Olidan Hydroelectric Power Station
Olidan Power Station is a hydroelectric power station located in Trollhättan, Sweden. First opened in 1910, it was the first large scale attempt at generating electricity from water in Sweden; the construction of Olidan led to the founding of the Kungliga Vattenfallsstyrelsen, which became Vattenfall. While the first four turbines were put into service in 1910, construction continued, another four were put into operation by 1914. Due to increasing demand, as well as increasing capacity due to the regulation of Göta älv, another five were built. By 1921, Olidan carried a total of 13 turbines. 10 of these are still functioning. However, it is rare for more than three to be generating at the one time; each turbine has a capacity of 10 MW. When Olidan were completed in 1924, planning began for Hojum Power Station, which came into service in 1938. Vattenfall
Żerań Power Station
Żerań Heat Power Station is a coal-fired heat power station in Białołęka, Poland. Built between 1952 and 1956 to Soviet design specifications – with the first turbine becoming operational on 21 July 1954 – it underwent modernisation in the years 1997-2001 when it was taken over by Vattenfall, it is now owned by PGNiG. The station has a heat generation capacity of 1,561 MW and an electric generation capacity of 350 MW. Żerań Heat Power Station has three flue gas stacks: the tallest of which stands at 200 metres whilst the other two both reach a height of 110 metres
Vattenfall is a Swedish power company, wholly owned by the Swedish state. Beyond Sweden, the company generates power in Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom; the company's name is Swedish for "waterfall", is an abbreviation of its original name, Royal Waterfall Board. Vattenfall was founded in 1909 as a state-owned enterprise in Sweden. From its founding until the mid-1970s, Vattenfall's business was restricted to Sweden, with a focus on hydroelectric power generation. Only in 1974 did the company begin to build nuclear reactors in Sweden owning seven of Sweden's 12 reactors. In 1992, Vattenfall was reformed as the limited liability company Vattenfall AB. In the years 1990 through 2009, Vattenfall expanded acquiring stakes in Hämeen Sähkö, HEW, the Polish heat production company EW, Elsam A/S, Nuon. In 2002 Vattenfall AB and its acquisitions were incorporated as Vattenfall Europe AG, making it the third-largest electricity producer in Germany. Following the expansion period, Vattenfall started to divest parts of its business in Denmark and Poland during the years following 2009 in a strategy to focus on three core markets: Sweden and Germany.
Write-downs on coal-fired and nuclear power plant assets in Germany and gas power plants in the Netherlands were necessary in a difficult market environment with increasing renewable energy market share and due to the German Nuclear power phase-out decision of 2011. In summer 2013 Vattenfall announced a writedown off the value of its assets by 29.7 billion SEK. A major part of these write-offs were attributed to Nuon Energy NV, a Netherlands-based utility that Vattenfall purchased at a 89 billion SEK price in 2009, but whose values was depreciating by 15 billion SEK since; the gloomy market outlook of decreasing power prices in combination with increasing risks notably on the continental market prompted the board to revise the group strategy by splitting its organizational structure into a Nordic part and a part with operations in continental Europe and the United Kingdom as of 2014. Some analysts have perceived this strategic review as a precursor to a partial retreat from continental European activities with a shift of focus towards activities in the Scandinavian market.
In this context and in response to a local referendum on re-municipilization of distribution grids, Vattenfall agreed on the sale of company-owned electricity and district-heat grids in Hamburg to the City of Hamburg in early 2014. In each of the second quarters of 2015 and 2016, Vattenfall filed impairments of SEK 28 billion due to lignite power stations in Germany. Operational financials were satisfactory. In 2017, Vattenfall reported a profit of SEK 9,571 billion with an operating profit of SEK 18,644 billion. Outside of Sweden, Vattenfall is known for forcing the Soviet government to publicly reveal the Chernobyl disaster; the Kremlin had tried to cover up the accident for a day, but elevated radiation levels at Vattenfall's Forsmark Nuclear Power Plant forced the Kremlin to admit the accident had occurred. In 2006, Vattenfall began production of the pilot carbon capture and storage plant at Schwarze Pumpe, Germany. In 2007, the Lillgrund Wind Farm off the southern coast of Sweden was commissioned and began delivering electricity.
