BIBSYS is an administrative agency set up and organized by the Ministry of Education and Research in Norway. They are a service provider, focusing on the exchange and retrieval of data pertaining to research and learning – metadata related to library resources. BIBSYS are collaborating with all Norwegian universities and university colleges as well as research institutions and the National Library of Norway. Bibsys is formally organized as a unit at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, located in Trondheim, Norway; the board of directors is appointed by Norwegian Ministry of Research. BIBSYS offer researchers and others an easy access to library resources by providing the unified search service Oria.no and other library services. They deliver integrated products for the internal operation for research and special libraries as well as open educational resources; as a DataCite member BIBSYS act as a national DataCite representative in Norway and thereby allow all of Norway's higher education and research institutions to use DOI on their research data.
All their products and services are developed in cooperation with their member institutions. BIBSYS began in 1972 as a collaborative project between the Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences and Letters Library, the Norwegian Institute of Technology Library and the Computer Centre at the Norwegian Institute of Technology; the purpose of the project was to automate internal library routines. Since 1972 Bibsys has evolved from a library system supplier for two libraries in Trondheim, to developing and operating a national library system for Norwegian research and special libraries; the target group has expanded to include the customers of research and special libraries, by providing them easy access to library resources. BIBSYS is a public administrative agency answerable to the Ministry of Education and Research, administratively organised as a unit at NTNU. In addition to BIBSYS Library System, the product portfolio consists of BISBYS Ask, BIBSYS Brage, BIBSYS Galleri and BIBSYS Tyr. All operation of applications and databases is performed centrally by BIBSYS.
BIBSYS offer a range of services, both in connection with their products and separate services independent of the products they supply. Open access in Norway Om Bibsys
Tokyo University of Science
Tokyo University of Science "Science University of Tokyo" or TUS, informally Rikadai or Ridai is a private research university located in Shinjuku, Japan. Tokyo University of Science was founded in 1881 as The Tokyo Academy of Physics by 21 graduates of the Department of Physics in the Faculty of Science, University of Tokyo. In 1883, it was renamed the Tokyo College of Science, in 1949, it attained university status and became the Tokyo University of Science; the leading character appearing in Japanese novelist Soseki Natsume's novel Botchan graduated from Tokyo University of Science. As of 2016, it is the only private university in Japan that has produced a Nobel Prize winner and the only private university in Asia to produce Nobel Prize winners within the natural sciences field. Academic Ranking of World Universities ranked Tokyo University of Science in equal 13th place in Japan. Eduniversal ranked Tokyo University of Science second in its rankings of "Top business school with significant international influence" in Japan.
In Times Higher Education ranking of CEOs of the world's largest enterprises, it is ranked third for Japanese universities. Tokyo University of Science main campus is located in the Kagurazaka district of Shinjuku; the nearest station is Iidabashi Station. Apart from the main campus in Shinjuku, there are other campuses around the country: Kagurazaka Campus: Shinjuku Fujimi school building: Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo Katsushika Campus: Katsushika-ku, Tokyo Noda Campus: Noda, Chiba Oshamambe Campus: Oshamambe, Hokkaido Tokyo University of Science has libraries in four different areas: Kagurazaka, Noda and Oshamambe. Kagurazaka Library Noda Library Katsushika Library Oshamambe Library Other libraries on Tokyo University of Science campuses include: Science and Technology Museum Athletic Facilities Seminar House Training Center Morito Memorial Hall Science Division I Engineering Pharmaceutical Sciences Science and Technology Industrial Science and Technology Management Science Division II Science Chemical Sciences and Technology Mathematics and Science Education Engineering Pharmaceutical Sciences Science and Technology Industrial Science and Technology Management Biological Sciences Innovation Studies Global Fire Science and Technology Management of