Lieutenant-Colonel Désiré Rakotoarijaona is a Malagasy politician, Prime Minister of Madagascar from 1 August 1977 to 12 February 1988, under President Didier Ratsiraka. Rakotoarijaona was replaced by Victor Ramahatra. Rakotoarijaona ran in the November 1996 presidential election but finished in last place out of 15 candidates with 0.37% of the vote
Andry Nirina Rajoelina is a Malagasy politician and the current president of Madagascar. He started his career in the private sector, first organizing events on the Island, investing the advertising business and the media, he was the Mayor of Antananarivo from December 2007 to February 2009, President of the High Transitional Authority of Madagascar from 21 March 2009 to 25 January 2014, up until the general elections were held in 2013. After stepping down as President of the HAT, he remained head of the majority party, the MAPAR. After winning the 2018 presidential election, he was inaugurated on 19 January 2019. Andry Rajoelina was born on 30 May 1974 to a wealthy family in Antsirabe, his father, now-retired Colonel Roger Yves Rajoelina, held dual nationality and fought for the French army in the Algerian War. Although his family could afford a college education for their son, Andry Rajoelina opted to discontinue his studies after completing his baccalauréat to launch a career as an entrepreneur.
In 1994, Rajoelina met his future spouse Mialy Razakandisa, completing her senior year at a high school in Antananarivo. The couple courted long-distance for six years while Mialy completed her undergraduate and masters studies in finance and accounting in Paris, their marriage produced two boys and Ilonstoa, a daughter born in 2007 that the couple named Andrialy, a contraction of their own names. In 1993, at the age of 19, Rajoelina established his first enterprise: a small event production company called Show Business. In the following year, he organized an annual concert called Live that brought together foreign and Malagasy musical artists; the event gathered 50,000 participants on its tenth anniversary. In 1999, he launched Injet, the first digital printing technology company available on the island, which gained quick traction with its expansion of billboard advertising throughout the capital. Following his marriage in 2000, Andry and Mialy Rajoelina acquired Domapub, a competing Antananarivo-based billboard advertising business owned by Andry's in-laws.
The couple worked together to manage the family businesses, with Andry responsible for Injet and his wife handling the affairs of Domapub. In May 2007, Andry Rajoelina purchased the Ravinala television and radio stations, renamed them Viva TV and Viva FM. In 2007, Rajoelina created and led the political association Tanora malaGasy Vonona, meaning "determined Malagasy youth", shortly afterward announced his candidacy to run for Mayor of Antananarivo, his young age became a lever to gain a quick popularity throughout the nation. Rajoelina was elected on 12 December 2007 with 63.3% of the vote on a 55% voter turnout, beating TIM party incumbent Hery Rafalimanana. The first conflicts between Andry Rajoelina and president Ravalomanana date back to 2003, when the government required the removal of Antananarivo's first Trivision advertising panels, which Rajoelina had installed at a major roundabout in the capital. Upon taking office, the city's treasury had a debt of 8.2 billion Malagasy Ariary. On 4 January 2008, due to unpaid debts to the Jirama, the city of Antananarivo was hit by a general water cutoff, brownouts of the city's street lights.
After an audit, it was found that the Jirama owned about the same amount of money to the City Hall, the sanction on the city's population was retrieved. In November and December 2008, grumbles grew bigger against the government when two scandals made international headlines: The July 2008 deal with Daewoo Logistics to lease half the island's arable land for South Korean cultivation of corn and palm oil, the November 2008 purchase of a second presidential jet, a Boeing 737, at a cost of 60 million U. S. dollars, which led the World Bank and the IMF to suspend $35 million worth of financial support to the Island. On 13 December 2008, the Government closed Andry Rajoelina's Viva TV, stating that a Viva interview with exiled former head of state Didier Ratsiraka was "likely to disturb peace and security". Within a week Rajoelina met with twenty of Madagascar's most prominent opposition leaders, referred to in the press as the "Club of 20", to develop a joint statement demanding that the Ravalomanana administration improve its adherence to democratic principles.
