organizations have adopted competitive advantages to create revenue for themselves to remain financially stable. Donations from private individuals or organizations can change each year and government grants have diminished. With changes in funding from year to year, many nonprofit organizations have been moving toward increasing the diversity of their funding sources. For example, many nonprofits that have relied on government grants have started fundraising efforts to appeal to individual donors. NPO's challenges stem from lack of funding. Funding can either come from within the organization, donations, or from the federal government; when cutbacks are made from the federal government, the organization suffers from devolution. This term describes when there is a shift of responsibility from a central government to a local, sub-national authority; the shift is due to the loss of funds. Because of this frequent challenge, management must be innovative and effective in the pursuit of success.

Nonprofit and not-for-profit are terms that are used but do not mean the same thing. Both are organizations that do not make a profit, but may receive an income to sustain their missions; the income that nonprofit and not-for-profit organizations generate is used differently. Nonprofit organizations return any extra income to the organization. Not-for-profits use their excess money to pay their members. Another difference between nonprofit organizations and not-for-profit organizations is their membership. Nonprofits have volunteers or employees who do not receive any money from the organization's fundraising efforts, they may earn a salary for their work, independent from the money the organization has fundraised. Not-for-profit members have the opportunity to benefit from the organization's fundraising efforts. In the United States, both nonprofits and not-for-profits are tax-exempt under IRS publication 557. Although they are both tax-exempt, each organization faces different tax code requirements.

A nonprofit is tax-exempt under 501 requirements if it is either a religious, charitable, or educational based organizations that do not influence state and federal legislation. Not-for-profits are tax-exempt under 501 requirements if they are an organization for pleasure, recreation or another nonprofit purpose. Nonprofits are either community-serving. Member-serving nonprofit organizations create a benefit for the members of their organization and can include but are not limited to credit unions, sports clubs, advocacy groups. Community-serving nonprofit organizations focus on providing services to the community either globally or locally. Community-serving nonprofits include organizations that deliver aid and development programs, medical research and health services, it is possible for a nonprofit to be both community-serving. A common misconception about nonprofits is that they are run by volunteers. Most nonprofits have staff that work for the company using volunteers to perform the nonprofit's services under the direction of the paid staff.

Nonprofits must be careful to balance the salaries paid to staff against the money paid to provide services to the nonprofit's beneficiaries. Organizations whose salary expenses are too high relative to their program expenses may face reg

EAD socket

An EAD socket was a network connection socket used in the early 1990s. They are now considered obsolete. Ethernet networking of this period used "thin coax" or 10BASE2. All devices on a network segment connected to the same electrical section of RG-58 coaxial cable. Intermediate devices were connected via a T piece; the two ends of the segment were terminated with a resistive network terminator. Although these networks were reliable when connected, they were prone to accidental misconnection by non-technical office staff; this was an issue when devices, such as desktop computers, were being added or removed from the network. Although a rare need at this time, the situation was worse for portable laptops. To avoid some of the drawbacks with 10BASE2 over BNC connectors, the EAD socket was one of several alternatives developed to give an "office friendly" network connector that could be connected and disconnected, avoided the risk of making misconnections. With the obsolescence of 10BASE2 networks, from the mid 1990s, in favour of Ethernet over twisted pair, EAD sockets became obsolete.

EAD is an abbreviation for German Ethernet-Anschlussdose, were developed from TAE connectors for telephony applications but were intended for connecting coaxial network cables like 10BASE2. A different mechanical encoding prevented mix-up with phone plugs. EAD cables were duplex connections replacing two thin-wire cables, with the T-connector integrated into the BNC end; the contacts of an EAD outlet are closed. When a cable is plugged in, the normally-closed contacts in the socket are opened so that signals pass through the loop cable. Worn out connectors or outlets can cause the same problems that haunted the simpler connectors but user errors are reduced. Description of the EAD system at

Gail Laughlin

Abbie "Gail" Hill Laughlin was an American lawyer, suffragist, an expert for the United States Industrial commission, a member of the Maine State Senate. She was the first woman from Maine to practice law, she was the National Vice Chairman of the women’s suffrage movement and the President of the National Federation of Business and Professional Women’s Clubs. She was posthumously inducted into the Maine Women's Hall of Fame in 1991. Gail Laughlin was born in Maine to Robert Laughlin and Elizabeth Laughlin, she was one of nine children. Her mother was from St. Stephen, New Brunswick and her father was from Ireland, her father passed at the age of 56 in 1876, leaving her mother and six siblings behind, as two died in infancy. The family returned to Laughlin’s mother’s hometown of St. Stephen, New Brunswick for financial support from extended family. In 1880, the family relocated to Portland, Maine where Laughlin's eldest brother was working as a clerk. With the financial support of her brothers, Gail Laughlin was able to attend Portland High School.

