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Chamber pressure

Chamber pressure is the pressure exerted by a cartridge case's outside walls on the inside of a firearm's chamber when the cartridge is fired. It is expressed in pounds per square inch or copper units of pressure; when the firing pin in a firearm strikes the primer, it ignites the powder inside the case, creating an explosion that generates a large amount of pressure exceeding 50,000 PSI. This pressure in turn pushes the bullet out into the barrel. During this explosion, the brass walls of the cartridge expand and seal against the inner walls of the chamber; this expansion is what creates chamber pressure, or the amount of force applied to the inside of the chamber by the case. For all commercially available cartridges, the Sporting Arms and Ammunition Manufacturer's Institute publish the maximum safe chamber pressures. There are 3 basic methods for measuring chamber pressure: Using a copper crusher The Piezo method Attaching a strain gauge to the barrel forward of the chamber Through the mid-1960s, the most common way of measuring pressure was drilling a hole through the chamber of the barrel and inserting a copper slug that fit flush with the chamber walls.

When a cartridge is fired, it compresses the copper slug. It is removed and compared to the original dimensions. Using the known properties of copper, the chamber pressure can be calculated and expressed in copper units of pressure. While there are now more accurate methods of measuring chamber pressure, the copper crusher method is still used for verification purposes. Developed in the late 1960s the most common method of measuring chamber pressure is the Piezo method, it is similar to the copper crusher method where a hole is drilled into the chamber, but rather than a copper slug a quartz crystal transducer is inserted and attached to sensitive measuring equipment. This method yields more accurate readings than the copper crusher, is more cost efficient due to the fact that the transducer can be reused; the strain gauge method is the least accurate method of measuring chamber pressure using equipment, but has the advantage of being the least expensive and requires no permanent modifications to the firearm.

A strain gauge is attached to the barrel just forward of the chamber. Upon firing, the barrel stretches and this stretch is measured by the gauge; this method is reserved as a way of comparing different cartridge loads as the strain gauge reading is not as accurate as a copper crusher or Piezo test. The force, not exerted on the chamber walls is used to push the bullet down the barrel; because the volume of the case is small, the pressure closest to the chamber will be higher than at any other point in the barrel. Compared to the temperature of the powder being burned, a small amount of energy and heat is transferred from the powder in the barrel to the barrel walls. Therefore, the entire process can be considered an adiabatic process, or no heat is lost during the rapid expansion of the gases. Thus, the ideal gas law can be used to express the difference in pressure as the bullet travels along the barrel:P1V1=P2V2 or P2=P1V1/V2 where: P1 is the initial pressure P2 is the pressure acting against the tail of the bullet at a given point V1 is the internal case capacity, or volume of the loaded cartridge V2 is the internal case capacity plus the volume of the barrel from the chamber to the bulletLooking at this thermodynamic equation, it can be seen that the amount of pressure acting upon the bullet decreases at it travels down the barrel, or as the volume of the explosion increases.

The part of the barrel, subject to the highest pressures is the throat, or the point closest to the chamber at which the bullet engages the rifling. Because of this, the rifling at the throat will erode faster than the rest of the barrel. Several measures can be taken to decrease the rate of throat erosion due to pressure, some of which can be achieved by handloading. If a bullet is seated further out it will increase the internal volume of the case. By examining the ideal gas law, PV=nRT, it can be seen that by increasing the case volume, the pressure inside the case is reduced; this in turn reduces the amount of force exerted upon the throat. If the amount of powder is decreased, the explosion inside the case will be smaller and will result in less pressure

Spa Resort Hawaiians

Spa Resort Hawaiians, located in the city of Iwaki, Fukushima Prefecture, is a resort and theme park in Japan. It opened on January 15, 1966 as the Joban Hawaiian Center, becoming the first in the country; the resort was an outgrowth of the mining industry. The modern coal mining in the Joban coal field was started on the exposed areas of the coal field near the foot of the Abukuma mountains in 1883. By 1944 the Joban Mine had become Japan's largest mine due, in no small part, to the use of forced labour by Allied Prisoners of War; the Joban Tanko continued to flourish throughout the 1950s but as Japan's economy shifted from being powered by coal to oil in the 1960s, the owners realized that the mine's useful life was limited. Yutaka Nakamura, the vice president, was determined to extend the mine's life somehow, hit upon the idea of using the area's hot springs, an inconvenience to the mines, to open a resort, he selected a Hawaiian theme. One of the Resort's most well-known features is its dance troupe.

