Norepinephrine called noradrenaline or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter. The name "noradrenaline", derived from Latin roots meaning "at/alongside the kidneys", is more used in the United Kingdom. "Norepinephrine" is the international nonproprietary name given to the drug. Regardless of which name is used for the substance itself, parts of the body that produce or are affected by it are referred to as noradrenergic; the general function of norepinephrine is to mobilize the body for action. Norepinephrine release is lowest during sleep, rises during wakefulness, reaches much higher levels during situations of stress or danger, in the so-called fight-or-flight response. In the brain, norepinephrine increases arousal and alertness, promotes vigilance, enhances formation and retrieval of memory, focuses attention. In the rest of the body, norepinephrine increases heart rate and blood pressure, triggers the release of glucose from energy stores, increases blood flow to skeletal muscle, reduces blood flow to the gastrointestinal system, inhibits voiding of the bladder and gastrointestinal motility.
In the brain, noradrenaline is produced in nuclei that are small yet exert powerful effects on other brain areas. The most important of these nuclei is the locus coeruleus, located in the pons. Outside the brain, norepinephrine is used as a neurotransmitter by sympathetic ganglia located near the spinal cord or in the abdomen, it is released directly into the bloodstream by the adrenal glands. Regardless of how and where it is released, norepinephrine acts on target cells by binding to and activating adrenergic receptors located on the cell surface. A variety of medically important drugs work by altering the actions of noradrenaline systems. Noradrenaline itself is used as an injectable drug for the treatment of critically low blood pressure. Beta blockers, which counter some of the effects of noradrenaline by blocking their receptors, are used to treat glaucoma, a range of cardiovascular problems. Alpha blockers, which counter a different set of noradrenaline effects, are used to treat several cardiovascular and psychiatric conditions.
Alpha-2 agonists have a sedating effect, are used as anesthesia-enhancers in surgery, as well as in treatment of drug or alcohol dependence. Many important psychiatric drugs exert strong effects on noradrenaline systems in the brain, resulting in side-effects that may be helpful or harmful. Norepinephrine is a phenethylamine, its structure differs from that of epinephrine only in that epinephrine has a methyl group attached to its nitrogen, whereas the methyl group is replaced by a hydrogen atom in norepinephrine. The prefix nor- is derived as an abbreviation of the word "normal", used to indicate a demethylated compound. Norepinephrine is synthesized from the amino acid tyrosine by a series of enzymatic steps in the adrenal medulla and postganglionic neurons of the sympathetic nervous system. While the conversion of tyrosine to dopamine occurs predominantly in the cytoplasm, the conversion of dopamine to norepinephrine by dopamine β-monooxygenase occurs predominantly inside neurotransmitter vesicles.
The metabolic pathway is: Phenylalanine → Tyrosine → L-DOPA → Dopamine → NorepinephrineThus the direct precursor of norepinephrine is dopamine, synthesized indirectly from the essential amino acid phenylalanine or the non-essential amino acid tyrosine. These amino acids are found in nearly every protein and, as such, are provided by ingestion of protein-containing food, with tyrosine being the most common. Phenylalanine is converted into tyrosine by the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase, with molecular oxygen and tetrahydrobiopterin as cofactors. Tyrosine is converted into L-DOPA by the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase, with tetrahydrobiopterin, O2, ferrous iron as cofactors. L-DOPA is converted into dopamine by the enzyme aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, with pyridoxal phosphate as a cofactor. Dopamine is converted into norepinephrine by the enzyme dopamine β-monooxygenase, with O2 and ascorbic acid as cofactors. Norepinephrine itself can further be converted into epinephrine by the enzyme phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase with S-adenosyl-L-methionine as cofactor.
