Laksevåg is a borough of the city of Bergen in Hordaland county, Norway. The borough is located in the western part of the municipality; the area was called Laxevaag, it was a separate municipality until 1972 when it was merged into Bergen. The borough of Laksevåg has residential areas on the hillside of the mountain Damsgårdsfjellet facing the Puddefjorden. By the fjord itself are several industrial buildings, many of them connected with the maritime industry; the rococo-style Damsgård Manor is located in the borough. Like the neighboring borough of Fyllingsdalen, many of the neighborhoods of Laksevåg consist of apartment buildings in the area around the main service centre, the Vestkanten shopping centre; the main road to Sotra passes through the Loddefjord area in western Laksevåg. The municipality of Laksevåg was established on 1 July 1918 when it was separated from the municipality of Askøy. On 1 January 1972, the municipalities surrounding the city of Bergen were merged with the city to form a large new municipality of Bergen.
The municipalities involved in the merger were Arna, Laksevåg and Åsane. Since the merger, the area is now the borough of the city of Bergen, with similar borders to those of the old municipality. After it was merged with Bergen, the former municipality was split into two boroughs: Laksevåg, which consisted of neighborhoods south of Puddefjorden separating it from the city centre, Loddefjord, consisting of neighborhoods further west, closer to the islands of Sotra. In 2000, the boroughs were merged forming the borough of Laksevåg; the mountain Gravdalsfjellet peaks at 351 metres in elevation. The borough of Laksevåg includes the villages and neighborhoods: Alvøen, Bjørndal, Godvik, Hetlevik, Håkonshella, Kjøkkelvik, Loddefjorddalen, Mathopen and Vadmyra. Alvøen Mansion – Historic building constructed in the 1790s, reconstruction in 1830. Opened as a museum in 1983 Damsgård Manor – Historic manor house and estate Gravdal Manor – Historic Gravdal manor house military command headquarters Kvarven Fort – Coastal defense built to protect the local port and naval installations Lyderhorn – One of the seven mountains surrounding Bergen Damsgård Mountain – One of the seven mountains surrounding Bergen Fossen, Kjell.
Laksevågs historie. Bergen. ISBN 8271280783. Frichsen, Sigurd. Sånn va' det. Folket, kirken og fergen. Laksevåg. ISBN 8299559308. Frichsen, Sigurd. Laksevåg forteller. Sånn va' det II. Laksevåg. ISBN 8299559316. Hellesund, Kristian. Årbok for Laksevåg 2002. Olsvik. ISBN 8299653002. Lyngvi, Arne. Bomber over Laksevåg: 4. Oktober 1944 og tiden som fulgte. Bergen. ISBN 8279160086
Bergen Bjørgvin, is a city and municipality in Hordaland on the west coast of Norway. At the end of the first quarter of 2018, the municipality's population was 280,216, the Bergen metropolitan region has about 420,000 inhabitants. Bergen is the second-largest city in Norway; the municipality is on the peninsula of Bergenshalvøyen. The city centre and northern neighbourhoods are on Byfjorden,'the city fjord', the city is surrounded by mountains. Many of the extra-municipal suburbs are on islands. Bergen is the administrative centre of Hordaland, consists of eight boroughs: Arna, Fana, Laksevåg, Ytrebygda, Årstad, Åsane. Trading in Bergen may have started as early as the 1020s. According to tradition, the city was founded in 1070 by king Olav Kyrre and was named Bjørgvin,'the green meadow among the mountains', it served as Norway's capital in the 13th century, from the end of the 13th century became a bureau city of the Hanseatic League. Until 1789, Bergen enjoyed exclusive rights to mediate trade between Northern Norway and abroad and it was the largest city in Norway until the 1830s when it was overtaken by the capital, Christiania.
