Medernach is a small town and former commune in eastern Luxembourg. It is part of the canton of Diekirch, part of the district of Diekirch; as of 2007, the township Medernach has a population of 1107. Since 2011, Medernach has merged with Ermsdorf to become the "Aerenzdallgemeng". Medernach is home to an aerodrome There is a monument commemorating the defense of the town by American soldiers during the winter of 1944-1945; the parish church, built in a neo-Romanesque style in 1806, has been a national monument since 2004. It houses the Baroque altar from the church of the Franciscan friars of Diekirch, dated 1712, as well as a series of the Stations of the Cross; every year, the local produce exhibition is the first weekend of September
Luxembourg known as Luxembourg City, is the capital city of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the country's most populous commune. Standing at the confluence of the Alzette and Pétrusse rivers in southern Luxembourg, the city lies at the heart of Western Europe, situated 213 km by road from Brussels, 372 km from Paris, 209 km from Cologne; the city contains Luxembourg Castle, established by the Franks in the Early Middle Ages, around which a settlement developed. As of January 2019, Luxembourg City had a population of 119,214, more than three times the population of the country's second most populous commune. In 2011, Luxembourg was ranked as having the second highest per capita GDP in the world at $80,119, with the city having developed into a banking and administrative centre. In the 2011 Mercer worldwide survey of 221 cities, Luxembourg was placed first for personal safety while it was ranked 19th for quality of living. Luxembourg is one of the de facto capitals of the European Union, as it is the seat of several institutions and bodies of the European Union, including the European Court of Justice, the European Court of Auditors, the Secretariat of the European Parliament, the European Investment Bank, the European Investment Fund, the European Stability Mechanism.
In the Roman era, a fortified tower guarded the crossing of two Roman roads that met at the site of Luxembourg city. Through an exchange treaty with the abbey of Saint Maximin in Trier in 963, Siegfried I of the Ardennes, a close relative of King Louis II of France and Emperor Otto the Great, acquired the feudal lands of Luxembourg. Siegfried built his castle, named Lucilinburhuc, on the Bock Fiels, mentioned for the first time in the aforementioned exchange treaty. In 987, Archbishop Egbert of Trier consecrated five altars in the Church of the Redemption. At a Roman road intersection near the church, a marketplace appeared around which the city developed; the city, because of its location and natural geography, has through history been a place of strategic military significance. The first fortifications were built as early as the 10th century. By the end of the 12th century, as the city expanded westward around the new St. Nicholas Church, new walls were built that included an area of 5 hectares.
In about 1340, under the reign of John the Blind, new fortifications were built that stood until 1867. In 1443, the Burgundians under Philip the Good conquered Luxembourg. Luxembourg became part of the Burgundian, Spanish and Austrian empires and under those Habsburg administrations Luxembourg Castle was strengthened so that by the 16th century, Luxembourg itself was one of the strongest fortifications in Europe. Subsequently, the Burgundians, the Spanish, the French, the Spanish again, the Austrians, the French again, the Prussians conquered Luxembourg. In the 17th century, the first casemates were built; these were enlarged under French rule by Marshal Vauban, augmented again under Austrian rule in the 1730s and 1740s. During the French Revolutionary Wars, the city was occupied by France twice: once in 1792–3, after a seven-month siege. Luxembourg held out for so long under the French siege that French politician and military engineer Lazare Carnot called Luxembourg "the best fortress in the world, except Gibraltar", giving rise to the city's nickname: the'Gibraltar of the North'.
Nonetheless, the Austrian garrison surrendered, as a consequence, Luxembourg was annexed by the French Republic, becoming part of the département of Forêts, with Luxembourg City as its préfecture. Under the 1815 Treaty of Paris, which ended the Napoleonic Wars, Luxembourg City was placed under Prussian military control as a part of the German Confederation, although sovereignty passed to the House of Orange-Nassau, in personal union with the United Kingdom of the Netherlands. After the Luxembourg Crisis, the 1867 Treaty of London required Luxembourg to dismantle the fortifications in Luxembourg City, their demolition took sixteen years, cost 1.5 million gold francs, required the destruction of over 24 km of underground defences and 4 hectares of casemates, barracks, etc. Furthermore, the Prussian garrison was to be withdrawn. When, in 1890, Grand Duke William III died without any male heirs, the Grand Duchy passed out of Dutch hands, into an independent line under Grand Duke Adolphe. Thus, which had hitherto been independent in theory only, became a independent country, Luxembourg City regained some of the importance that it had lost in 1867 by becoming the capital of a independent state.
Despite Luxembourg's best efforts to remain neutral in the First World War, it was occupied by Germany on 2 August 1914. On 30 August, Helmuth von Moltke moved his headquarters to Luxembourg City, closer to his armies in France in preparation for a swift victory. However, the victory never came, Luxembourg would play host to the German high command for another four years. At the end of the occupation, Luxembourg City was the scene of an attempted communist revolution. In 1921, the city limits were expanded; the communes of Eich, Hamm and Rollingergrund were incorporated into Luxembourg C
Colmar-Berg is a commune and town in central Luxembourg, in the canton of Mersch. It is situated at the confluence of the rivers Alzette; as of 2005, the town of Colmar-Berg, which lies in the east of the commune, has a population of 1,711. Colmar-Berg is the site of the Grand Duke of Berg Castle, it is the site of a Goodyear tyre factory. The commune was known as simply'Berg' until 25 March 1991; the "Centre de Formation pour Conducteurs" is in Colmar-Berg. Every person has to make an "Obligatory Course" after they got their driving license in order for it to become a definitive license; this has to be done in the timespan after three months and before two years after the person passed their practical driving test. Media related to Colmar-Berg at Wikimedia Commons
Luxembourg the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a small landlocked country in western Europe. It is bordered by Belgium to the west and north, Germany to the east, France to the south, its capital, Luxembourg City, is one of the three official capitals of the European Union and the seat of the European Court of Justice, the highest judicial authority in the EU. Its culture and languages are intertwined with its neighbours, making it a mixture of French and German cultures, as evident by the nation's three official languages: French and the national language, Luxembourgish; the repeated invasions by Germany in World War II, resulted in the country's strong will for mediation between France and Germany and, among other things, led to the foundation of the European Union. With an area of 2,586 square kilometres, it is one of the smallest sovereign states in Europe. In 2018, Luxembourg had a population of 602,005, which makes it one of the least-populous countries in Europe, but by far the one with the highest population growth rate.