Rather than inviting an outside troupe to perform, the company decided to create its own, trained 18 employees' daughters. In the close-knit mining community, entire families would work at the Resort. Nakamura intentionally kept the hotel small at the beginning, so the local ryokan would benefit from the increased business, purchased as much as possible from local suppliers, its popularity reached its peak in 1970 -- 71. In 1989, Joban Hawaiian Center received the Deming Application Prize, becoming the first leisure-industry company to win this quality control award. In 1990, it changed its name to Spa Resort Hawaiians, reflecting an increased focus on the spa facilities. In 2004, it was the tenth most popular theme park in Japan, with 1.5 million visitors. The 2006 film Hula Girls was based on the story of the founding of the resort; the resort was forced to close. While it was closed, its hula girls troupe toured Japan performing at earthquake refugee shelters and other venues; the resort reopened on 8 February 2012 with increased structural support and bigger stage for its hula girls show.

Iwaki city lost 277 people from tsunami. Being farther from the sea, Spa Resort Hawaiians was not damaged by the initial quake and tsunami of March 11 but suffered damage from the aftershock a month later. More damaging still for the Joban Hawaiian Centre were the reactor explosions at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant, which made many people reluctant to visit the resort due to the fear of radiation; this triggered the memory of the owner of the Joban Hawaiian Centre, Mr. Saitou who accompanied the first Hula Girls all over Japan to promote the centre, he says. Mr. Satou has decided to revive tour of Hula Girls after 45 years to cheer people still living in shelters and to aid Fukushima's recovery. Ex Iwaki Hula Girls are part of the project, they have decided to hold Japan Hula "high school" Girls Competition in Osaka. After the quake, this project seemed to have fallen through but 13 high schools competed and moreover, they ran a campaign to raise funds for the event. Earthquake repairs and renovations were completed in early 2012 and Spa Resort Hawaiians reopened on February 8, 2012.

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Francis Kilvert

Robert Francis Kilvert, known as Francis or Frank, was an English clergyman whose diaries reflected rural life in the 1870s, were published over fifty years after his death. Kilvert was born on 3 December 1840 at The Rectory, Hardenhuish Lane, near Chippenham, Wiltshire, to the Rev. Robert Kilvert, rector of Langley Burrell and Thermuthis, daughter of Walter Coleman and Thermuthis Ashe, he was educated in Bath by his uncle, Francis Kilvert, before going up to Wadham College, Oxford. He entered the Church of England and became a rural curate, working in the Welsh Marches between Hereford and Hay on Wye. From 1863 to 1864, he was curate to his father at Langley Burrell, in 1865 he became curate of Clyro, Radnorshire. There on 1 January 1870 he started a diary from which it appears that he basked in his life within the Welsh countryside writing several pages describing his surroundings and the parishioners that he visited. In late 1871 he fell in love with Frances Eleanor Jane Thomas, the youngest daughter of the vicar of Llanigon, a parish not far from Clyro, asked her father for permission to marry her.

Because of Kilvert's position as a lowly curate, Frances' father looked unfavourably on the request and refused it. After receiving this rejection Kilvert wrote in his diary that "The sun seemed to have gone out of the sky". Shortly after this, in 1872, Kilvert resigned his position as curate of Clyro, left the village, returning to his father's parish of Langley Burrell. From 1876 to 1877 he was vicar of St Harmon and from 1877 to his death in 1879 he was vicar of Bredwardine, Herefordshire. In August 1879 he married Elizabeth Ann Rowland, whom he had met on a visit to Paris, but he died a few days after returning from his honeymoon in Scotland from peritonitis, aged 38, was buried at Bredwardine. Kilvert is best known as the author of voluminous diaries describing rural life. After his death, his diaries were edited and censored by his widow, they were passed on to William Plomer who transcribed the remaining diaries and edited and published a three-volume selection Selections from the Diary of the Rev. Francis Kilvert, a one-volume selection Kilvert's Diary, 1870–1879.

Published just before and during World War II, the first editions of the diaries were well received by the public when, in a period of bombing and rationing they provided an escapism back to the simpler and happier times of the mid Victorian era, still just within living memory. A different selection from Plomer's abridgemant was published as Journal of a Country Curate: Selections from the Diary of Francis Kilvert by The Folio Society in 1960. In 1992 a new selection was published under the editorship of David Lockwood, the Victorian: A New Selection from Kilvert's Diaries. Out of print since 1970, the three-volume indexed edition was reprinted in 2006 by O'Donoghue Books. In the 1950s, whilst Plomer was contemplating further publication of the remaining journals, it was found that the majority of the surviving diaries had been destroyed by their owner; this had occurred during a clear out of various personal papers, prior to moving into a residential care home. When confronted by this information Plomer was said to have recalled he "could have strangled her with his bare hands."