Science and Technology Master of Intellectual Property Division of Mathematics University Research Administration CenterPlanning and Management Division Research Strategy Formulation Division Research & Industry University Cooperation Supporting Division Regional Alliance & Commercialization Promotion Division Research Institute for Science and TechnologyResearch Centers Center for Fire Science and Technology IR FEL Research Center Research Center for Chirality Photocatalysis International Research Center Translational Research Center Imaging Frontier Center Water Frontier Science & Technology Research Center Research Center for Space Colony Research Divisions Division of Pharmaco-creation Frontier Division of Integrated Science of Oshamambe town Division of Advanced Communication Researches International Research Division of Interfacial Thermo-fluid Dynamics Division of Nanocarbon Research Division of Bio-organometallics Division of Thermoelectrics for Waste Heat Recovery Division of Colloid and Interface Science Division of Synergetic Supramolecular Coordination Systems in Multiphase Division of Advanced Urbanism and Architecture Academic Detailing Database Division Division of Medical-Science-Engineering Cooperation Division of Mathematical Modeling and its Mathematical Analysis Water Frontier Science Research Division Fusion of Regenerative Medicine with DDS Photovoltaic Science and Technology Research Division Advanced EC Device Research Division Division of Agri-biotechnology Division of Things and Systems Atmospheric Science Research Division Division of Super Distributed Intelligent Systems Brain Interdisciplinary Research Division Division of Intelligent System Engineering Advanced Agricultural Energy Science and Technology Research Division Joint Usage / Research Center Research Center for Fire Safety Science Photocatalysis International Research Center Research Institute for Biomedical SciencesResearch Institute Division Groups Division of Immunobiology Division of Molecular Biology Division of Biosignaling Division of Molecular Pathology Division of Development and Aging Division of Experimental Animal Immunology Division of Clinical Research Division of Intramural Cooperation Division of Extramural Cooperation Research Equipment Center As of 2016, Tokyo University of Science had academic exchange agreements with 75 overseas universities and research institutions, including those between departments and departments.
The university has two affiliated four-year universities: Tokyo University of Science, Yamaguchi, in Sanyo-Onoda and Tokyo University of Science, Suwa, in Chino, Nagano. Hisashi Terao, 1883-1896 Kiyoo Nakamura, 1896–1930 Kyohei Nakamura, 1930–1934 Masatoshi Ōkōchi, 1934–1945 Nakagoro Hirakawa, 1945–1949 Kotaro Honda, 1949–1951Concurrently appointed president of Tokyo University of Science. Kotaro Honda, 1949–1953 Masaichi Majima, 1955-1966 Seishi Kikuchi, 1966-1970 Masao Kotani, 1970-1982 Masao Yoshiki, 1982-1990 Tetsuji Nishikawa, 1990-2001 Hiroyuki Okamura, 2002-2005 Shin Takeuchi, 2006-2009 Akira Fujishima, 2010-2018, discoverer of photocatalyst Yoichiro Matsumoto, 2018- Kotaro Honda, 1951–1953 Nakagoro Hirakawa, 1953-1978 Shigeyoshi Kittaka, 1978-1997 Sanjiro Sakabe, 1997-1999 Nobuyuki Koura, 1999-2002 Takeyo Tsukamoto, 2002-2012 Shigeru Nakane, 2012-2015 Kazuo Motoyama, 2015- Makoto Asashima, Vice President, discoverer of activin Michael A. Cusumano, business administration, Vice President, Massachusetts Institute of Technology professor Chiaki Mukai, JAXA astro
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
A machine is a mechanical structure that uses power to apply forces and control movement to perform an intended action. Machines can be driven by animals and people, by natural forces such as wind and water, by chemical, thermal, or electrical power, include a system of mechanisms that shape the actuator input to achieve a specific application of output forces and movement, they can include computers and sensors that monitor performance and plan movement called mechanical systems. Renaissance natural philosophers identified six simple machines which were the elementary devices that put a load into motion, calculated the ratio of output force to input force, known today as mechanical advantage. Modern machines are complex systems that consist of structural elements and control components and include interfaces for convenient use. Examples include a wide range of vehicles, such as automobiles and airplanes, appliances in the home and office, including computers, building air handling and water handling systems, as well as farm machinery, machine tools and factory automation systems and robots.