In mammals, norepinephrine is degraded to various metabolites. The initial step in the breakdown can be catalyzed by either of the enzymes monoamine oxidase or COMT. From there the breakdown can proceed by a variety of pathways; the principal end products are either Vanillylmandelic acid or a conjugated form of MHPG, both of which are thought to be biologically inactive and are excreted in the urine. Like many other biologically active substances, norepinephrine exerts its effects by binding to and activating receptors located on the surface of cells. Two broad families of norepinephrine receptors have been identified, known as alpha and beta adrenergic receptors. Alpha receptors are divided into subtypes α1 and α2. All of these function as G protein-coupled receptors, meaning that they exert their effects via a complex second messenger system. Alpha-2 receptors have inhibitory effects, but many are located pre-synaptically, so the net effect of alpha-2 activation is a decrease in the amount of norepinephrine released.
Alpha-1 receptors and all
This is a list of Missouri covered bridges. There are four historic wooden covered bridges in Missouri, all now listed as State Historic Sites and under the protection of the Missouri Department of Natural Resources. State officials estimate that Missouri had about thirty covered bridges from the 1820s through the end of the 19th century. On May 25, 1967, the state legislature authorized the Missouri State Park Board to take possession of the remaining bridges in order to repair and preserve them. At the time, five covered bridges remained, but the Mexico covered bridge was destroyed in a flood that year. "Bollinger Mill State Historic Site – Burfordville Covered Bridge". Missouri Department of Natural Resources. 2008-09-29. Retrieved 2008-11-09. "Locust Creek Covered Bridge SHS – General Information". Missouri Department of Natural Resources. 2008-06-06. Retrieved 2008-11-09. "Sandy Creek Covered Bridge State Historic Site – General Information". Missouri Department of Natural Resources. 2008-06-06.
Archived from the original on 2008-11-21. Retrieved 2008-11-08. "Union Covered Bridge State Historic Site – General Information". Missouri Department of Natural Resources. 2008-06-06. Retrieved 2008-11-09
Irma is a female given name. It is used in combination with other names in the abbreviated form "Irm-," for example, Irmela, Irmgardis, Irmentraud; the name comes from the Old High German irmin. The anglicised form is Emma; the Georgian given name "Irma" comes from Georgian word "iremi" - deer. The name days for Irma are February 19, March 31, April 7, May 3, September 10, September 18, October 13, October 25, November 14. Irma, Cameroon singer/songwriter Irma Baltuttis, German singer Irma Brandeis, American Dante scholar Irma Capece Minutolo, Italian opera singer Irma Flaquer, Guatemalan government critic Irma Grese, German Nazi SS Holocaust concentration camp supervisor executed for war crimes Irma Heijting-Schuhmacher, Dutch freestyle swimmer Irma Huerta, Mexican freestyle swimmer Irma Khetsuriani, Georgian wheelchair fencer Irma Kurtz, American-born UK-based agony aunt Irma de Malkhozouny, Serbian ballet dancer Irma May, Polish social reformer Irma McClaurin, American poet and anthropologist Irma Nioradze, Georgian ballerina Irma S. Raker, American lawyer Irma Rangel, American politician Irma S. Rombauer, cookbook author Irma Sandoval-Ballesteros, Mexican academic Irma Serrano, Mexican actress Irma Stern, South African painter Irma St. Paule, Ukrainian-born American character actress Irma Thomas, soul singer Irma von Cube, American screenwriter Irma, a character from The Adventures of Tintin by Hergé Irma, the title character of Irma la Douce, a comedy film by Billy Wilder Irma, the title character of the My Friend Irma television and radio situation comedies and a 1949 film Irma Barlow, a character in the British soap opera Coronation Street Irma Lair, character in W.