Rajoelina promised to dedicate a politically open public space in the capital which he would call Place de la Démocratie. Beginning in January 2009, Andry Rajoelina led a series of political rallies in downtown Antananarivo. On 13 January, he launched an ultimatum to the government to restore Viva TV. A week the transmission failure message of Viva TV was changed by a background picture of Andry Rajoelina, which led the authorities to seize the channel's transistor manu militari. On 17 January Andry Rajoelina gathered 30,000 supporters at a public park which he renamed Place de la Démocratie to defy the public executive power of Ravalomanana At a rally on 31 January 2009, Rajoelina announced that he was in charge of the country's affairs, declaring: "Since the president and the government have not assumed their responsibilities, I therefore proclaim that I will run all national affairs as of today." He added that a request for President Ravalomanana to formally resign would shortly be filed with the Parliament of Madagascar.
This self-declaration of power discredited Rajoelina's democratic aims, the number of attendees at subsequent rallies declined, averaging around 3,000 to 5,000 participants. On 3 February, the Ministry of Domestic Affairs dismissed
The Merina Kingdom, or Kingdom of Madagascar the Kingdom of Imerina was a pre-colonial state off the coast of Southeast Africa that, by the 19th century, dominated most of what is now Madagascar. It spread outward from Imerina, the Central Highlands region inhabited by the Merina ethnic group with a spiritual capital at Ambohimanga and a political capital 24 kilometres west at Antananarivo the seat of government for the modern state of Madagascar; the Merina kings and queens who ruled over greater Madagascar in the 19th century were the descendants of a long line of hereditary Merina royalty originating with Andriamanelo, traditionally credited with founding Imerina in 1540. Madagascar's central highlands were first inhabited between 200 BCE–300 CE by the island's earliest settlers, the Vazimba, who appear to have arrived by pirogue from southeastern Borneo to establish simple villages in the island's dense forests. By the 15th century the Hova people from the southeastern coast had migrated into the central highlands where they established hilltop villages interspersed among the existing Vazimba settlements, which were ruled by local kings and queens.
The two peoples are known to have intermarried. In this way, a reigning Vazimba queen married, their oldest son, broke this tradition by launching a successful war to subjugate the surrounding Vazimba communities and force them to either submit to Hova dominance and assimilate, or flee. Andriamanelo was succeeded by his son Ralambo, whose many enduring and significant political and cultural achievements earned him a heroic and near mythical status among the greatest ancient sovereigns of Merina history. Ralambo was the first to assign the name of Imerina to the central highland territories where he ruled. Ralambo expanded and defended the Kingdom of Imerina through a combination of diplomacy and successful military action aided by the procurement of the first firearms in Imerina by way of trade with kingdoms on the coast. Imposing a capitation tax for the first time, he was able to establish the first standing Merina royal army and established units of blacksmiths and silversmiths to equip them.
He famously repelled an attempted invasion by an army of the powerful western coastal Betsimisaraka people. According to oral history, the wild zebu cattle that roamed the Highlands were first domesticated for food in Imerina under the reign of Ralambo, he introduced the practice and design of cattle pen construction, as well as the traditional ceremony of the fandroana, to celebrate his culinary discovery. Upon succeeding his father, Andrianjaka led a successful military campaign to capture the final major Vazimba stronghold in the highlands on the hill of Analamanga. There he established the fortified compound that would form the heart of his new capital city of Antananarivo. Upon his orders, the first structures within this fortified compound were constructed: several traditional royal houses were built, plans for a series of royal tombs were designed; these buildings took on an enduring political and spiritual significance, ensuring their preservation until being destroyed by fire in 1995.
Andrianjaka obtained a sizable cache of firearms and gunpowder, materials that helped to establish and preserve his dominance and expand his rule over greater Imerina. Political life on the island from the 16th century was characterised by sporadic conflict between the Merina and Sakalava kingdoms, originating with Sakalava slave-hunting incursions into Imerina. King Andriamasinavalona quartered the kingdom to be ruled by his four favourite sons, producing persistent fragmentation and warfare between principalities in Imerina, he extended the borders of the kingdom to their largest historical extent prior to the kingdom's fragmentation. It was from this context in 1787 that Prince Ramboasalama, nephew of King Andrianjafy of Ambohimanga expelled his uncle and took the throne under the name Andrianampoinimerina; the new king used both diplomacy and force to reunite Imerina with the intent to bring all of Madagascar under his rule. This objective was completed under his son, Radama I, the first to admit and engage European missionaries and diplomats in Antananarivo.
