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Norman Collins

Norman Richard Collins was a British writer, a radio and television executive, who became one of the major figures behind the establishment of the Independent Television network in the UK. This was the first organisation to break the BBC’s broadcasting monopoly when it began transmitting in 1955. Only son and youngest of three children of publisher's clerk and illustrator Oliver Norman Collins and Lizzie Ethel, Collins was born at Beaconsfield, he had a French-Huguenot background on his father's side and Welsh farming stock on his mother's. He was educated at a school founded by William Ellis at Hampstead. Collins left the British education system aged eighteen, began his career as an editorial assistant at the Oxford University Press in London, he left this job in 1930 after a dispute over his low salary. He went on to work under Robert Lynd as a literary editor on the London News Chronicle newspaper and had a spell as literary editor of the Daily News, the paper Charles Dickens had edited. At the age of 23 he joined Victor Gollancz's publishing firm, founded in 1927, where he became deputy chairman.

In 1941 he joined the BBC as an assistant in the Overseas Talks Department, as a producer for BBC Radio. Meanwhile he wrote novels, publishing several successful works such as London Belongs to Me in the 1930s and 40s. After 1935 he worked in broadcasting as a producer for BBC Radio. In 1946 he was appointed Controller of the Light Programme, the BBC’s more populist, entertainment-based radio service which had grown out of the BBC Forces Programme first established to entertain allied troops, but which had become hugely popular with domestic audiences, during the Second World War. At the Light Programme he created two of the most iconic programmes in the history of British radio broadcasting; the first of these was the adventure series Dick Barton: Special Agent, which ran for 711 episodes between 1946 and 1951, following the adventures of a dashing secret agent. The series, broadcast in the early evening just after the main news bulletin, was phenomenally popular and drew 15 million listeners at its peak, being fondly remembered and revived for many years afterwards.

The second famous programme Collins initiated was the notably long-lived Woman's Hour, first broadcast in 1946 and still running every weekday on BBC Radio 4. Collins’ huge success as Controller of the Light Programme led to his appointment in 1947 as Controller of the BBC Television Service, during which time it began to take its first steps into becoming a mass medium, with television licence numbers breaking into six figures for the first time; this was helped by the extension of broadcasting beyond London with the opening of transmitters in other major cities such as Birmingham, by the appeal of the programming Collins and his team were able to offer. The high point of his time in control of the channel was the broadcasting live on television of much of the 1948 Olympic Games, being held predominantly in London at Wembley Stadium, where the majority of the BBC’s television cameras were placed for the duration of the games. Despite a successful tenure as Controller, Collins resigned from the BBC in October 1950, when one of the Corporation’s radio executives, George Barnes, was appointed as his superior – he believed that he, as Controller of Television, should not have to answer to a man whose background was in sound broadcasting.

Collins left the BBC with a strong desire to see the establishment of a televisual competitor to the Corporation, which since the 1920s had held a complete monopoly on broadcasting in the UK, both radio and television. To this end and some financial backers established a company called High Definition Films Limited in 1951, the stated aim of, to improve the telerecording process, but which in reality functioned as an official group to lobby for competition in television broadcasting. In 1953, Collins and two of his business partners – Robert Renwick and C. O. Stanley – together with several others, formed the Popular Television Association, campaigning more publicly for the establishment of an independent broadcaster, writing to the government to point out the inherent dangers of a single broadcaster holding a monopoly as the BBC did, making an strong campaign in the press, their lobbying was successful, in early 1954 the government passed the Television Act, which opened the way for the creation of the new network under the auspices of the newly formed Independent Television Authority.