The English word machine comes through Middle French from Latin machina, which in turn derives from the Greek. The word mechanical comes from the same Greek roots. A wider meaning of "fabric, structure" is found in classical Latin, but not in Greek usage; this meaning is found in late medieval French, is adopted from the French into English in the mid-16th century. In the 17th century, the word could mean a scheme or plot, a meaning now expressed by the derived machination; the modern meaning develops out of specialized application of the term to stage engines used in theater and to military siege engines, both in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. The OED traces the formal, modern meaning to John Harris' Lexicon Technicum, which has: Machine, or Engine, in Mechanicks, is whatsoever hath Force sufficient either to raise or stop the Motion of a Body... Simple Machines are reckoned to be Six in Number, viz. the Ballance, Pulley, Wheel and Screw... Compound Machines, or Engines, are innumerable.
The word engine used as a synonym both by Harris and in language derives from Latin ingenium "ingenuity, an invention". The hand axe, made by chipping flint to form a wedge, in the hands of a human transforms force and movement of the tool into a transverse splitting forces and movement of the workpiece; the idea of a simple machine originated with the Greek philosopher Archimedes around the 3rd century BC, who studied the Archimedean simple machines: lever and screw. Archimedes discovered the principle of mechanical advantage in the lever. Greek philosophers defined the classic five simple machines and were able to calculate their mechanical advantage. Heron of Alexandria in his work Mechanics lists five mechanisms that can "set a load in motion". However, the Greeks' understanding was limited to statics and did not include dynamics or the concept of work. During the Renaissance the dynamics of the Mechanical Powers, as the simple machines were called, began to be studied from the standpoint of how much useful work they could perform, leading to the new concept of mechanical work.
In 1586 Flemish engineer Simon Stevin derived the mechanical advantage of the inclined plane, it was included with the other simple machines. The complete dynamic theory of simple machines was worked out by Italian scientist Galileo Galilei in 1600 in Le Meccaniche, he was the first to understand that simple machines do not create energy, they transform it. The classic rules of sliding friction in machines were discovered by Leonardo da Vinci, but remained unpublished in his notebooks, they were rediscovered by Guillaume Amontons and were further developed by Charles-Augustin de Coulomb. James Watt patented his parallel motion linkage in 1782, which made the double acting steam engine practical; the Boulton and Watt steam engine and designs powered steam locomotives, steam ships, factories. The Industrial Revolution was a period from 1750 to 1850 where changes in agriculture, mining and technology had a profound effect on the social and cultural conditions of the times, it began in the United Kingdom subsequently spread throughout Western Europe, North America and the rest of the world.
Starting in the part of the 18th century, there began a transition in parts of Great Britain's manual labour and draft-animal-based economy towards machine-based manufacturing. It started with the mechanisation of the textile industries, the development of iron-making techniques and the increased use of refined coal; the idea that a machine can be decomposed into simple movable elements led Archimedes to define the lever and screw as simple machines. By the time of the Renaissance this list increased to include the wheel and axle and inclined plane; the modern approach to characterizing machines focusses on the components that allow movement, known as joints. Wedge: Perhaps the first example of a device designed to manage power is the hand axe called biface and Olorgesailie. A hand axe is made by chipping stone flint, to form a bifacial edge, or wedge. A wedge is a simple machine that transforms lateral force and movement o
Nanotechnology is manipulation of matter on an atomic and supramolecular scale. The earliest, widespread description of nanotechnology referred to the particular technological goal of manipulating atoms and molecules for fabrication of macroscale products now referred to as molecular nanotechnology. A more generalized description of nanotechnology was subsequently established by the National Nanotechnology Initiative, which defines nanotechnology as the manipulation of matter with at least one dimension sized from 1 to 100 nanometers; this definition reflects the fact that quantum mechanical effects are important at this quantum-realm scale, so the definition shifted from a particular technological goal to a research category inclusive of all types of research and technologies that deal with the special properties of matter which occur below the given size threshold. It is therefore common to see the plural form "nanotechnologies" as well as "nanoscale technologies" to refer to the broad range of research and applications whose common trait is size.