What remains of the quays, Bryggen, is a World Heritage Site. The city was hit by numerous fires over the years; the Bergen School of Meteorology was developed at the Geophysical Institute starting in 1917, the Norwegian School of Economics was founded in 1936, the University of Bergen in 1946. From 1831 to 1972, Bergen was its own county. In 1972 the municipality absorbed four surrounding municipalities and became a part of Hordaland county; the city is an international center for aquaculture, the offshore petroleum industry and subsea technology, a national centre for higher education, media and finance. Bergen Port is Norway's busiest in terms of both freight and passengers, with over 300 cruise ship calls a year bringing nearly a half a million passengers to Bergen, a number that has doubled in 10 years. Half of the passengers are German or British; the city's main football team is SK Brann and a unique tradition of the city is the buekorps. Natives speak a distinct dialect, known as'Bergensk'.
The city features Bergen Airport and Bergen Light Rail, is the terminus of the Bergen Line. Four large bridges connect Bergen to its suburban municipalities. Bergen has a mild winter climate, though with a lot of precipitation. From December to March, Bergen can be, in rare cases, up to 30°C warmer than Oslo though both cities are at about 60° North; the Gulf Stream keeps the sea warm, considering the latitude, the mountains protect the city from cold winds from the north, north-east and east. The city of Bergen was traditionally thought to have been founded by king Olav Kyrre, son of Harald Hardråde in 1070 AD, four years after the Viking Age in England ended with the Battle of Stamford Bridge. Modern research has, discovered that a trading settlement had been established in the 1020s or 1030s. Bergen assumed the function of capital of Norway in the early 13th century, as the first city where a rudimentary central administration was established; the city's cathedral was the site of the first royal coronation in Norway in the 1150s, continued to host royal coronations throughout the 13th century.
Bergenhus guards the entrance to the harbour in Bergen. The functions of the capital city were lost to Oslo during the reign of King Haakon V. In the middle of the 14th century, North German merchants, present in substantial numbers since the 13th century, founded one of the four Kontore of the Hanseatic League at Bryggen in Bergen; the principal export traded from Bergen was dried cod from the northern Norwegian coast, which started around 1100. The city was granted a monopoly for trade from the north of Norway by King Håkon Håkonsson. Stockfish was the main reason. By the late 14th century, Bergen had established itself as the centre of the trade in Norway; the Hanseatic merchants lived in their own separate quarter of the town, where Middle Low German was used, enjoying exclusive rights to trade with the northern fishermen who each summer sailed to Bergen. Today, Bryggen, is on UNESCO's list of World Heritage Sites. In 1349, the Black Death was brought to Norway by an English ship arriving in Bergen.
Outbreaks occurred in 1618, 1629 and 1637, on each occasion taking about 3,000 lives. In the 15th century, the city was attacked several times by the Victual Brothers, in 1429 they succeeded in burning the royal castle and much of the city. In 1665, the city's harbour was the site of the Battle of Vågen, when an English naval flotilla attacked a Dutch merchant and treasure fleet supported by the city's garrison. Accidental fires sometimes got out of control, one in 1702 reduced most of the town to ashes. Throughout the 15th and 16th centuries, Bergen remained one of the largest cities in Scandinavia, it was Norway's biggest city until the 1830s, when the capital city of Oslo became the largest. From around 1600, the Hanseatic dominance of the city's trade declined in favour of Norwegian merchants, in the 1750s, the Hanseatic Kontor closed. Bergen retained its monopoly of trade with northern Norway until 1789; the Bergen stock exchange, the Bergen børs, was established in 1813. Bergen was separated from Hordaland as a county of its own in 1831.
It was established as a municipality on 1 January 1838 (see formannskapsdis
Kronstad is a neighbourhood in the borough of Årstad in the city of Bergen in Hordaland county, Norway. It is located in the northern part of the borough, south of the large Store Lungegårdsvannet bay, east of the neighborhood of Solheim, north of Minde, west of Landås, west of Møllendal and Haukeland; the neighbourhood was named after the old Kronstad farm, known as "Hunstad". After the vicar of Bergen Cathedral purchased the farm in 1705, the name was changed to "Cronstad" which changed to Kronstad. Architect Ole Landmark designed several buildings in the area. One of his main works is the former cinema Forum Kino, a functionalist building from 1946; the municipality sold the building in 2006, it is no longer used as a cinema. In 2007, it was resold to the Christian television channel Visjon Norge, it has since been used for a number of purposes, including revival meetings and theatre performances. Other buildings by Landmark include "Clementsgaard", now the headquarters of Henschien Insurance, a villa inspired by the Rococo and Empire styles.
