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Norman-Arab-Byzantine culture

The term Norman-Arab-Byzantine culture, Norman-Sicilian culture or, less inclusive, Norman-Arab culture, refers to the interaction of the Norman, Latin and Byzantine Greek cultures following the Norman conquest of Sicily and of Norman Africa from 1061 to around 1250. This civilization resulted from numerous exchanges in the cultural and scientific fields, based on the tolerance showed by the Normans towards the Greek-speaking populations and the Muslim settlers; as a result, Sicily under the Normans became a crossroad for the interaction between the Norman and Latin Catholic, Byzantine-Orthodox and Arab-Islamic cultures. In 965 Muslims completed their conquest of Sicily from the Byzantine Empire following the fall of the final significant Greek citadel of Taormina in 962. Seventy three years in 1038, Byzantine forces began a reconquest of Sicily under the Greek general George Maniakes; this invasion relied on a number of Norse mercenaries, the Varangians, including the future king of Norway Harald Hardrada, as well as on several contingents of Normans.

Although Maniakes' death in a Byzantine civil war in 1043 cut the invasion short, the Normans followed up on the advances made by the Byzantines and completed the conquest of the island from the Saracens. The Normans had been expanding south, as mercenaries and adventurers, driven by the myth of a happy and sunny island in the Southern Seas; the Norman Robert Guiscard, son of Tancred, invaded Sicily in 1060. The island was split politically between three Arab emirs, the sizable Byzantine Christian population rebelled against the ruling Muslims. One year Messina fell to troops under the leadership of Roger Bosso, in 1071 the Normans took Palermo; the loss of the cities, each with a splendid harbor, dealt a severe blow to Muslim power on the island. Normans took all of Sicily. In 1091, Noto in the southern tip of Sicily and the island of Malta, the last Arab strongholds, fell to the Christians; the Kingdom of Africa was an extension of the frontier zone of the Siculo-Norman state in the former Roman province of Africa, corresponding to Tunisia and parts of Algeria and Libya today.

The main primary sources for the kingdom are Arabic. According to Hubert Houben, since "Africa" was never mentioned in the royal title of the kings of Sicily, "one ought not to speak of a ‘Norman kingdom of Africa’." Rather, " amounted to a constellation of Norman-held towns along coastal Ifrīqiya."The Sicilian conquest of Africa began under Roger II in 1146–48. Sicilian rule consisted of military garrisons in the major towns, exactions on the local Muslim population, protection of Christians and the minting of coin; the local aristocracy was left in place, Muslim princes controlled the civil government under Sicilian oversight. Economic connections between Sicily and Africa, which were strong before the conquest, were strengthened, while ties between Africa and northern Italy were expanded. Early in the reign of William I, the "kingdom" of Africa fell to the Almohads, its most enduring legacy was the realignment of Mediterranean powers brought about by its demise and the Siculo-Almohad peace finalised in 1180.

An intense Norman-Arab-Byzantine culture developed, exemplified by rulers such as Roger II of Sicily, who had Islamic soldiers and scientists at his court, had Byzantine Greeks, the famous George of Antioch, Philip of Mahdia, serve successively as his ammiratus ammiratorum. Roger II himself was fond of Arab culture, he used Arab and Byzantine Greek troops and siege engines in his campaigns in southern Italy, mobilized Arab and Byzantine architects to help his Normans build monuments in the Norman-Arab-Byzantine style. The various agricultural and industrial techniques, introduced by the Arabs in Sicily during the preceding two centuries were kept and further developed, allowing for the remarkable prosperity of the Island. Numerous Classical Greek works, long lost to the Latin speaking West, were translated from Byzantine Greek manuscripts found in Sicily directly into Latin. For the following two hundred years, Sicily under Norman rule became a model, admired throughout Europe and Arabia; the English historian John Julius Norwich remarked of the Kingdom of Sicily: "Norman Sicily stood forth in Europe --and indeed in the whole bigoted medieval world-- as an example of tolerance and enlightenment, a lesson in the respect that every man should feel for those whose blood and beliefs happen to differ from his own."John Julius Norwich During Roger II's reign, the Kingdom of Sicily became characterized by its multi-ethnic composition and unusual religious tolerance.

Catholic Normans and native Sicilians, Muslim Arabs, Orthodox Byzantine Greeks existed in a relative harmony for this time period, Roger II was known to have planned for the establishment of an Empire that would have encompassed Fatimid Egypt and the Crusader states in the Levant up until his death in 1154. One of the greatest geographical treatises of the Middle Ages was written for Roger II by the Andalusian scholar Muhammad al-Idrisi, entitled Kitab Rudjdjar. At the end of the 12th century, the population of Sicily is estimated to have been up to one-third Byzantine Greek speaking, with the remainder speaking Latin or Vulgar Latin dialects brought from mainland Italy and Sicilian Arabic. Although the language of the court was Old Norman or Old French, all royal edicts were wri

