The Labrador Peninsula is a large peninsula in eastern Canada. It is bounded by the Hudson Bay to the west, the Hudson Strait to the north, the Labrador Sea to the east, the Gulf of Saint Lawrence to the southeast; the peninsula includes the region of Labrador, part of the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, the regions of Saguenay–Lac-Saint-Jean, Côte-Nord, Nord-du-Québec, which are in the province of Quebec. It has an area of 1,400,000 km2; the peninsula is surrounded by sea on all sides except for the southwest where it widens into the general continental mainland. The northwestern part of the Labrador Peninsula is shaped as a lesser peninsula, the Ungava Peninsula, surrounded by Hudson Bay, the Hudson Strait, Ungava Bay; the northernmost point of the Ungava Peninsula, Cape Wolstenholme serves as the northernmost point of the Labrador Peninsula and of the province of Quebec. The peninsula is a plateau threaded by river valleys. There are several mountain ranges; the Torngat Mountains, located in the northern part of the peninsula, contain the highest point of the peninsula Mount Caubvick, which at 1,652 metres is the highest point of mainland Canada east of Alberta.
The mountains host Torngat Mountains National Park, the only national park of Canada on the Labrador Peninsula. The park is located in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, whereas the adjacent Kuururjuaq National Park is located in the province of Quebec. Due to it being covered entirely by the Canadian Shield - a vast, rocky plateau with a history of glaciation - the peninsula has a large number of lakes; the province of Quebec alone has more than half a million lakes of varying size. The largest body of water on the Labrador Peninsula is the Smallwood Reservoir, but the largest natural lake is Lake Mistassini. Other lakes of note include the Manicouagan Reservoir, the Caniapiscau Reservoir, the La Grande 2 and La Grande 3 reservoirs. Due to a history of hydroelectic development, the majority of the larger freshwater lakes on the peninsula are reservoirs. In addition to an abundance of lakes, the peninsula has many rivers; the longest, the La Grande River, is 900 kilometres long and flows westwards across nearly half the peninsula.
Other rivers of note include the Eastmain River, Rupert River, Churchill River Prior to European arrival, the peninsula was inhabited chiefly by Cree people, as well as the Innu people in the Southeast area of the peninsula, who referred to their land as Nitassinan, meaning "our land" in the Innu language. The area was known as Markland in Greenlandic Norse and its inhabitants were known as skrælingjar, it is accepted that the peninsula is named after Portuguese explorer João Fernandes Lavrador. He was granted a patent by King Manuel I of Portugal in 1499 which gave him the right to explore that part of the Atlantic Ocean as set out in the Treaty of Tordesillas. Together with Pêro de Barcelos, he first sighted Labrador in 1498. Fernandes charted the coasts of Southwestern Greenland and of adjacent Northeastern North America around 1498 and gave notice of them in Portugal and Europe, his landowner status allowed him to use the title lavrador, Portuguese for "farmer" or "landholder", while "labrador" in Spanish and Galician means "agricultural worker"..
Fernandes gave the name of Terra do Lavrador to Greenland, the first land he sighted, but the name was spread to all areas and was set for Labrador
The Canadian Shield called the Laurentian Plateau, or Bouclier canadien, is a large area of exposed Precambrian igneous and high-grade metamorphic rocks that forms the ancient geological core of the North American continent. Composed of igneous rock resulting from its long volcanic history, the area is covered by a thin layer of soil. With a deep, joined bedrock region in eastern and central Canada, it stretches north from the Great Lakes to the Arctic Ocean, covering over half of Canada. Human population is sparse, industrial development is minimal, while mining is prevalent; the Canadian Shield is a physiographic division, consisting of five smaller physiographic provinces: the Laurentian Upland, Kazan Region, Davis and James. The shield extends into the United States as the Superior Upland; the Canadian Shield is U-shaped and is a subsection of the Laurentia craton signifying the area of greatest glacial impact creating the thin soils. The Canadian Shield is more than 3.96 billion years old.
The Canadian Shield once had jagged peaks, higher than any of today's mountains, but millions of years of erosion have changed these mountains to rolling hills. The Canadian Shield is a collage of Archean plates and accreted juvenile arc terranes and sedimentary basins of the Proterozoic Eon that were progressively amalgamated during the interval 2.45 to 1.24 Ga, with the most substantial growth period occurring during the Trans-Hudson orogeny, between ca. 1.90 to 1.80 Ga. The Canadian Shield was the first part of North America to be permanently elevated above sea level and has remained wholly untouched by successive encroachments of the sea upon the continent, it is the Earth's greatest area of exposed Archean rock. The metamorphic base rocks are from the Precambrian and have been uplifted and eroded. Today it consists of an area of low relief 300 to 610 m above sea level with a few monadnocks and low mountain ranges eroded from the plateau during the Cenozoic Era. During the Pleistocene Epoch, continental ice sheets depressed the land surface creating Hudson Bay, scooped out thousands of lake basins, carried away much of the region's soil.