The former manor house Kronstad Hovedgård was built in the late 18th century. It was sold to consul Joachim Friele in 1840, who hired architect Ole Peter Riis Høegh to reconstruct the building; the expanded and altered building was inspired by the Empire style. The area has several churches. Årstad Church, a stone church from 1890, is one of Årstad borough's six Church of Norway churches, is located adjacent to the border with Bergenhus borough. The Seventh-day Adventist Church Adventkirken i Bergen is located far northeastern in Kronstad, just north of the road Danmarksplass; the oldest of the free churches in the area is Bergen Frikirke, established in 1899, which used a church building on the road Bjørnsons gate. That building is now used by Evangeliekirken, a Pentacostal church, while Bergen Frikirke uses a modern church building further south-west; the three faculties of the Bergen University College are co-located in a new campus built on the site of the old NSB depot in southern Kronstad, next to Kronstad station of the "bybanen" Bergen Light Rail system.
Many of the old depot buildings are integrated into the new campus, designed by the architect firms HLM Arkitektur og Plan and CUBO Arkitekter. The project was allotted funding in the government budget of 2008 for what would become one of the largest and most high-profile construction projects in the country, entailing relocation of around 1000 state employees. Construction began in 2010, was completed in 2015. Stage 1 of the Bergen Light Rail line will pass through Kronstad, one of the 15 stations of the initial stage will be located just south of the Bjørnsons gate/Inndalsveien intersection, it will be the seventh station from the northern terminus and the ninth station from the southern terminus at Nesttun. The rolling stock depot of the first stage will be located directly northeast of the station, adjacent to the railway line that, prior to the Ulriken Tunnel's opening in 1964, served the Bergen Line; the primary thoroughfare in the area is Ibsens gate, which runs from Haukelandsveien, just south of Haukeland University Hospital, to Danmarksplass, has an annual average daily traffic of 10,000-11,000 vehicles.
Bjørnsons gate runs from Fjøsangerveien, south of Danmarksplass. The western part of the road is part of Norwegian national road 582, which continues southwards to Minde as Inndalsveien; the construction of the Bergen Light Rail system brought with itself many changes to the local road system. Several roads were temporarily closed during part of the construction period, among them Ibsens gate, the main road to Haukeland University Hospital. Bjørnsons gate was converted into an eastwards one-way road between Inndalsveien. Inndalsveien was widened to make room for the Bergen Light Rail trackage. Jonas Lies vei a busy thoroughfare between Danmarksplass and the hospital, was closed at its western end. Kronstad Station
Norway the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe whose territory comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The Antarctic Peter I Island and the sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island are dependent territories and thus not considered part of the kingdom. Norway lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land. Norway has a total area of 385,207 square kilometres and a population of 5,312,300; the country shares a long eastern border with Sweden. Norway is bordered by Finland and Russia to the north-east, the Skagerrak strait to the south, with Denmark on the other side. Norway has an extensive coastline, facing the Barents Sea. Harald V of the House of Glücksburg is the current King of Norway. Erna Solberg has been prime minister since 2013. A unitary sovereign state with a constitutional monarchy, Norway divides state power between the parliament, the cabinet and the supreme court, as determined by the 1814 constitution; the kingdom was established in 872 as a merger of a large number of petty kingdoms and has existed continuously for 1,147 years.
