Markus Gerardus Jozef Harbers is a Dutch politician and former communication employee. As a member of the Peoples Party for Freedom and Democracy he has been an MP since 1 December 2009 and he focuses on matters of finance. Harbers was a member of the municipality of the ward Kralingen-Crooswijk from 1992 to 1998 and he was an alderman of Rotterdam from 2007 to 2009. He studied economics at Erasmus University Rotterdam, parlement. com biography Mark Harbers personal website House of Representatives biography Peoples Party for Freedom and Democracy biography
Karin Cornelia Josepha Straus is a Dutch politician and former human resource management employee and management consultant. As a member of the Peoples Party for Freedom and Democracy she has been an MP since October 26,2010 and she focuses on matters of financial arrangements for children and psychiatric care, and drug rehabilitation. She was a member of the council of Roermond from 1998 to 2003 as well as VVD fraction leader from 2002 to 2003. Since March 11,2010 she has again a council member of this Dutch Limburg municipality. In the meantime she was a member of the council as well as VVD fraction leader of the South Holland municipality of Midden-Delfland from 2004 to 2006. Straus studied public administration at Radboud University Nijmegen and organizational and management studies at VU University Amsterdam and she studied at Nyenrode Business University. Parlement. com biography Karin Straus personal website House of Representatives biography Peoples Party for Freedom and Democracy website
Halbe Zijlstra is a Dutch politician of the right wing Peoples Party for Freedom and Democracy. He served as State Secretary for Education and Science in the first Rutte cabinet from 14 October 2010 until 5 November 2012, halbe Zijlstra was born in Oosterwolde, in the province of Friesland, where he attended secondary education at vwo level. He studied Sociology at the University of Groningen, after which he worked for several companies. Having been a member of Peoples Party for Freedom and Democracy since 1994, Zijlstra served as a member of the council of the city of Utrecht from 1998 to 2001. He was elected to the House of Representatives in the 2006 general election, in the House, he was his partys spokesman on care, sports, higher education and sciences and biotechnology. On 14 October 2010, Zijlstra was appointed as State Secretary for Education, additionally, Zijlstra initiated budget cuts in the culture sector, sharpening the conditions necessary to be eligible for government subsidies, and merging several cultural funds.
These measures saved a total of 200 million euros, after Ruttes first cabinet lost a motion of no confidence in 2012 and new elections were held, Zijlstra returned to the House of Representatives as chairman of his partys parliamentary group. In 2016, he announced he would not be available for a term as parliamentary group leader after the 2017 general election. Zijlstra resides in Wassenaar, a village just north of The Hague in the province of South Holland and he has been an active member of a carrier pigeon club
Antoinette Wilhelmina Lucas-Smeerdijk is a Dutch politician. As a member of the Peoples Party for Freedom and Democracy she was an MP from June 17,2010 to September 7,2016 and she was replaced by Daniël van der Ree. Lucas focused on matters of education and the flood control in the Netherlands. Lucas studied urban planning at Wageningen University, parlement. com biography Anne-Wil Lucas personal website House of Representatives biography Peoples Party for Freedom and Democracy website
Hoevelaken is a town in the Dutch province of Gelderland. It is a part of the municipality of Nijkerk, and lies about 5 km east of Amersfoort, Hoevelaken was a separate municipality until 2000, when it was merged with Nijkerk. In 2001, the town of Hoevelaken had 7990 inhabitants, the built-up area of the town was 2.2 km², and contained 3044 residences. The statistical area Hoevelaken, which can include the parts of the village. In national context, the town is known because of the homonymous motorway interchange between the E30, E231 and E232. This interchange is an important hub for north- and eastbound traffic in the Netherlands, Hoevelaken railway station opened in 2012 to serve the town. J. Kuyper, Gemeente Atlas van Nederland, 1865-1870, map of the former municipality, around 1868
The Netherlands, informally known as Holland is the main constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It is a densely populated country located in Western Europe with three territories in the Caribbean. The European part of the Netherlands borders Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, sharing borders with Belgium, the United Kingdom. The three largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam and The Hague, Amsterdam is the countrys capital, while The Hague holds the Dutch seat of parliament and government. The port of Rotterdam is the worlds largest port outside East-Asia, the name Holland is used informally to refer to the whole of the country of the Netherlands. Netherlands literally means lower countries, influenced by its low land and flat geography, most of the areas below sea level are artificial. Since the late 16th century, large areas have been reclaimed from the sea and lakes, with a population density of 412 people per km2 –507 if water is excluded – the Netherlands is classified as a very densely populated country.
Only Bangladesh, South Korea, and Taiwan have both a population and higher population density. Nevertheless, the Netherlands is the worlds second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products and this is partly due to the fertility of the soil and the mild climate. In 2001, it became the worlds first country to legalise same-sex marriage, the Netherlands is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G-10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as being a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union. The first four are situated in The Hague, as is the EUs criminal intelligence agency Europol and this has led to the city being dubbed the worlds legal capital. The country ranks second highest in the worlds 2016 Press Freedom Index, the Netherlands has a market-based mixed economy, ranking 17th of 177 countries according to the Index of Economic Freedom. It had the thirteenth-highest per capita income in the world in 2013 according to the International Monetary Fund, in 2013, the United Nations World Happiness Report ranked the Netherlands as the seventh-happiest country in the world, reflecting its high quality of life.