Vattenfall has power generation branches in Sweden, the Netherlands, United Kingdom, Finland. As of 2017, Vattenfall generates electricity from fossil fuels, nuclear power, wind power and "other sources"; some of Vattenfall's most notable power generation plants include the 110 MW Lillgrund Wind Farm off the coast of Malmö, the world's largest offshore wind farm at Thanet, UK, the nuclear reactors Brunsbüttel Nuclear Power Plant, Krümmel Nuclear Power Plant, Brokdorf Nuclear Power Plant in Germany, the Forsmark Nuclear Power Plant and Ringhals Nuclear Power Plant in Sweden. The nuclear power stations of Brunsbüttel and Krümmel have been shut down permanently in response to a governmental order in summer 2011 after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster. Vattenfall operates biomass and other power plants in Germany and the Netherlands and Denmark; until 2016, Vattenfall owned lignite and hard coal-fired power stations, including the Jänschwalde Power Station, the Boxberg Power Station, the Lippendorf Power Station and the Schwarze Pumpe Power Station.
In 2014, Vattenfall had a lignite turnover of €2.3 billion and a profit of €647 million, but lost money on lignite as power prices decreased from 40 to 20 €/MWh. On 30 September 2016, Vattenfall completed the sale of its German lignite facilities to the Czech energy group EPH and its financial partner PPF Investments. In January 2016 Vattenfall announced that its Swedish nuclear power plants, including the newer reactors, were operating at a loss due to low electricity prices and Sweden's nuclear output tax, it warned that if it was forced to shut the plants down, there would be serious consequences to Sweden's electricity supply, argued that the nuclear output tax should be scrapped. In October 2016 Vattenfall began litigation against the German government for its 2011 decision to accelerate the phase-out of nuclear power
Barsebäck Nuclear Power Plant
Barsebäck is a decommissioned boiling water nuclear power plant situated in Barsebäck, Kävlinge Municipality, Skåne, Sweden. Located 20 kilometers from the Danish capital, the Danish government pressed for its closure during the entirety of its operating lifetime; as a result of a now former Swedish nuclear power phase-out, its two reactors have been closed down. The first reactor, Barsebäck 1, was closed November 30, 1999, the second, Barsebäck 2, ceased operations May 31, 2005. At the time of closure, each reactor had a net capacity of 600 megawatts. Unit 1 supplied 93,8 TWh and unit 2 108 TWh to the electrical grid. Land for the plant was bought in 1965 by the energy company Sydkraft, the first of the two BWR reactors was ordered from Asea-Atom in 1969. Unit one first attained criticality on January 18, 1975 and commercial operation began on May 15; the second reactor attained criticality on March 21, 1977 and commercial operation began on July 1. Following a decision in the Riksdag in 1997, the Government of Sweden decided that the first reactor was to close July 1, 1998, the second July 1, 2001.
Due to the operator's appeal of the decision and lack of emission-free replacement, the closure was postponed. The demolition of the facility will await the construction of a storage facility, scheduled to be ready in the 2020s. In December 2018 a strategy was outlined for the "radiological demolition" to be carried out between 2020 and 2028; this will allow the land to be used for other nuclear power related purposes. The plant is operated by Barsebäck Kraft AB, a subsidiary of Sydkraft Nuclear Power AB, owned by Uniper. Home page
Thanet Wind Farm
The Thanet Wind Farm is an offshore wind farm 7 miles off the coast of Thanet district in Kent, England. On commissioning it was the world's largest offshore wind farm, it has it cost £ 780 -- 900 million. Thanet is one of fifteen Round 2 wind projects announced by the Crown Estate in January 2004 but the first to be developed, it was opened on 23 September 2010, when it overtook Horns Rev 2 as the biggest offshore wind farm in the world. It has since been overtaken by many others; the project covers an area of 13.5 square miles, with 500 metres between turbines and 800 metres between the rows. Average water depth is 14–23 metres. Planning permission for the project was granted on 18 December 2006. According to Thanet Offshore Wind Ltd, it was expected to be "the largest operational offshore wind farm in the World"; the Thanet project has a total capacity of 300 MW which, by yearly average, is sufficient to supply 240,000 homes. It has an estimated generation of 960 GW·h per year of electricity, i.e. a projected capacity factor of 36.5% and an average power density of 3.1 W/m².