From 1537 to 1814, Norway was a part of the Kingdom of Denmark-Norway, from 1814 to 1905, it was in a personal union with the Kingdom of Sweden. Norway was neutral during the First World War. Norway remained neutral until April 1940 when the country was invaded and occupied by Germany until the end of Second World War. Norway has both administrative and political subdivisions on two levels: counties and municipalities; the Sámi people have a certain amount of self-determination and influence over traditional territories through the Sámi Parliament and the Finnmark Act. Norway maintains close ties with both the United States. Norway is a founding member of the United Nations, NATO, the European Free Trade Association, the Council of Europe, the Antarctic Treaty, the Nordic Council. Norway maintains the Nordic welfare model with universal health care and a comprehensive social security system, its values are rooted in egalitarian ideals; the Norwegian state has large ownership positions in key industrial sectors, having extensive reserves of petroleum, natural gas, lumber and fresh water.
The petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of the country's gross domestic product. On a per-capita basis, Norway is the world's largest producer of oil and natural gas outside of the Middle East; the country has the fourth-highest per capita income in the world on the World IMF lists. On the CIA's GDP per capita list which includes autonomous territories and regions, Norway ranks as number eleven, it has the world's largest sovereign wealth fund, with a value of US$1 trillion. Norway has had the highest Human Development Index ranking in the world since 2009, a position held between 2001 and 2006, it had the highest inequality-adjusted ranking until 2018 when Iceland moved to the top of the list. Norway ranked first on the World Happiness Report for 2017 and ranks first on the OECD Better Life Index, the Index of Public Integrity, the Democracy Index. Norway has one of the lowest crime rates in the world. Norway has two official names: Norge in Noreg in Nynorsk; the English name Norway comes from the Old English word Norþweg mentioned in 880, meaning "northern way" or "way leading to the north", how the Anglo-Saxons referred to the coastline of Atlantic Norway similar to scientific consensus about the origin of the Norwegian language name.
The Anglo-Saxons of Britain referred to the kingdom of Norway in 880 as Norðmanna land. There is some disagreement about whether the native name of Norway had the same etymology as the English form. According to the traditional dominant view, the first component was norðr, a cognate of English north, so the full name was Norðr vegr, "the way northwards", referring to the sailing route along the Norwegian coast, contrasting with suðrvegar "southern way" for, austrvegr "eastern way" for the Baltic. In the translation of Orosius for Alfred, the name is Norðweg, while in younger Old English sources the ð is gone. In the 10th century many Norsemen settled in Northern France, according to the sagas, in the area, called Normandy from norðmann, although not a Norwegian possession. In France normanni or northmanni referred to people of Sweden or Denmark; until around 1800 inhabitants of Western Norway where referred to as nordmenn while inhabitants of Eastern Norway where referred to as austmenn. According to another theory, the first component was a word nór, meaning "narrow" or "northern", referring to the inner-archipelago sailing route through the land.
The interpretation as "northern", as reflected in the English and Latin forms of the name, would have been due to folk etymology. This latter view originated with philologist Niels Halvorsen Trønnes in 1847; the form Nore is still used in placenames such as the village of Nore and lake Norefjorden in Buskerud county, still has the same meaning. Among other arguments in favour of the theor
Hordaland is a county in Norway, bordering Sogn og Fjordane, Buskerud and Rogaland counties. Hordaland is the third largest county after Oslo by population; the county government is the Hordaland County Municipality, located in Bergen. Before 1972, the city of Bergen was its own separate county apart from Hordaland. Hordaland is the old name of the region, revived in 1919; the first element is the plural genitive case of the name of an old Germanic tribe. The last element is land; until 1919 the name of the county was Søndre Bergenhus amt which meant " southern Bergenhus amt". Hordaland's flag shows a crown in red; the flag is a banner of the coat of arms derived from the old seal of the guild of St. Olav from Onarheim in Tysnes municipality; this seal was used by the delegates of Sunnhordland in 1344 on the document to install king Haakon V of Norway. It was thus the oldest symbol used for the region and adapted as the arms and flag in 1961; the symbols refer to the patron saint of the guild, Saint Olav, King of Norway, whose symbol is an axe.