Laughlin graduated from Portland High School in 1886 honors. She received the Brown Medal award for earning the highest grades of all the girls in her graduating class, she could not afford to attend. She began saving for Wellesley College, her dream school. Laughlin's first job was working at a china imports office as a bookkeeper where she made four dollars a week. After saving enough money, she began to attend Wellesley College. There, she started and was president of the Agora Society that focused on expanding students knowledge on politics. Before graduation, she gave a speech to members of the Agora Society on the Wilson tariff bill, published on the front cover of the American Economist by the Home Market Bulletin, she received fifty dollars for the publication. In 1894, Laughlin received a Bachelor of Arts degree from Wellesley. After her graduation, she was offered a job working as an editorial writer for the American Economist; this job allowed her to pursue her dreams of working in law and politics.

After working at the American Economist for two years, Gail saved enough money to apply to Cornell Law school. During her interview with the school she was told that she would only be accepted if there were open seats that men could not occupy, she and three other females were accepted to Cornell Law School in 1896 with their 123 male classmates. Two years in 1898, she graduated from Cornell Law School with an LL. B. Gail Laughlin passed the New York bar exam in 1899 and opened her first law office in 1900. Laughlin was the first woman from Maine to practice law, her office in New York did not thrive with the challenges. She was offered and accepted a job by Colonel Albert Clark, the man responsible for publishing her speech in the American Economist, to inspect the working conditions of domestic servants with the United States Industrial Commission, it was her job to inspect and report on the working conditions of those employed in domestic service in an attempt to improve the working conditions of employees.

After two years of research she published a twenty-eight page report for the United States Industrial Commission outlining the injustices that women of multiple demographics faced in domestic service. Laughlin learned that women were being paid less than men for equal work and faced many unreasonable demands, her work with the United States Industrial Commission inspired her to devote some of her life the Women's suffrage movement. She spent the next four years of her life campaigning for the National American Woman Suffrage Association. Laughlin traveled the west promoting equal rights for women. In 1906 she landed in Denver, Colorado where they had the right to vote since 1893, she opened her second law office in Denver in 1906. She spent her time in Denver serving on eleven state boards. During her time in Colorado, she befriended Dr. Marguerite Sperry who convinced her to return to Marguerite's native California; the two were life partners from 1903 until 1919. Sperry's ashes are buried with Laughlin in Maine.

Laughlin opened her third law office in 1914 in California. There she served on the Republican state central committee, became a member of the National Women's Party, was a judge in the police courts, was one of the founders of the National League for Women's Services, drafted and passed a law allowing women to be on juries in California. In 1919, Laughlin traveled to St. Louis, Missouri to attend the first convention of the National Federation of Business and Professional Women's Clubs of which she was a co-founder; the purpose of this meeting was to unite women and focus on the inequalities women face in the work force. At the convention Laughlin gave the opening speech, she was a unifying symbol for the suffrage movement. She was elected as the president of National Federation of Business and Professional Women's Clubs at the end of the convention. Laughlin grew homesick for her native New England, she returned to Portland, Maine in 1924. She began practicing law with her brother Frederick. In 1927, Laughlin was working to pass the Equal Rights Amendment.