The Netherlands ranks joint second highest in the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index, the region called Low Countries and the country of the Netherlands have the same toponymy. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in all over Europe. They are sometimes used in a relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben. In the case of the Low Countries / the Netherlands the geographical location of the region has been more or less downstream. The geographical location of the region, changed over time tremendously
People's Party for Freedom and Democracy
The Peoples Party for Freedom and Democracy is a conservative-liberal political party in the Netherlands. The VVD, whose forerunner was the Freedom Party, supports private enterprise, Mark Rutte has been the partys leader since 31 May 2006 and the Prime Minister of the Netherlands since 14 October 2010. Therefore, an election was held in September 2012. The VVD remained the largest party, with 41 seats, from November 2012 until March 2017, the VVD was the senior partner in the Second Rutte cabinet, a purple coalition government with the Labour Party. The VVD was founded in 1948 as a continuation of the Freedom Party, which was a continuation of the interbellum Liberal State Party and they were joined by the Comité-Oud, a group of liberal members of the Labour Party, led by Pieter Oud. The liberals within the Labour Party were primarily members of the pre-war social-liberal Free-thinking Democratic League and they were unhappy with the social-democratic orientation of the Labour Party. Between 1948 and 1952 the VVD took part in the cabinets led by the Labour Party Prime Minister Willem Drees.
The party was a partner with only eight seats to the Catholic Peoples Party and Labour Party. The partys leadership was in the hands of the respected former Labour Party member Oud, the Drees cabinet laid the foundation for the welfare state and decolonization of the Dutch East Indies. In the Dutch general election of 1952 the VVD gained one seat and this time they gained nineteen seats and the party entered government alongside the Protestant Anti Revolutionary Party, Christian Historical Union CHU and the Roman Catholic KVP. In 1963, Oud left politics, and was succeeded by the minister of Home Affairs Edzo Toxopeus, with the lead of Toxopeus VVD lost three seats in the 1963 elections, but remained in government. In 1966, frustrated with their hopeless efforts, LDC-members departed the VVD altogether, in 1965, there occurred a conflict between VVD-ministers and their counterparts from KVP and ARP in Cabinet Marijnen. The cabinet fell and without elections it was replaced by the KVP-ARP-Labour Party cabinet under Cals, in the following 1967 elections the VVD remained relatively stable and entered yet again the cabinet under Prime Minister Piet de Jong.
During this period the VVD had loose ties with other liberal organisations and this included the liberal papers Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant and the Algemeen Handelsblad, the broadcaster AVRO and the employers organisation VNO. In the Dutch general election of 1971 the VVD lost one seat, a cabinet was formed by the Christian-democratic parties, the VVD and the Labour Party offshoot Democratic Socialists 70. This cabinet fell after a few months, the charismatic young MP Hans Wiegel had attracted considerable attention. He became the new leader of the VVD, in 1971 he became the new Parliamentary group leader, with Wiegel the VVD oriented towards a new political course, reforming the welfare state, cutting taxes etc. Wiegel did not shrink from conflict with the Labour Party and the trade unions, with this new course came a new electorate, working class and middle-class voters, who because of individualization and depillarization were more easy to attract
House of Representatives (Netherlands)
The House of Representatives is the lower house of the bicameral parliament of the Netherlands, the States General, the other one being the Senate. It has 150 seats which are filled through elections using a party-list proportional representation and it sits in the Binnenhof in The Hague. Although this body is called the House of Representatives in English, this is not a translation of its Dutch name. Rather than representatives, members of the House are referred to as Tweede Kamerlid, the House of Representatives is the main chamber of parliament, where discussion of proposed legislation and review of the actions of the cabinet takes place. Both the Cabinet and the House of Representatives itself have the right to propose legislation, review of the actions of the cabinet takes the form of formal interrogations, which may result in motions urging the cabinet to take, or refrain from, certain actions. No individual may be a member of parliament and cabinet, except in a caretaker cabinet that has not yet been succeeded when a new House is sworn in.
The House of Representatives is responsible for the first round of selection for judges to the Supreme Court of the Netherlands and it submits a list of three names for every vacant position to the Government. Furthermore, it elects the Dutch Ombudsman and his subsidiaries, the normal term of the House of Representatives is four years. Anybody eligible to vote in the Netherlands has the right to establish a political party, parties wanting to take part must register 43 days before the elections, supplying a nationwide list of at most 50 candidates. The candidate lists are placed in the hands of the voters at least 14 days before the election, each candidate list is numbered, with the person in the first position known as the lijsttrekker. The lijsttrekker is usually appointed by the party to lead its election campaign, two or more parties can agree to combine their separate lists, which increases the chance of winning a remainder seat. Only large parties usually have some regional candidates at the bottom of their lists, a single vote can be placed on any one candidate.
Many voters select one of the lijsttrekkers, but alternatively a preference vote may be made for a lower down the list. Once the election results are known, the seats are allocated to the parties, the number of valid national votes cast is divided by 150, the number of seats available, to give a threshold for each seat, 1/150th is approximately 0. 67% of the valid votes. Each partys number of votes is divided by this threshold to give a number of seats. Any party that received fewer votes than the threshold fails to gain representation in the House of Representatives, the threshold is one of the lowest for national parliaments in the world, and there are usually multiple parties winning seats with 2% or less of the vote. Any party that received more than 75% of the threshold will have its deposit refunded, after the initial seats are allocated, the remainder seats are allocated using the DHondt method of largest averages. This system slightly favours the larger parties, list combinations compete for the remainder seats as one list of the combined size of all parties in the combination, thus having more chance to gain remainder seats
Norbert Klein (politician)
Norbert Pieter Marie Klein is a Dutch politician. As a member of 50PLUS he was an MP between 20 September 2012 and 23 March 2017 and he left 50PLUS in 2014 and continued as an independent. In 2006, he left the VVD, in 2005, he was chairman ad int of Dutch public broadcasting association AVRO. Klein was born in Hengelo and studied law at Radboud University Nijmegen
The Latin phrase ad interim means in the meantime or temporarily. A diplomatic officer who acts in place of an ambassador is called chargé daffaires ad interim, examples from classic literature, The abbreviation a. i. is used in job titles