When the ITA invited bids from interested companies for the various local franchises that would make up the ITV network, Collins and Stanley formed a new company, Associated Broadcasting Development Company Limited to apply for one of the franchises. ABDC’s bid was reliant on them winning the main London franchise – at this time, the ITV franchises for the major regions were split into two, one for Mondays to Fridays and one for weekends. However, when they won only the London weekend and Midlands Monday to Friday licences, their backers withdrew and the ITA prohibited Collins and his colleagues accepting extra funding from the Daily Express newspaper. An answer was found in the form of a merger with Lew Grade’s ITC Entertainment, which had failed to win a franchise of its own as the ITA was afraid such a powerful organisation would dominate the other network companies; the new company thus formed was to be called the Associated Broadcasting Company, but rival franchise holder Associated British Corporation

Old Village Historic District (Chatham, Massachusetts)

The Old Village Historic District is predominantly residential historic district encompassing the old village center of Chatham, Massachusetts. The Old Village occupies the southeast corner of the town where it is framed by Main Street and Holway Street, Bridge Street and Bearse's Lane, Chatham Harbor and Mill Pond and Little Mill Pond; the houses of the district represent a cross section of architectural development in the town, with houses dating from c. 1730 to the 20th century. The district includes the Chatham Light, a church, a small number of commercial buildings; the district was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2001. National Register of Historic Places listings in Barnstable County, Massachusetts

SOS Children's Villages UK

SOS Children's Villages UK, is a child sponsorship charity based in Cambridge in the United Kingdom. It is part of the international group SOS Children's Villages – the largest international charity group dedicated to the care of orphaned and abandoned children; the charity is registered under the working names "SOS Children" and "World Orphan Week" with the Charity Commission. Internationally, SOS Children's Villages works in 134 countries and territories, of which it provides services in 125, its slogan is "A loving home for every child". Programmes include SOS Children's Villages which are communities that offer a new family home for orphaned and abandoned children, family strengthening services which foster community development and help to prevent child abandonment; the charity is non-denominational and works in the spirit of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. Since 1995, SOS Children's Villages has worked with the United Nations to help governments and organisations support children who have lost or are at risk of losing parental care.

In 2009, the charity worked with other experts to develop the UN Guidelines for the Alternative Care of Children. In 1969 chairman of SOS Children's Villages UK, Dickson Mabon attempted to arrange the construction of Children's Villages in Scotland. However, he was refused permission to build the Villages on planning grounds by the local authorities concerned. Supporters include Stephen Hawking, Alexander McCall Smith, Anyika Onuora, Richard Attenborough, Kate Humble and Wayne Rooney. International Ambassador, as of April 2014, is Belgian footballer Vincent Kompany. Angelina Jolie is a long-term supporter and has visited SOS Children's Villages in Haiti and Jordan. Nelson Mandela was a supporter of SOS Children's Villages work in South Africa and opened the SOS Children's Village in Cape Town. Upon his death in December 2013, SOS Children's Villages joined in memorials to celebrate his life; the Dalai Lama supports SOS Children the SOS Children's Villages in North India, which provide a home for child refugees from Tibet.

In 2005 SOS Children's Villages UK founded a campaign which runs annually. The project aims to raise awareness about the large number of children missing one or both parents around the world; the campaign works with schools, individuals and community groups to hold events on a local and national scale to raise awareness and funds for the organisation. In 2018 World Orphan Week will be held on 3–10 February. In 2011 SOS Children's Villages UK created a new web site "Our Africa" which won the New Media category of the One World Media Awards. Our Africa is an educational site with many short videos and articles created to celebrate 40 years of SOS Children's Villages work in Africa. Many of the videos are filmed by children across Africa. Since 2006, SOS Children's Villages UK has produced an offline selection from Wikipedia, based around the UK national curriculum and targeted at a school-age audience; the project was aimed at schools in the developing world, where internet access is limited, but has proved popular in developed countries as well.