In 2012, the yearly production achieved was 821.68 GW·h, i.e. a capacity factor of 31.3%. Two submarine power cables run from an offshore substation within the wind farm connecting to an existing onshore substation in Richborough, connecting to a world-first two transformers; the offshore substation steps up the turbine voltage of 33 kV to 132 kV for the grid. Maintenance of the turbines is carried out by Vestas, while a separate maintenance agreement with SLP Energy covers the turbines foundations. Turbines are installed by the Danish offshore wind farm services provider A2SEA; the TIV MPI Resolution installed the turbines. The Thanet scheme is project financed. Thanet Offshore Wind Ltd, the project company was owned by hedge fund Robb & Co.. It was purchased from a group of sponsors led by Warwick Energy Ltd. In August 2008 Christofferson, Robb & Co placed the project back on the market. On 10 November 2008, Vattenfall, a Swedish energy company, acquired TOW; the development was due to be in place by 2008.
Vestas were chosen as the preferred turbine supplier in July 2006, SLP were chosen as the preferred supplier for the foundations in September 2006. The project was delayed by a number of issues including problems with Vestas who temporarily withdrew their V90 offshore model from the market in 2007 following gearbox problems; the V90-3MW was re-released for sales starting from May 2008. Vattenfall acquired the project in November 2008. On 28 June 2010, they reported that all turbines had been installed for commissioning due by the end of 2010; the wind farm was completed in September 2010. Since turbine construction makes up the majority of the project cost and the UK has no capacity, much of the work was contracted to foreign companies, resulting in only 20% of the investment going to British firms. There have been calls for the creation of a domestic wind industry. An article by climate change sceptic and intelligent design supporter Christopher Booker criticised the subsidy given to develop the project and drew attention to the capacity factor of wind farms.
As of December 2017, Thanet's lifetime capacity factor has been 32.6%. In June 2010, the Crown Estate announced that Thanet wind farm could be extended to produce an additional 147 MW. However, in October 2010, Vattenfall stated; as of 2017 Vattenfall is working at the option for an extension London Array Wind power in the United Kingdom List of offshore wind farms List of offshore wind farms in the United Kingdom List of offshore wind farms in the North Sea A video about the inauguration of Thanet offshore wind farm Vattenfall UK: Thanet Offshore Wind Farm A video by Vattenfall showing turbine assembly process LORC: Datasheet for Thanet Offshore Wind Farm
Denmark the Kingdom of Denmark, is a Nordic country and the southernmost of the Scandinavian nations. Denmark lies southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, is bordered to the south by Germany; the Kingdom of Denmark comprises two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean: the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Denmark proper consists of a peninsula, an archipelago of 443 named islands, with the largest being Zealand and the North Jutlandic Island; the islands are characterised by flat, arable land and sandy coasts, low elevation and a temperate climate. Denmark has a total area of 42,924 km2, land area of 42,394 km2, the total area including Greenland and the Faroe Islands is 2,210,579 km2, a population of 5.8 million. The unified kingdom of Denmark emerged in the 10th century as a proficient seafaring nation in the struggle for control of the Baltic Sea. Denmark and Norway were ruled together under one sovereign ruler in the Kalmar Union, established in 1397 and ending with Swedish secession in 1523.
The areas of Denmark and Norway remained under the same monarch until Denmark -- Norway. Beginning in the 17th century, there were several devastating wars with the Swedish Empire, ending with large cessions of territory to Sweden. After the Napoleonic Wars, Norway was ceded to Sweden, while Denmark kept the Faroe Islands and Iceland. In the 19th century there was a surge of nationalist movements, which were defeated in the 1864 Second Schleswig War. Denmark remained neutral during World War I. In April 1940, a German invasion saw brief military skirmishes while the Danish resistance movement was active from 1943 until the German surrender in May 1945. An industrialised exporter of agricultural produce in the second half of the 19th century, Denmark introduced social and labour-market reforms in the early 20th century that created the basis for the present welfare state model with a developed mixed economy; the Constitution of Denmark was signed on 5 June 1849, ending the absolute monarchy, which had begun in 1660.