Psilocybe medullosa

Psilocybe medullosa is a species of psychoactive mushroom. It was described in 1898 as Naucoria medullosa by Italian mycologist Giacomo Bresadola. Czech mycologist Jan Borovička transferred it to Psilocybe in 2007. A widespread but rather rare species, it is found in Europe, where it grows as a saprobe on woody debris and detritus. Chemical analysis has been used to confirm the presence of the psychedelic compounds psilocin and psilocybin in the fruit bodies but at low levels. Psilocybe silvatica is its American sister species. List of Psilocybe species List of psilocybin mushrooms Psilocybe medullosa in Index Fungorum

Robertson, Martin & Smith

Robertson and Smith was an engineering firm in Melbourne in the second half of the nineteenth century. The company manufactured the first steam locomotive to be built in Australia. Robertson and Smith comprised a partnership of William B Robertson, an English born engineer; the company was operating from at least mid 1853 with an office at Lambeth-place, Flinders-lane west, when they advertised for labourers. Through proclamation in the Government Gazette. In June they tendered for the construction of a steam gondola for the Cremorne Gardens a pleasure ground on the Yarra River in Richmond; when the Melbourne and Hobson's Bay Railway Company began construction of the first steam-hauled railway line to operate in Australia, they ordered locomotives from the renowned British engineering firm of Robert Stephenson and Company. However, the ship was delayed, so the railway looked to the firm that had constructed a small donkey engine for hauling supplies along the line during construction; the boiler was made by Langlands foundry and Robertson, Martin & Smith assembled it at a rented premises on the Maribyrnong River.

The locomotive was completed in just ten weeks and cost £2,700. Forming the first steam train to travel in Australia, a 2-2-2WT locomotive which first ran in trials on 9 September 1854, commenced regular trips on 12 September 1854; the firm used the vacant bluestone buildings of Joseph Raleigh's boiling down works on the Saltwater River near Footscray, to erect the locomotive. Raleigh had died in 1852, so it appears the buildings were not in use at the time; the partnership was dissolved on 10 July 1855

Eliya ibn ĘżUbaid

Eliya ibn ʿUbaid called Eliya al-Jawharī, was the bishop of Jerusalem from 878 or 879 until 893 and archbishop of Damascus in the Church of the East. He was consecrated as archbishop by the Patriarch Yohannan III on 15 July 893; as bishop of Jerusalem, he was a suffragan of Damascus. As archbishop of Damascus, he was the metropolitan over five dioceses: Aleppo, Mabbugh and Tarsus and Melitene, his formal title was "metropolitan of Damascus and the Shore", the shore being Cilicia. Three works by Eliya survive: the Agreements of the Creed, the Consolation of Sorrows and a collection of canons of the "fathers of the east"; the Consolation of Sorrows has been translated into Italian. It survives in eight manuscripts, it is a philosophical text inspired by and quoting liberally from the Art of Dispelling Sorrows of the Muslim philosopher al-Kindī. It is written in the form of a letter to an anonymous Christian friend. Two individual Christians who fell into disgrace in Eliya's time are mentioned by name: Abū Ayyūb and Abū l-Qāsim.

These are to be identified with Abū Ayyūb Sulaymān ibn Wahb and his son Abū l-Qāsim ʿUbayd Allāh ibn Sulaymān who both served for periods in the vizierate of the Abbasid Caliphate and were both arrested and imprisoned in 878 or 879. Since Eliya was not yet a bishop when he wrote and was living in the vicinity of Baghdad at the time, narrowing the timeframe of writing to the same period of 878–79; the Consolation of Sorrows can be divided into two parts. The first is philosophical and rationalistic, including references to Socrates and Alexander's letter to his mother; the second is exegetical. The stories of figures from the Old Testament who overcame adversity are written from memory. Eliya compiled a list of the dioceses of the Church of the East in Arabic; this list is of immense value to the historian. It does not include the dioceses of the province of China or the province of India because metropolitans were no longer being sent to them; the church in China had suffered in the Great Anti-Buddhist Persecution of 845 and the Guangzhou massacre of 878.

Eliya's list includes a total of fifteen provinces, which he calls "eparchies": the province of the Patriarch, the six other provinces of the interior and the eight provinces of the exterior. Since Eliya wrote in Arabic, while the official records of the church were kept in Syriac, there is some uncertainty regarding the identification of some dioceses. Eliya wrote the oldest surviving list of patriarchs of the Church of the East, although it only survives in a thirteenth-century manuscript; the list of Eliya of Nisibis survives in an older copy. Eliya of Damascus is the first historian to record—and may himself have fabricated—the existence of five apocryphal early patriarchs with the dates of their pontificates: Abris, Abraham, Yaʿqob I, Aha d'Abuh and Shahlufa; the last two are in fact late third-century bishops of Erbil who were transferred forward in time and upward in office. All five became accepted in the historiography of the Church of the East; the first three acquired backstories that made them relatives of Joseph.