The 33-year reign of Queen Ranavalona I, the widow of Radama I, was characterised by a struggle to preserve the cultural isolation of Madagascar from modernity as represented by the French and British. Her son and heir, King Radama II, signed the unpopular Lambert Charter giving French entrepreneur Joseph-François Lambert exclusive rights to many of the island's resources, his liberal policies angered the aristocracy and Prime Minister Rainivoninahitriniony had the King strangled in a coup d'état. This aristocratic revolution saw Rasoherina, the queen dowager, placed on the throne upon her acceptance of a constitutional monarchy that gave greater power to the Prime Minister, she replaced the incumbent Prime Minister with his brother, who retained the role for three decades and married each successive queen. The next sovereign, Ranavalona II, converted the nation to Christianity and had all the sampy burnt in a public display; the last Merina sovereign, Queen Ranavalona III, acceded the throne at age 22 and was exiled to Réunion Island and French Algeria following French colonisation of the island in 1896.
Angry at the cancellation of the Lambert Charter and se
Colonel Richard Ratsimandrava was President of Madagascar for six days in February 1975. His assassination in 1975 led to a civil war, he was born in 1931 and was a Merina with a less "aristocratic" background and thus was more palatable to the population. A graduate of the French Saint Cyr military college, Ratsimandrava served throughout French Africa before returning to Madagascar when that country gained independence in 1960, he joined the army, attaining the rank of lieutenant-colonel by 1968. In 1972 President Gabriel Ramanantsoa established a military government to replace the independence government of Philibert Tsiranana, Ratsimandrava was appointed Minister of the Interior. In this position, he was able to manipulate the army, which led to the ousting of Ramanantsoa on February 5, 1975. Six days following his taking office, Ratsimandrava was assassinated at 8 p.m. while driving from the presidential palace to his home. His death was announced by the new ruling military committee, it claimed that the President had been killed by members of the Republican Security Forces, a counterinsurgency outfit dissolved by his predecessor.
The event nearly plunged the country into civil war between supporters of the military government and former President Tsiranana. In 2006, on the 31st anniversary of colonel's murder, a conference was held in Madagascar. L'assassinat du prιsident Ratsimandrava, Le Journal La Croix. Preview of newspaper article on assassination of Ratsimandrava Biography - in Malagasy. - Photo of Ratsimandrava
Philibert Tsiranana was a Malagasy politician and leader, who served as the first President of Madagascar from 1959 to 1972. During the twelve years of his administration, the Republic of Madagascar experienced institutional stability that stood in contrast to the political turmoil many mainland African countries experienced in this period; this stability contributed to his reputation as a remarkable statesman. Madagascar experienced moderate economic growth under his moderately socialist policies and came to be known as "the Happy Island." However, the electoral process was fraught with issues and his term terminated in a series of farmer and student protests that brought about the end of the First Republic and the establishment of the socialist Second Republic. The "benevolent schoolmaster" public image that Tsiranana cultivated disguised intense firmness that tended toward authoritarianism. Nonetheless, he remains an esteemed Malagasy political figure remembered throughout the country as its "Father of Independence."
According to his official biography, Tsiranana was born on 18 October 1912 in Ambarikorano, Sofia Region, in northeastern Madagascar. Born to Madiomanana and Fisadoha Tsiranana, Catholic cattle ranchers from the Tsimihety ethnic group, Philibert was destined to become a cattle rancher himself. However, following the death of his father in 1923, Tsiranana's brother, suggested that he attend a primary school in Anjiamangirana. A brilliant student, Tsiranana was admitted into the Analalava regional school in 1926, where he graduated with a brevet des collèges. In 1930, he enrolled in the Le Myre de Vilers normal school in Tananarive, named after former resident-general of Madagascar Charles Le Myre de Vilers, where he entered the "Section Normale" program, preparing him for a career teaching in primary schools. After completing his studies, he started a teaching career in his hometown. In 1942, he began receiving instruction in Tananarive for middle school teaching and in 1945, he succeeded in the teacher assistant competitive examinations, allowing him to serve as a professor in a regional school.