It establishes a constitutional monarchy organised as a parliamentary democracy. The government and national parliament are seated in Copenhagen, the nation's capital, largest city, main commercial centre. Denmark exercises hegemonic influence in the Danish Realm, devolving powers to handle internal affairs. Home rule was established in the Faroe Islands in 1948. Denmark negotiated certain opt-outs, it is among the founding members of NATO, the Nordic Council, the OECD, OSCE, the United Nations. Denmark is considered to be one of the most economically and developed countries in the world. Danes enjoy a high standard of living and the country ranks in some metrics of national performance, including education, health care, protection of civil liberties, democratic governance and human development; the country ranks as having the world's highest social mobility, a high level of income equality, is among the countries with the lowest perceived levels of corruption in the world, the eleventh-most developed in the world, has one of the world's highest per capita incomes, one of the world's highest personal income tax rates.
The etymology of the word Denmark, the relationship between Danes and Denmark and the unifying of Denmark as one kingdom, is a subject which attracts debate. This is centered on the prefix "Dan" and whether it refers to the Dani or a historical person Dan and the exact meaning of the -"mark" ending. Most handbooks derive the first part of the word, the name of the people, from a word meaning "flat land", related to German Tenne "threshing floor", English den "cave"; the -mark is believed to mean woodland or borderland, with probable references to the border forests in south Schleswig. The first recorded use of the word Danmark within Denmark itself is found on the two Jelling stones, which are runestones believed to have been erected by Gorm the Old and Harald Bluetooth; the larger stone of the two is popularly cited as Denmark's "baptismal certificate", though both use the word "Denmark", in the form of accusative ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚢᚱᚴ tanmaurk on the large stone, genitive ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚱᚴᛅᚱ "tanmarkar" on the small stone.
The inhabitants of Denmark are there called "Danes", in the accusative. The earliest archaeological findings in Denmark date back to the Eem interglacial period from 130,000–110,000 BC. Denmark has been inhabited since around 12,500 BC and agriculture has been evident since 3900 BC; the Nordic Bronze Age in Denmark was marked by burial mounds, which left an abundance of findings including lurs and the Sun Chariot. During the Pre-Roman Iron Age, native groups began migrating south, the first tribal Danes came to the country between the Pre-Roman and the Germanic Iron Age, in the Roman Iron Age; the Roman provinces maintained trade routes and relations with native tribes in Denmark, Roman coins have been found in Denmark. Evidence of strong Celtic cultural influence dates from this period in Denmark and much of North-West Europe and is among other things reflected in the finding of the Gundestrup cauldron; the tribal Danes came from the east Danish islands and Scania and spoke an early form of North Germanic.
Historians believe that before their arrival, most of Jutland and the nearest islands were settled by tribal J
Schwarze Pumpe power station
Schwarze Pumpe power station is a modern lignite-fired power station in the "Schwarze Pumpe" district in Spremberg, Germany consisting of 2 × 800 megawatts units. It was built by Siemens; the power station was sold by Vattenfall to the Czech energy group EPH and its financial partner PPF Investments on 30 September 2016. The steam generator has an observation deck on its top. Construction started on 26 May 2006 in the Schwarze Pumpe industrial area, on the oxy-fuel combustion process carbon capture and storage pilot plant. With a thermal power of 30 MW, the plant burned coal with nitrogen-free exhaust; the idea was that the resulting carbon dioxide would be liquefied. It would be put into geologic formations and stored so as not to contribute to global warming. Aim of the plant is not to produce electricity but steam, used by nearby industry. Vattenfall stopped carbon capture R&D at the plant in 2014 because they found "its costs and the energy it requires makes the technology unviable"; the facility was meant to serve as a prototype for larger power plants.
Back in 2005 environmentalists criticized the facility. In their opinion a greater impact on the reduction of global warming could have been obtained for the same money through investments in more on renewable energies, efficient power production and use. On 13–15 May 2016, 3,500–4,000 environmental activists blocked the open-pit coal mine and the Schwarze Pumpe power station to limit climate change; this protest was known as Ende Gelände 2016. On 14 May 2016 Vattenvall reported that environmental campaigners tried to force the power plant to shut down by occupying the coal transport railway tracks into the plant. 120 people were arrested. 2,000 climate activists occupied different areas of the nearby mine Welzow-Süd and the rails of the coal transport trains in order to stop the fuel supply to the power plant Schwarze Pumpe and thereby enforce a stop of plant operation. Media related to Schwarze Pumpe power station at Wikimedia Commons