Foreigners account for nearly half of Luxembourg's population. As a representative democracy with a constitutional monarch, it is headed by Grand Duke Henri and is the world's only remaining grand duchy. Luxembourg is a developed country, with an advanced economy and one of the world's highest GDP per capita; the City of Luxembourg with its old quarters and fortifications was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1994 due to the exceptional preservation of the vast fortifications and the old city. The history of Luxembourg is considered to begin in 963, when count Siegfried I acquired a rocky promontory and its Roman-era fortifications known as Lucilinburhuc, ′little castle′, the surrounding area from the Imperial Abbey of St. Maximin in nearby Trier. Siegfried's descendants increased their territory through marriage and vassal relations. At the end of the 13th century, the Counts of Luxembourg reigned over a considerable territory. In 1308, Henry VII, Count of Luxembourg became King of the Germans and Holy Roman Emperor.
The House of Luxembourg produced four Holy Roman Emperors during the high Middle Ages. In 1354, Charles IV elevated the County to the Duchy of Luxembourg. Since Sigismund had no male heir, the Duchy became part of the Burgundian Circle and one of the Seventeen Provinces of the Habsburg Netherlands. Over the centuries, the City and Fortress of Luxembourg, of great strategic importance situated between the Kingdom of France and the Habsburg territories, was built up to be one of the most reputed fortifications in Europe. After belonging to both the France of Louis XIV and the Austria of Maria Theresia, Luxembourg became part of the First French Republic and Empire under Napoleon; the present-day state of Luxembourg first emerged at the Congress of Vienna in 1815. The Grand-Duchy, with its powerful fortress, became an independent state under the personal possession of William I of the Netherlands with a Prussian garrison to guard the city against another invasion from France. In 1839, following the turmoil of the Belgian Revolution, the purely French-speaking part of Luxembourg was ceded to Belgium and the Luxembourgish-speaking part became what is the present state of Luxembourg.
Luxembourg is a founding member of the European Union, OECD, United Nations, NATO, Benelux. The city of Luxembourg, the country's capital and largest city, is the seat of several institutions and agencies of the EU. Luxembourg served on the United Nations Security Council for the years 2013 and 2014, a first in the country's history; as of 2018, Luxembourgish citizens had visa-free or visa-on-arrival access to 186 countries and territories, ranking the Luxembourgish passport 5th in the world, tied with Austria, the Netherlands, Portugal, the United Kingdom and the United States. The recorded history of Luxembourg begins with the acquisition of Lucilinburhuc situated on the Bock rock by Siegfried, Count of Ardennes, in 963 through an exchange act with St. Maximin's Abbey, Trier. Around this fort, a town developed, which became the centre of a state of great strategic value. In the 14th and early 15th centuries, three members of the House of Luxembourg reigned as Holy Roman Emperors. In 1437, the House of Luxembourg suffered a succession crisis, precipitated by the lack of a male heir to assume the throne, which led to the territories being sold by Duchess Elisabeth to Philip the Good of Burgundy.
In the following centuries, Luxembourg's fortress was enlarged and strengthened by its successive occupants, the Bourbons, Habsburgs and the French. After the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, Luxembourg was disputed between Prussia and the Netherlands; the Congress of Vienna formed Luxembourg as a Grand Duchy within the German Confederation. The Dutch king became, in the grand duke. Although he was supposed to rule the grand duchy as an independent country with an administration of its own, in reality he treated it to a Dutch province; the Fortress of Luxembourg was manned by Prussian troops for the German Confederation. This arrangement was revised by the 1839 First Treaty of London, from which date Luxembourg's full independence is reckoned. At the time of the Belgian Revolution of 1830–1839, by the 1839 Treaty establishing full independence, Luxembourg's territory was reduced by more than half, as the predominantly francophone western part of the country was transferred to Belgium. In 1842 Luxembourg joined the German Customs Union (Zoll
Mertzig is a commune and town in central Luxembourg. It is part of the canton of Diekirch; as of 2005, the town of Mertzig itself, which lies in the centre of the commune, has a population of 1,439. Mertzig was formed on 30 December 1874; the law forming Mertzig was passed on 20 November 1874. Footballer Wimm Fledermaus once managed a hotel in Mertzig. Media related to Mertzig at Wikimedia Commons
Nommern is a commune and small town in central Luxembourg, in the canton of Mersch. As of 2005, the town of Nommern, which lies in the east of the commune, has a population of 262. Other towns within the commune include Schrondweiler. Media related to Nommern at Wikimedia Commons
Bettendorf is a commune and town in eastern Luxembourg. It lies along the river Sauer, it is part of the canton of Diekirch, part of the district of Diekirch. As of 2001, the town of Bettendorf itself, which lies in the centre of the commune, has a population of 1,045. Other towns within the commune include Bleesbruck and Moestroff; the owned Bettendorf Castle dates from 1728 and is built in the Baroque style. Media related to Bettendorf at Wikimedia Commons