The coat-of-arms were granted on 1 December 1961. They were designed by Magnus Hardeland, but the general design had been used in the Sunnhordland region during the 14th century. In the early 20th century, leaders of the county began using the old arms as a symbol for the county once again; the arms are on a red background and consist of two golden axes that are crossed with a golden crown above them. Hordaland county has been around for more than one thousand years. Since the 7th century, the area was made up of many petty kingdoms under the Gulating and was known as Hordafylke since around the year 900. In the early 16th century, Norway was divided into four len; the Bergenhus len encompassed much of western and northern Norway. In 1662, the lens were replaced by amts. Bergenhus amt consisted of the present-day areas of Hordaland, Sogn og Fjordane, Sunnmøre and the far northern Nordlandene amt was subordinate to Bergenhus. In the 1680s, Nordlandene and Sunnmøre were split from Bergenhus. In 1763, the amt was divided into northern and southern parts: Nordre Bergenhus amt and Søndre Bergenhus amt.
When the amt was split, the present day municipality of Gulen was split with the southern part ending up in Søndre Bergenhus amt. In 1773, the border was re-drawn so. Søndre Bergenhus amt was renamed Hordaland fylke in 1919; the city of Bergen was classified as a city-county from 1831–1972. During that time in 1915, the municipality of Årstad was annexed into Bergen. In 1972, the neighboring municipalities of Arna, Laksevåg and Åsane were annexed into the city of Bergen. At that same time, the city of Bergen lost its county status, became a part of Hordaland county. A county is the chief local administrative area in Norway; the whole country is divided into 19 counties. A county is an election area, with popular votes taking place every 4 years. In Hordaland, the government of the county is the Hordaland County Municipality, it includes. Heading the Fylkesting is the county mayor. Since 2015, the Hordaland county municipality has been led by the county mayor; the county has a County Governor, the representative of the King and Government of Norway.
Lars Sponheim is the current County Governor of Hordaland. The municipalities in Hordaland are divided among four district courts: Nordhordland, Sunnhordland and Hardanger. Hordaland is part of the Gulating Court of Appeal district based in Bergen. Nordhordland District Court: Askøy, Austrheim, Fjell, Lindås, Meland, Modalen, Os, Osterøy, Radøy, Sund, Voss, Øygarden, Gulen Sunnhordland District Court: Bømlo, Fitjar, Stord and Tysnes Bergen District Court: the city of Bergen Hardanger District Court: Eidfjord, Jondal, Odda and UlvikMost of the municipalities in Hordaland are part of the Hordaland police district. Gulen and Solund in Sogn og Fjordane county are part of the Hordaland police district. Bømlo, Fitjar and Sveio are a part of the "Haugaland and Sunnhordland" police district, along with eight other municipalities in Rogaland county. Hordaland is semi-circular in shape, it is located on the western coast of Norway, split from southwest to northeast by the long, deep Hardangerfjorden, one of Norway's main fjords and a great tourist attraction.
About half of the National park of Hardangervidda is in this county. The county includes many well-known waterfalls, such as Vøringsfossen and Stykkjedalsfossen, it includes the Folgefonna and Hardangerjøkulen glaciers. More than 60 % of the inhabitants live in the surrounding area. Other urban or semi-urban centres include Leirvik and Odda. In 1837, the counties were divided into local administrative units each with their own governments; the number and borders of these municipalities have changed over time, at present there are 33 municipalities in Hordaland. Hordaland is conventionally divided into traditional districts; the inland districts are Hardanger and Voss and the coastal districts are Sunnhordland and Nordhordland. Strilelandet is the colloquial name of a more informal region held to enc
Espeland is a village in the borough of Arna in Bergen, Norway. Espeland is located north of Mount Livarden; the village of Indre Arna lies about 4 kilometres to the north. As of January 1, 2008, the population of the Espeland urban area is 1,937; the urban area covers a land area of 2.14 square kilometres, has a population density of 905 per square kilometre. Espeland was the site of the Espeland concentration camp built under the direction of German occupational forces between 1942 and 1943