The bill was downed, but not out and she needed to draw some major attention to it. She and 200 others traveled to the Rapid City, South Dakota to corner President Coolidge and get a massive amount of media attention; the goal was to get the bill into the next session, but President Coolidge announced he wouldn't be running for a second term and did not provide any support. Laughlin wanted to have more of an impact on Maine and the impact landed on her


WMKE-CD, virtual and UHF digital channel 21, is a low-powered, Class A Court TV-affiliated television station licensed to Milwaukee, United States. Owned by CNZ Communications, it is a sister station to Fond du Lac-licensed Cozi TV affiliate WIWN; the two stations share studios on West Stratton Drive in suburban New Berlin. The station first signed on the air in November 1985, broadcasting on VHF channel 8. After The Box was acquired by Viacom in 2001, the station became an MTV2 affiliate with some programming in Korean. In August 2000, WMKE moved to VHF channel 7 to allow for PBS member station WMVS to operate its digital signal on channel 8; as an analog station, the station's transmitter was located atop the Hilton Milwaukee City Center in downtown Milwaukee. The station's signal was directed north from that site to prevent interference with the former main digital signal of WLS-TV in Chicago, was localized to within Milwaukee County. In 2006, WMKE-CA dropped MTV2 as well as its Korean programming and became an affiliate of America One.

In October 2012, WMKE-CA affiliated with the Georgia-based Gem Shopping Network. Throughout all of this, the only pay TV carriage obtained by the station was over AT&T U-Verse on their channel 7 throughout southeastern Wisconsin. Time Warner Cable and Charter have never carried the station on their systems; the station had a construction permit to operate a low-power digital signal on UHF channel 20. This permit expired on May 21, 2012, with KM Communications re-filing to construct a digital transmitter facility on UHF channel 21. In July 2014, the station was taken dark for financial reasons due to fines from the FCC resulting from the station's lack of updates to both its public file and educational and informational programming reporting file, the latter of which had not had the public file components updated for 3½ years. On July 30, 2014, the sale of WMKE-CA was announced for $2.5 million to LocusPoint Networks, known for purchasing television stations as part of the FCC's upcoming spectrum incentive auction.

In January 2015, the station returned to the air on its digital channel 21 allocation from the traditional Milwaukee tower farm. It now holds the new calls WMKE-CD, as an affiliate of the Soul of the South Network; the station's digital signal is now unrestricted and covers the core Milwaukee metro area, including the Washington County, Waukesha County and Ozaukee County suburbs. The station at first utilized PSIP to remain on channel 7, but due to multiple issues with the system decided to use their physical digital channel 21 to identify their channel instead. Due to Soul of the South's various financial and technical issues which resulted in it ending operations, WMKE picked up Luken Communications' automotive-focused Rev'n network in January 2016. On April 13, 2017, the FCC announced the results of the 2016 spectrum auction. Shortly thereafter, LocusPoint announced the sale of WMKE-CD to the Milwaukee Media subsidiary of CNZ Communications, which owned WIWN in the market. On February 24, 2018, the paid programming schedule of OnTV4U seen on WIWN-DT3 was moved onto WMKE-CD after the launch of Quest on that signal.

Quest began simulcasting on channel 21.1, displacing Rev'n. Six additional subchannels were added to WMKE, with some repeating WIWN's channel lineup and allowing more entertainment subchannels to air on that full-power signal. At the beginning of 2020, it switched to carrying Court TV, repeating programming seen on WTMJ-DT5; the station's digital signal is multiplexed: Query the FCC's TV station database for WMKE-CD History of Milwaukee television

Jule G. Charney Award

The Jule G. Charney Award is the American Meteorological Society's award granted to "individuals in recognition of significant research or development achievement in the atmospheric or hydrologic sciences", it is named after the meteorologist Jule G. Charney, who played a key role in developing weather prediction. Source: American Meteorological Society 2019 J. David Neelin. For fundamental contributions to understanding tropical climate dynamics and the impact of anthropogenic forcing on precipitation, drying and extremes. 2018 Dennis P. Lettenmaier. For fundamental and visionary research on the hydrological impacts of climate change, the pioneering development of land surface models and continental-to-global scale data sets. 2017 David J. Raymond. For profound insights into the interaction between atmospheric convection and the larger-scale environment. 2016 Wayne H. Schubert. For landmark advances in theoretical understanding of convective parameterization, marine stratocumulus, balanced atmospheric flows, tropical cyclone intensity and structure.

2015 Alan Robock. For fundamental contributions toward understanding the climatic effects of stratospheric aerosols from volcanoes and other potential sources, the role of soil moisture in climate. 2014 David A. Randall. For transformative research into atmospheric convection and cloud processes and their improved representation in global weather and climate models. 2013 R. Alan Plumb. For fundamental contributions to the understanding of geophysical fluid dynamics, stratospheric dynamics, chemical transport, the general circulation of the atmosphere and oceans. 2012 Christopher S. Bretherton. For fundamental contributions to our understanding of atmospheric moist convection the discovery of mechanisms governing the transition from stratocumulus to shallow cumulus convection. 2011 Ronald B. Smith. For fundamental contributions to our understanding of the influence of mountains on the atmosphere through both theoretical advances and insightful observations. 2010 Eric F. Wood. For pioneering contributions to understanding the role of land surface heterogeneity in the coupled water and energy balance of the Earth surface.