I. T. C. H. Series Irma Langinstein, in the 1987-1996 Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles cartoon and Archie TMNT Adventures comics Irma Leopold, a character from Joan Lindsay's novel Picnic at Hanging Rock Irma Pince, librarian in the Harry Potter series Irma Crabbe, character in Harry Potter series Hurricane Irma, 2017 Hamilton women's watch Irma, 1952 Irma Erma Behind the Name
Ferrandina-Pomarico is a railway station serving Ferrandina and Pomarico, Italy. The station is located on the Battipaglia–Metaponto railway; the train services are operated by Trenitalia. The station was modernised in 2005; the Italian government in August 2017 has decided that the station will be connected to the new station of Matera by a modern railway. The station is served by the following service: Intercity services Rome - Naples - Salerno - Taranto Regional services Naples - Salerno - Potenza - Metaponto - Taranto Battipaglia–Metaponto railway This article is based upon a translation of the Italian language version as at June 2014
An eight-member IHSAA-sanctioned athletic located within Clay, Daviess and Sullivan Counties in Southwest and West Central Indiana. North Central joined in 2010 with the folding of the Tri-River Conference. Prior to that time, Clay City, Linton Stockton and Union participated in the Tri-River Conference concurrently while playing in the SWIAC; the conference was formed in 1939, but information on early membership between and 1958 is incomplete. Bloomfield played concurrently in the SWIAC and Blue Chip Conference from 1968 to 1985. Clay City and Shakamak were both concurrently in the SWIAC and TRC from joining the SWIAC until the TRC's demise in 2010. Linton-Stockton joined the TRC in 1991 while playing in both leagues until 2010. Loogootee and Shoals played concurrently in the SWIAC and MCC 1939-43. Shoals played concurrently in the SWIAC and Lost River Conference from 1971 to 1974, in the SWIAC and BCC from 1977 to 1979. Union played in the SWIAC and TRC concurrently from 1974 to 2010. Union was closed as a public school in 2014, however, a charter school was formed the same year carrying the history of the school.
The new Union played as a non-IHSAA independent until 2018, when it joined the Southern Roads Conference. 1998 Girls Basketball 1910 Track and Field 2016 Football 2020 Girls Basketball 2008 Baseball 2014 Baseball IHSAA Conferences IHSAA Directory
Hans Jörg Stetter is a German mathematician, specializing in numerical analysis. Stetter studied at the University of Munich and at the Technical University of Munich. For one academic year, he was an undergraduate exchange student in Fort Collins at the Colorado State College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, i.e. Colorado A&M, where he participated in the Putnam competition and was awarded an honorable mention. After receiving a master's degree as a qualification for teaching in secondary school, he studied the numerical analysis of partial differential equations with applications to fluid dynamics and received from the Technical University of Munich his promotion under Robert Sauer with dissertation Beiträge zum Wechselwirkungsproblem in linearisierter Überschallströmung. Stetter became, he turned to the numerical analysis of ordinar differential equations and specialized in error analysis and asymptotic developments, among other ODE topics. Based upon ideas published by the physicist Lewis Fry Richardson and by the astronomer Pedro E. Zadunaisky, Stetter developed in the 1970s an iterative method, now called the defect correction method, for error estimation in ODEs.
He dealt with polynomial algebra at the interface between numerical analysis and computer algebra. In 1974 Stetter was an Invited Speaker at the ICM in Vancouver. In 1984 he was elected a member of the Academy of Sciences Leopoldina. With Friedrich L. Bauer: Zur numerischen Fourier-Transformation, Numerische Mathematik, vol. 1, 1959, 208–220 doi:10.1007/BF01386386 Asymptotic expansions for the error in discretization algorithms for non-linear functional equations, Numerische Mathematik, vol. 7, 1965 doi:10.1007/BF01397970 Stabilizing predictors for weakly unstable correctors, Mathematics of Computation, vol. 19, 1965, 84–89 doi:10.1090/S0025-5718-1965-0178576-9 The defect correction principle and discretization methods, Numerische Mathematik, vol. 29, 1978, 425–433 doi:10.1007/BF01432879 Analysis of Discretization Methods in Ordinary Differential Equations, Springer 1973. 2013. as editor with Klaus Böhmer: Defect correction methods, Springer 1984. 2012. Numerical Polynomial Algebra, SIAM 2004 doi:10.1137/1.9780898717976 Oral History Interview with Philip J. Davis, SIAM 2005 "Hans Jörg Stetter" by Roland Burlisch, 2005