Because of the variety of potential applications, governments have invested billions of dollars in nanotechnology research. Through 2012, the USA has invested $3.7 billion using its National Nanotechnology Initiative, the European Union has invested $1.2 billion, Japan has invested $750 million. Nanotechnology as defined by size is very broad, including fields of science as diverse as surface science, organic chemistry, molecular biology, semiconductor physics, energy storage, molecular engineering, etc; the associated research and applications are diverse, ranging from extensions of conventional device physics to new approaches based upon molecular self-assembly, from developing new materials with dimensions on the nanoscale to direct control of matter on the atomic scale. Scientists debate the future implications of nanotechnology. Nanotechnology may be able to create many new materials and devices with a vast range of applications, such as in nanomedicine, biomaterials energy production, consumer products.
On the other hand, nanotechnology raises many of the same issues as any new technology, including concerns about the toxicity and environmental impact of nanomaterials, their potential effects on global economics, as well as speculation about various doomsday scenarios. These concerns have led to a debate among advocacy groups and governments on whether special regulation of nanotechnology is warranted; the concepts that seeded nanotechnology were first discussed in 1959 by renowned physicist Richard Feynman in his talk There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom, in which he described the possibility of synthesis via direct manipulation of atoms. The term "nano-technology" was first used by Norio Taniguchi in 1974, though it was not known. Inspired by Feynman's concepts, K. Eric Drexler used the term "nanotechnology" in his 1986 book Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of Nanotechnology, which proposed the idea of a nanoscale "assembler" which would be able to build a copy of itself and of other items of arbitrary complexity with atomic control.
In 1986, Drexler co-founded The Foresight Institute to help increase public awareness and understanding of nanotechnology concepts and implications. Thus, emergence of nanotechnology as a field in the 1980s occurred through convergence of Drexler's theoretical and public work, which developed and popularized a conceptual framework for nanotechnology, high-visibility experimental advances that drew additional wide-scale attention to the prospects of atomic control of matter. Since the popularity spike in the 1980s, most of nanotechnology has involved investigation of several approaches to making mechanical devices out of a small number of atoms. In the 1980s, two major breakthroughs sparked the growth of nanotechnology in modern era. First, the invention of the scanning tunneling microscope in 1981 which provided unprecedented visualization of individual atoms and bonds, was used to manipulate individual atoms in 1989; the microscope's developers Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer at IBM Zurich Research Laboratory received a Nobel Prize in Physics in 1986.
Binnig and Gerber invented the analogous atomic force microscope that year. Second, Fullerenes were discovered in 1985 by Harry Kroto, Richard Smalley, Robert Curl, who together won the 1996 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. C60 was not described as nanotechnology. In the early 2000s, the field garnered increased scientific and commercial attention that led to both controversy and progress. Controversies emerged regarding the definitions and potential implications of nanotechnologies, exemplified by the Royal Society's report on nanotechnology. Challenges were raised regarding the feasibility of applications envisioned by advocates of molecular nanotechnology, which culminated in a public debate between Drexler and Smalley in 2001 and 2003. Meanwhile, commercialization of products based on advancements in nanoscale technologies began emerging; these products are limited to bulk applications of nanomaterials and do not involve atomic control of matter. Some examples include the Silver Nano platform for using silver nanoparticles as an antibacterial agent, nanoparticle-based transparent sunscreens, carbon fiber strengthening using silica nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes for stain-resistant textiles.
Governments moved to promote and fund research into nanotechnology, such as in the U. S
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website