This is because all content is checked to ensure suitability for children and relevance to the classroom, making it safe for use in schools. As well as being an offline resource available on request, it is available online, it was last updated in 2013. Current trustees are Mary Cockcroft, George Windsor, Earl of St Andrews, Michael Brewer, Graham Budd, Ayesha Khan, Matthew de Villiers, Thomas Bauer

World Saxophone Congress

The World Saxophone Congress is a festival gathering 1000 saxophonists and other musicians from all over the world. It is held every three years at a different congress centre in a different country and focuses on the performance of classical saxophone music; the Congress presents an opportunity to meet saxophonists from many countries and to listen to various concerts and performances of saxophone soloists, chamber ensembles, big bands and symphony orchestras that run throughout the day in different halls of the congress centre. Each of the five days is concluded by an evening concert of the orchestra and outstanding international soloists, it is convened with the purpose of presenting the advancements of music production and distribution as well as innovations in instrument-making and equipment. The seventeenth and most recent World Saxophone Congress, known as SaxOpen, was held between July 9 and 14, 2015 in Strasbourg France; the eighteenth World Saxophone Congress was slated to be held in 2018 in Croatia.

The World Saxophone Congress was conceived by Paul Brodie and co-founded in 1969 with Eugene Rousseau, holding their first Congress in Chicago. Eugene Rousseau writes: "The most memorable time I spent with Paul was our December, 1968 meeting in Chicago, it was during this meeting that he articulated his vision of the establishment of a world saxophone congress. It came to fruition in conjunction with the Midwest Band Clinic during the following year; the World Saxophone Congress, thanks to the dream of Paul Brodie, had become established."Paul Brodie himself recalls: "I went to an accordion congress in Toronto and I was so impressed that I thought “wouldn’t it be great to do this for the saxophone”.... The next year I came back to the Midwest Band Clinic. I had written an article for Instrumentalist Magazine - "Towards a World Saxophone Congress", I was invited to a meeting of the executive committee and they offered me the grand ballroom of the Sherman House Hotel for 16 December 1969. I asked other saxophone players to help me and nobody responded.

I called Eugene Rousseau because I had met him in Seattle at a music convention.... So we met in September 1969 at the Holiday Inn at O’Hare Airport in Chicago and we stayed up all night designing the program and started to call everybody the next morning and by the time we held the first congress we thought that maybe 200 people would show up. Well over 500 saxophonists showed up."In 1981, a 7-member International Saxophone Committee. Was set up to help organise the Congress. Congress performers/participants have included Frederick Hemke, Eugene Rousseau, Donald Sinta, Patrick Meighan, Bruce Faulconer, One O'Clock Lab Band, Lee Patrick, Ronald Caravan, Paul Brodie, Lin Chien-Kwan, Roger Greenberg, Debra Richtmeyer, Kyle Horch, the Scottish Saxophone Ensemble, the National Saxophone Choir of Great Britain, Brian Brown The World Saxophone Congress has been held in: Richard Ingham, The Cambridge Companion to the Saxophone, Cambridge University Press, 1998, ISBN 0-521-59666-1 Thomas Liley, Paul Brodie, Eugene Rousseau, A brief history of the World Saxophone Congress: 1969-2000, World Saxophone Congress, Published 2003, 42 pages 12th World Saxophone Congress, XIII.

World Saxophone Congress at XIV. World Saxophone Congress at XV. World Saxophone Congress at XVI World Saxophone Congress | Official Facebook page XVII World Saxophone Congress Official Facebook page International Saxophone Committee, organisers of World Saxophone Congress World Saxophone Congress video clips via Google Video

Slate industry

The slate industry is the industry related to the extraction and processing of slate. Slate is either reached by tunneling in a slate mine. Common uses for slate include as a roofing material, a flooring material and memorial tablets, for electrical insulation. Slate mines are found around the world and the major slate mining region in the United Kingdom is Wales: in Cornwall there are a number of slate quarries and in the Lake District there are numerous slate mines and quarries. 90% of Europe's natural slate used for roofing originates from the Slate Industry in Spain. In the remainder of Continental Europe and the Americas, Italy, Brazil, the east coast of Newfoundland, the Slate Valley of Vermont and New York, Virginia are important producing regions; the Slate Valley area, centering on a town called Granville in the state of New York is one of the places in the world where colored slate is obtained. 90% of Europe's natural slate used for roofing originates from the slate industry in Spain, with the region of Galicia being the primary source of production.