When the Greenland section is included, the Shield is circular, bounded on the northeast by the northeast edge of Greenland, with Hudson Bay in the middle. It covers much of Greenland, most of Quebec north of the St. Lawrence River, much of Ontario including northern sections of the Ontario Peninsula, the Adirondack Mountains of New York, the northernmost part of Lower Michigan and all of Upper Michigan, northern Wisconsin, northeastern Minnesota, the central/northern portions of Manitoba away from Hudson Bay, northern Saskatchewan, a small portion of northeastern Alberta, the mainland northern Canadian territories to the east of a line extended north from the Saskatchewan/Alberta border. In total, the exposed area of the Shield covers 8,000,000 km2; the true extent of the Shield is greater still and stretches from the Western Cordillera in the west to the Appalachians in the east and as far south as Texas, but these regions are overlaid with much younger rocks and sediment. The Canadian Shield is with regions dating from 2.5 to 4.2 billion years.
The multitude of rivers and lakes in the entire region is caused by the watersheds of the area being so young and in a state of sorting themselves out with the added effect of post-glacial rebound. The Shield was an area of large tall mountains with much volcanic activity, but over hundreds of millions of years, the area has been eroded to its current topographic appearance of low relief, it has some of the oldest volcanoes on the planet. It has over 150 volcanic belts; each belt grew by the coalescence of accumulations erupted from numerous vents, making the tally of volcanoes reach the hundreds. Many of Canada's major ore deposits are associated with Precambrian volcanoes; the Sturgeon Lake Caldera in Kenora District, Ontario, is one of the world's best preserved mineralized Neoarchean caldera complexes, 2.7 billion years old. The Canadian Shield contains the Mackenzie dike swarm, the largest dike swarm known on Earth. Mountains float on the denser mantle much like an iceberg at sea; as mountains erode, their roots are eroded in turn.
The rocks that now form the surface of the Shield were once far below the Earth's surface. The high pressures and temperatures at those depths provided ideal conditions for mineralization. Although these mountains are now eroded, many large mountains still exist in Canada's far north called the Arctic Cordillera; this is a vast dissected mountain range, stretching from northernmost Ellesmere Island to the northernmost tip of Labrador. The range's highest peak is Nunavut's Barbeau Peak at 2,616 metres above sea level. Precambrian rock is the major component of the bedrock; the North American craton is the bedrock forming the heart of the North American continent and the Canadian Shield is the largest exposed part of the craton's bedrock. The Canadian Shield is part of an ancient continent called Arctica, formed about 2.5 billion years ago during the Neoarchean era. It was s
Jamésie is a territory equivalent to a regional county municipality of Nord-du-Québec, Canada. Its geographical code is 991 and together with Kativik TE and Eeyou Istchee TE it forms the administrative région and census division of Nord-du-Québec It is located to the east of James Bay, after which the territory is named, it has a land area of 283,955 km2, or larger than the U. S. state of Arizona) and a 2016 population of 13,941 inhabitants. Chibougamau is the largest community in Nord-du-Québec; the original 2006 census land area was reduced by about 1.74 percent and the population was reduced by 47.25 percent by the creation and departure of the Eeyou Istchee TE in 2007. Further administration changes came under the terms of the Agreement on Governance in the Eeyou Istchee James Bay Territory of July 24, 2012, when the local municipality of Baie-James within Jamésie ceased to exist, was replaced by the local municipality of Eeyou Istchee James Bay Territory, specialized local municipality governed and managed jointly by the Cree of Eeyou Istchee TE and the non-Cree of Jamésie TE.
The TE of Jamésie consists of: the municipality of Eeyou Istchee James Bay Territory. Regional maps of municipal and RCM/TE boundaries from the Ministère des Affaires municipales et des Régions Map of Baie-James / Jamésie Website of the Eeyou Istchee James Bay Regional Government Grand Council of the Crees Cree Tourism
James Bay Road
The James Bay Road is a remote wilderness highway winding its way through the Canadian Shield in northwestern Quebec and reaches into the James Bay region. It ends at Radisson; the road is paved, well maintained, plowed during the winter. It was constructed to carry loads of 300 tons, has gentle curves and hills with wide shoulders; the road is maintained by the Eeyou Istchee James Bay Regional Government. Connecting to other routes such as the Trans-Taiga Road and the Route du Nord, the highway draws tourists interested in reaching the remote wilderness surrounding James Bay, part of Hudson Bay. There is a proposal supported by the region's Cree communities to build a gravel extension some 250 kilometres further north to the twin communities on the Great Whale River - the Cree village of Whapmagoostui and the northern village of Kuujjuarapik, in the Nunavik region; the James Bay Road was conceived as an access road for the hydroelectric projects developed in the James Bay region in the 1970s and onwards.