Eliya placed the historical patriarch Tomarsa in the middle of the third century, to fill a gap between Shahlufa and Papa, whose reign began around 280. Unlike his other error, this one did not catch on

Brandun DeShay

Brandun DeShay, stylized as brandUn DeShay, is an American rapper, record producer, songwriter from Chicago, Illinois. He produced for all of his releases. DeShay has produced for rappers such as Curren$y, Dom Kennedy, Mac Miller, Action Bronson, Chance The Rapper, Danny Brown, his first official music video, "Why You Gotta Zodiac Like That" has been in rotation on mtvU. From late 2008 to mid 2010, DeShay was one of the original members of the hip hop collective Odd Future. In 2011, he released his debut album All Day DeShay: AM on his label Seven7Ceven Music; the album was well received by critics. Following the release of the album, DeShay was nominated for the 2012 XXL Freshman list. In an interview with MTV UK, DeShay said that Pharrell Williams and Yasutaka Nakata's music inspired him, he stated that N. E. R. D, Kanye West, MF DOOM, Lupe Fiasco, A Tribe Called Quest and Lil Wayne were some of his influences initially. All Day DeShay: AM goldUn child goldUn child 2 The Super D3Shay Volume: One! for the Money Volume: Two! for the Show Volume: Three! to Get Ready Official website

Effendi

Effendi or Effendy is a title of nobility meaning a Lord or Master, the title itself and its other forms are derived from Greek aphentēs, derived from Ancient Greek authentēs meaning lord. It is a title of courtesy, equivalent to the English Sir, it was used in the Ottoman Byzantine Empire. It follows the personal name, when it is used, is given to members of the learned professions and to government officials who have high ranks, such as bey or pasha, it may indicate a definite office, as hekim efendi, chief physician to the sultan. The possessive form efendim is used by servants, in formal discourse, when answering the telephone, can substitute for "excuse me" in some situations. In the Ottoman era, the most common title affixed to a personal name; such a title would have indicated an "educated gentleman", hence by implication a graduate of a secular state school though at least some if not most of these efendis had once been religious students, or religious teachers. Lucy Mary Jane Garnett wrote in the 1904 work Turkish Life in Town and Country that Ottoman Christians, mullahs and princes of the Ottoman royal family could become effendi, a title carrying "the same significance as the French Monsieur" and, one of two "merely conventional designations as indefinite as our "Esquire" has come to be.".

The Republican Turkish authorities abolished the title circa the 1930s. The Ottoman Turkish word افندی, in modern Turkish efendi, is a borrowing of the Medieval Greek ἀφέντης afendēs, from Ancient Greek αὐθέντης authentēs, "master, doer, perpetrator"; this word was used as a Greek title for Byzantine nobles as late as 1465, such as in the letters of Cardinal Bessarion concerning the children of Thomas Paleologus. Effendi was considered a title for a man of high education or social standing in an eastern country, it was an analogous to esquire, junior to bey in Egypt during the period of the Muhammad Ali dynasty, was used a lot among the Egyptians. Effendi is still used as an honorific in Egypt and Turkey, is the source of the word أفندم؟ afandim?, Turkish: efendim, a polite way of saying, "Excuse me?", can be used in answering the phone. The colonial forces of British East Africa and German East Africa were built from a stock of Sudanese soldiers of the Egyptian army, nominally under the Ottoman Empire.

These units entered East Africa with some officers who brought their title of effendi with them and, thus, it continued to be used for non-European officers of the two colonial forces. Up to the present the Swahili form afande is a way to address officers in the armies of Kenya, Tanzania and in Rwanda with the coming to power of RPF. Effendi was the highest rank that a Black African could achieve in the British King's African Rifles until 1961, they were equivalent to the Viceroy's Commissioned Officers in the British Indian Army. An Effendi's authority was confined to other KAR troops, he could not command British troops; the KAR rank came into disuse during the 1930s and was reintroduced in 1956. Effendi was a non-European's officer rank in the Schutztruppe of German East Africa. Similar to the above British practice, Effendis were promoted by a governor's warrant, not by a kaiser's commission, as white commissioned officers were. Effendis had no authority over white troops. In the Schutztruppe this rank was used, together with other ranks of Ottoman origin like "Tschausch" and "Ombascha".

In Bosnia and Herzegovina "Efendija" refers to Muslim clerics. In Indonesia and Malaysia, "Effendi" can be used as a first name. In Pakistan and India, "Effendi" is the surname of some families whose ancestors migrated from Turkey or Afghanistan. In Afghanistan, some members of the former ruling Barakzai clan of Durranis use "Effendi" or a variant "Affandi" as their surname. In China, "Effendi" refers to Nasreddin. Jazz pianist McCoy Tyner has one composition named "Effendi", it appears on Inception. Byzantine bureaucracy and aristocracy Ottoman titles Baranovitch, Nimrod. "From the Margins to the Center." China Quarterly 175: 726-750. Cambridge Univ. Press, 2003. Drompp, Michael. Tang China And The Collapse Of The Uighur Empire: A History. Brill Academic Publishers, 2004. ReadLiterature.com - Definition of Efendi A Nation of Empire: The Ottoman Legacy of Turkish Modernity