In Galicia, the larger slate production companies are concentrated in Valdeorras in Ourense, with other important sites being situated in Quiroga and Mondoñedo. The slate deposits in this region of northern Spain are over 500 million years old, having formed during the Palaeozoic period; the colour and texture of the slate produced is dependent upon the tectonic environment, the source of the sedimentary material from which the slate is comprised, the chemical and physical conditions prevalent during the sedimentation process. The region has been subjected to periods of volcanism and magmatic activity, leading to a unique geological development in the region. An important use of Spanish slate is as a roofing material, it is suitable for this purpose as it has a low water absorption index of less than 0.4%, making it resistant to frost damage and breakage due to freezing. Tiles produced from Spanish slate are hung using a unique hook fixing method, which reduces the appearance of weak points on the tile since no holes are drilled, allows narrower tiles to be used to create roofing features such as valleys and domes.

Hook fixing is prevalent in areas subject to severe climatic conditions, since there is a greater resistance to wind uplift as the lower edge of the slate is secured. Slate has been mined in north Wales for several centuries — this was confirmed by the discovery in the Menai Strait of the wreck of a 16th-century wooden ship carrying finished slates. Large-scale commercial slate mining in North Wales began with the opening of the Cae Braich y Cafn quarry to become the Penrhyn Quarry near Bethesda in the Ogwen Valley in 1782. Welsh output was far ahead of other areas and by 1882, 92% of Britain's production was from Wales: the quarries at Penrhyn and Dinorwic produced half of this between them; the men worked the slate in partnerships of four, six or eight and these were known as "Bargain Gangs". "Bargains" were let by the "Bargain Letter". Adjustments were made according to the proportion of "bad" rock; the first Monday of every month was "Bargain Letting Day" when these agreements were made between men and management.

Half the partners worked the quarry face and the others were in the dressing sheds producing the finished slates. In the Glyndyfrdwy mines at Moel Fferna each bargain worked a horizontal stretch of 10 by 15 yards. Duchesses, Countesses, Ladies, Small Ladies and Randoms were all sizes of slates produced. Rubblers helped to keep the chambers free from waste: one ton of saleable slate could produce up to 30 tons of waste, it is the mountainous heaps of this same waste, the first thing to strike someone visiting the old regions nowadays. The men had to pay for their ropes and chains, for tools and for services such as sharpening and repairing. Subs were paid every week, everything being settled up on the "Day of the Big Pay". If conditions had not been good, the men could end up owing the management money. At Moel Fferna a team could produce up to 35 tons of finished slate a week. In 1877 they received about 7 shillings a ton for this. After paying wages for the manager, clerks and'trammers' the company could make a clear profit of twice this amount.

This system was not abolished until after the Second World War. Early workings tended to be in surface pits, but as the work progressed downwards, it became necessary to work underground; this was accompanied by the driving of one or more adits to gain direct access to a Level. In some rare instances, such as Moel Fferna, there is no trace of surface workings and the workings were underground. Chambers were driven from the bottom, by means of a "roofing shaft", continued across the width of the chamber: the chamber would be worked downwards. Slate was freed from the rockface by blasting in shot holes hammered into the rock. Slate would be recovered from the chamber in the form of a large slab, which would be taken by truck to the mill where it would be split and cut into standard-sized roofing slates. Slate mines were worked in chambers which followed the slate vein, connected via a series of horizontal "Floors"; the chambers varied in size between mines and were divided by "pillars" or walls which supported the roof.

The floors were connected by underground "Inclines" which used wedge-shaped trolleys to move trucks b

The Jugged Hare

The Jugged Hare is a public house and restaurant at 49 Chiswell Street, between Barbican and Moorgate underground stations in the City of London. The pub was opened on the site of an old Grade II listed brewery in 2012 by brothers Ed and Tom Martin, who run The Gun in the Docklands and The Prince Arthur in London Fields, among other establishments; the decor includes oak flooring, red leather seating and a collection of stuffed and mounted animals. Upon opening, it was reviewed favourably by restaurant critic Giles Coren of The Times, who called it "a good addition to a good chain of pubs"; the Jugged Hare website