In 1946, he obtained a scholarship to the École normale d'instituteurs in Montpellier, where he worked as a teacher assistant. He left Madagascar on 6 November. In 1943, Philibert Tsiranana joined the professional teachers' union and in 1944 entered the General Confederation of Labor. With the end of World War II and the creation of the French Union by the Fourth Republic, the colonial society of Madagascar experienced a liberalization; the colonized peoples now had the right to be politically organized. Tsiranana joined the Group of Student Communists of Madagascar in January 1946, on the advice of his mentor Paul Ralaivoavy, he assumed the role of treasurer. The GEC enabled him to meet future leaders of the PADESM, which he became a founding member of in June 1946; the PADESM was a political organization composed of Mainty and Tanindrana from the coastal region. The PADESM came about as a result of the holding of the French constituent elections of 1945 and 1946. For the first time, the people of Madagascar were allowed to participate in French elections, with electing settlers and indigenous people to the French National Assembly.
To ensure that they won one of the two seats allotted to native people of Madagascar, the inhabitants of the coastal region made an agreement with the Mouvement démocratique de la rénovation malgache, controlled by the Merina of the uplands. The coastal people agreed to seek the election of Paul Ralaivoavy in the west, while leaving the east to the Merina candidate, Joseph Ravoahangy; this agreement was not honoured and the Merina Joseph Raseta won the second seat in October 1945 and June 1946. Concerned about the possible return of "Merina control," the coastal people founded PADESM in order to counter the nationalist goals of the MDRM and oppose Malagasy independence - a position justified by Tsiranana in 1968: If had occurred in 1946, there would have been a civil war at once because the coastal people would not have accepted it. Given the intellectual level of the period, they would have remained petty village chiefs, subjugated, not to say slaves, since the gap between the people of the coast and the people of the uplands was enormous.
In July 1946, Tsiranana refused the post of secretary general of PADESM on account of his impending departure for the École normale de Montpellier. Tsiranana had become known for his contributions to PADESM's journal Voromahery, authored under the pseudonym "Tsimihety"; as a result of his journey to France, Tsiranana escaped the Malagasy Uprising of 1947 and its bloody suppression. Moved by the events, Tsiranana participated in an anti-colonial protest in Montpellier on 21 February 1949, although not a supporter of independence. During his time in France, Tsiranana became conscious of the bias towards the Malagasy elite in education, he found. In his view, there could never be a free union between all Malagasy while a cultural gap remained between the coastal people and the people of the highlands. To remedy this gap, he established two organisations in Madagascar: the Association of Coastal Malagasy Students in August 1949, the Cultural Association of Coastal Malagasy Intellectuals in September 1951.
These organisations were held against him. On his return to Madagascar in 1950, Tsiranana was appointed professor of technical education at the École industrielle in Tananarive in the highlands. There he taught mathematics, but he wa
Prime Minister of Madagascar
This is a list of Prime Ministers of Madagascar, since the establishment of the office of Chief Minister in 1828, during the Merina Kingdom. Political parties Other factions Status Madagascar Politics of Madagascar List of Imerina monarchs List of colonial heads of Madagascar List of Presidents of Madagascar Lists of Incumbents World Statesmen – Madagascar
Gabriel Ramanantsoa was the President and Prime Minister of Madagascar from 1972 to 1975. Ramanantsoa was a member of the Merina ethnic group, came from a wealthy family, he was a career officer in the French army. After Madagascar became independent, he joined the Madagascar military, rising to the rank of Major General. In May 1972, amidst massive political protests, he became prime minister of the country, President Philibert Tsiranana vested him with full executive powers. Tsiranana resigned altogether on October 11, 1972 following a referendum that approved a five-year transition period under military leadership, Ramanantsoa became president as well, he tried to start political reconciliation. His government was nearly overthrown in December 1974. On February 5, 1975 he resigned amidst social class tensions, his nephew, Bernard Ramanantsoa, served as Dean of French top business school HEC Paris from 1996 to 2015