2009 Warren M. Washington and Gerald A. Meehl. For outstanding collaborative contributions to modeling climate and its response to anthropogenic and natural forcings. 2008 Gerald R. North. For groundbreaking research on climate models, atmospheric statistics, satellite mission development. 2007 Alan K. Betts. For his pioneering and sustained contributions to the understanding of the atmospheric boundary layer, cumulus convection, land-surface-atmosphere interactions. 2006 Robert D. Cess. For his outstanding contributions to our understanding of the science of atmospheric radiation and climate change and the role of clouds in climate models 2005 Graeme Stephens. For pioneering advances in understanding and measuring radiation processes and their role in climate 2004 Richard Rotunno. For significant, scholarly contributions to understanding the dynamics that govern a wide spectrum of mesoscale phenomena and processes 2003 Wilfried H. Brutsaert. For fundamental and far-reaching contributions to our understanding of the linkages between Earth's atmosphere and land surface 2002 Roland A. Madden.

For pioneering investigations of global-scale waves and of the intraseasonal oscillation 2001 Roger Daley. For significant research and development in data assimilation and numerical weather prediction 2000 Kevin Edward Trenberth. For improving our understanding of the dynamics of the climate system through diagnostic analyses of its fundamental properties 1999 Anthony Hollingsworth. For penetrating research on four-dimensional data assimilation systems and numerical models. 1998 Kuo-Nan Liou. For his pioneering work in the theory and application of radiative transport and its interaction with clouds. 1997 Timothy N. Palmer. For fundamental contributions to the theory and practice of extended weather prediction and the understanding of climate phenomena. 1996 Yoshio Kurihara. For fundamental modeling research on tropical storm dynamics and a major advance in operational hurricane forecasting. 1995 Eugenia Kalnay. For many applications of numerical experimentation in explaining the physical processes of atmospheric dynamics and for developing improved operational numerical forecast models.

1994 William M. Gray. For pioneering contributions to the understanding and forecasting of tropical cyclones. 1993 Abraham H. Oort. For wide-ranging studies of atmospheric behavior through comprehensive analysis of global observations. 1992 Lance F. Bosart. For his demonstrations that valuable insights can be obtained by careful analysis of routine meteorological observations. 1991 Moustafa T. Chahine. For outstanding contributions to satellite sensing through better understanding of the inverse radiative transfer problem and development of its applications. 1991 M. Patrick McCormick. For outstanding contributions to satellite sensing through development of solar occultation instruments and for elucidation of the nature of polar stratospheric clouds. 1990 Peter J. Webster. For fundamental contributions to the understanding of low-frequency tropical circulations and tropical/midlatitude interactions. 1990 Melvin A. Shapiro. For extraordinary achievements in aircraft probing of mesoscale phenomena, for meso- and synoptic-scale analyses of unsurpassed quality.

1989 Eugene M. Rasmusson. For major contributions to climate diagnostics of the relationship of the Southern Oscillation to climate anomalies. 1988 Robert Dickinson. For outstanding contributions to our understanding of biofeedback processes. 1987 Richard A. Anthes. For his sustained contributions in theoretical and modeling studies related to tropical and mesoscale meteorology. 1986 Michia Yanai. For high

Love's Grown Deep

"Love's Grown Deep" is the title of a North American hit single by Kenny Nolan, taken from his eponymous debut album. The recording was issued as his follow-up to his major hit song, "I Like Dreamin'," and is similar in style. "Love's Grown Deep" reached #20 on the U. S. Billboard Hot 100, it hit #3 on the Adult Contemporary chart. The song was an large hit in Canada, where it peaked at number #20 on the Pop Singles chart and reached #1 on the Adult Contemporary chart. "Love's Grown Deep" was covered by Shalamar on Circumstantial Evidence. Lyrics of this song Listen to "Love's Grown Deep" on YouTube