Construction began in 1971 and was completed in October, 1974. Gravel branch routes have since been built from the highway, including four roads west to Cree villages on or near James Bay; the Trans-Taiga Road was built and reached Caniapiscau in 1979. The 406 kilometres long Route du Nord, not a numbered route, connects from km 275 southeast to near Chibougamau, Quebec. There are no services and development along the full length of the James Bay Road, except for a full-service station at 381 kilometres from Matagami; the station at Km 381 is operational 24 hours per day, 7 days per week, is complete with cafeteria and rudimentary lodging. In view of the remote nature of this road, there is a registration office along the side of the road for travellers to register just a few kilometers north from Matagami, it is staffed 24 hours per 7 days per week. This office serves as a tourist office for all communities along or off the James Bay Road; as further safety provisions, there are six roadside emergency telephones which connect with staff in the registration office.
List of Quebec provincial highways James Bay Road unofficial website Article on proposed extension to Great Whale
Hudson Strait links the Atlantic Ocean and Labrador Sea to Hudson Bay in Canada. This strait lies between Baffin Island and Nunavik, with its eastern entrance marked by Cape Chidley in Newfoundland and Labrador and Resolution Island off Baffin Island; the strait is about 750 km long with an average width of 125 km, varying from 70 km at the eastern entrance to 240 km at Deception Bay. English navigator Sir Martin Frobisher was the first European to report entering the strait, in 1578, he named a tidal rip at the entrance the Furious Overfall and called the strait Mistaken Strait, since he felt it held less promise as an entrance to the Northwest Passage than the body of water, named Frobisher Bay. John Davis sailed by the entrance to the strait during his voyage of 1587; the first European to explore the strait was George Weymouth who sailed 300 nautical miles beyond the Furious Overfall in 1602. The strait was named after Henry Hudson who explored it in 1610 in the ship Discovery, the same ship used by George Weymouth in 1602.
Hudson was followed by Thomas Button in 1612, a more detailed mapping expedition led by Robert Bylot and William Baffin in 1616. Hudson Strait links the northern seaports of Ontario with the Atlantic Ocean; the Strait could serve as an eastern entrance to the Northwest Passage if it were not for ice in the Fury and Hecla Strait south of western Baffin Island. The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Hudson Strait as follows: On the West. A line from Nuvuk Point to Leyson Point, thence by the Eastern shore of Southampton Island to Seahorse Point, its Eastern extreme, thence a line to Lloyd Point Baffin Island. On the North; the South coast of Baffin Island between Lloyd Point and East Bluff. On the East. A line from East Bluff, the Southeast extreme of Baffin Island, to Point Meridian, the Western extreme of Lower Savage Islands, along the coast to its Southwestern extreme and thence a line across to the Western extreme of Resolution Island, through its Southwestern shore to Hatton Headland, its Southern point, thence a line to Cape Chidley, Labrador.
On the South. The mainland between Cape Chidley and Nuvuk Point
Chapais is a community in the Canadian province of Quebec, located on Route 113 near Chibougamau in the Jamésie region. It is surrounded by, but not a part of, the municipality of Baie-James; the community was first settled in 1929, when prospector Léo Springer discovered deposits of copper and gold in the area, was incorporated as a city in 1955. It was named for Thomas Chapais. Opémisca Copper Mines operated the community's mine until 1991. More with the closure of the mines the community's primary industry has been forestry, the community opened the first cogeneration plant in Quebec to produce electricity from the sawmill's waste matter. On the night of January 1, 1980, at 1:30 a.m. 48 people lost their lives when a fire destroyed the Opémiska Community Hall. Fifty others were rushed to Chibougamau hospital; this fire was the worst to occur in Quebec for more than 40 years. The fire started in wreaths of dried branches and other Christmas decorations, the ensuing chaos that followed blocked access to the main entrance.
Several people managed to escape in time. Chapais had a population of 1,610 in the Canada 2011 Census. A crater on Mars is named after this community. Population: Population in 2006: 1610 2006 to 2011 population change: -1.2% Population in 2006: 1630 Population in 2001: 1795 Population in 1996: 2030 Population in 1991: 2391Private dwellings occupied by usual residents: 674 Mother tongue: English as first language: 0.6% French as first language: 94% English and French as first language: 0% Other as first language: 5.4% Chapais has a marginal subarctic climate just a shade colder than the humid continental areas to the south. Winters are bitterly cold, but summers are warm during daytime, but nights remain cool; as such the yearly mean is just above freezing. Summers have high rainfall and winters are quite snowy. Ville de Chapais
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000