Only the three volumes listed below survived. Plomer's own transcription was destroyed by fire in the Blitz. Despite Kilvert's niece's actions she was a Vice-President, an avid member of the Kilvert Society for many years up until her death in 1964. Francis Kilvert published pleasant but conventional poetry, republished by the Kilvert Society in Collected verse: 3rd December 1840 - 23rd September 1879 by the Reverend Francis Kilvert in 1968; the Cornish Diary: Journal No.4, 1870—From 19 July to 6 August, Cornwall was published by Alison Hodge in 1989. The National Library of Wales, which holds two of the three surviving volumes, published The Diary of Francis Kilvert: April–June 1870 in 1982 and The Diary of Francis Kilvert: June–July 1870 in 1989. A new edition of the abridged 1944 Diary was published in 2019 by Vintage Classics to celebrate the 150th anniversary of Kilvert starting his diary, which falls in January 2020, it includes a discovered photograph of Kilvert and a new introduction by Mark Bostridge.

Kilvert was an enthusiast for public bathing in the nude, which he regarded as healthy. The first entry in Kilvert's diaries in which he records his naked bathing was for 4 September 1872, at Weston-super-Mare, he writes: "Bathing in the morning before breakfast from a machine. Many people were stripping on the sands a little further on and running down into the sea and I would have done the same but I had brought down no towels of my own". However, next day Kilvert joins in the fun: "I was out early before breakfast this morning bathing from the sands. There was a delicious feeling of freedom in stripping in the open air and running down naked to the sea where the waves were curling white with foam and the red morning sunshine glowing upon the naked limbs of the bathers". Several modern writers have commented on passages in the diaries describing interactions with young girls which these days might raise suspicions of paedophilia. A John Betjeman documentary on Kilvert, Vicar of this Parish, was shown on BBC tele

Francis Howell North High School

Francis Howell North High School is a secondary school located in St. Charles, Missouri; the school's mascot is Norm the knight. After Francis Howell High School alone could no longer support the burgeoning population of its part of St. Charles County in 1983, Henderson Junior High School was built on Hackmann Road on the border of the cities of St. Charles and St. Peters. Henderson was expanded and the name was changed to Francis Howell North High School and began taking high school students in 1986. A third high school was built in 1997; the school is named after the early settler and militia leader Col. Francis Howell, who moved to St. Charles in 1797, his brother, Lewis Howell, was an advocate for education in the area. The Francis Howell North Knights are home to a few official athletic team State Championships, including: the 1991 wrestling team, 1995 Varsity girls soccer team, 3 State titles in hockey; the high school's newspaper, The North Star, has earned many national awards. The Knightpride Marching Band, Concert Band, Jazz Band have competed on a national level, as has the Francis Howell North Speech/Debate team.

Brandon Bollig – professional ice hockey player for the San Jose Sharks, Calgary Flames and the Chicago Blackhawks Mark Buehrle – professional baseball player for the Toronto Blue Jays and the Chicago White Sox Rob Wort – professional baseball player in the Washington Nationals minor league system. Official website

The Blueskins

The Blueskins were a four-piece band who were based in Gawthorpe, near Wakefield, West Yorkshire. The band was formed after Spendlove and Brown met at music college in 1999. After college they drafted in school friends Smith and Townsend. In 2003 considerable interest in the band resulted in an influx of A&R men to Gawthorpe and a signing to Domino Records. Three singles, an EP and an album followed, the band embarked on a tour of Europe and the United States, recording in Mississippi with record producer, Dennis Herring. In 2005 a change of direction saw Smith and Townsend leave the band and that year, the remaining two founder members brought in the Russian former tennis professional Andrei Nosov on guitar and Welsh student Tom Bailey on five-string bass guitar to replace them; the new members brought with them a range of new influences including native Siberian music and dance-inspired indie. The band spent much of 2006 showcasing it to fans across the country. In the summer their 2003 single "Change My Mind" was featured on a television advertisement for Lynx shower gel.

It generated considerable interest in the single. Despite the interest from fans, the band's record label did not push the single and it received limited airplay. Finding themselves unable to market the band, choosing to concentrate on their more commercial signings, Domino Records parted company with The Blueskins, leaving them on the lookout for a new label; the band spent the latter months of 2006 writing new material. At the end of the year they played a small gig in their local pub in Gawthorpe, inviting friends to take to the stage and perform with them. After writing new tunes and touring the UK for two years with the new line-up, they decided to disband in April 2008. Following the split, Ryan Spendlove, The singer and frontman of The Blueskins decided to go solo and formed his own style of acoustic Blues/Folk. In January 2011 he signed a record deal with Candyrat Records in the United States where he recorded his first solo album in 3 days titled "Fable", released on 5 April 2011. Ryan Spendlove – lead vocals, guitar Andrei Nosov – guitar, backing vocals Tom Bailey – bass, backing vocals Paul Brownpercussion Matthew Smith - bass Ritchie Townend - guitar Word of Mouth Magic Road EP "User Friendly" "Change My Mind" / "I Wanna Know" - UK #56 "Stupid Ones" - UK #61 "Change My Mind" Official website Official Myspace page