2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Marsh River (Minnesota)
The Marsh River, located in Minnesota, is a 49.9-mile-long tributary of the Red River of the North. It rises less than 600 feet from the Wild Rice River, east of the city of Ada, flows northwest, entering the Red River 2 miles northwest of Shelly; the Marsh River flows within Norman County. Marsh River was named for the wetlands near the stream. List of rivers of Minnesota List of Hudson Bay rivers Minnesota Watersheds U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Marsh River USGS Hydrologic Unit Map - State of Minnesota
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
Mahnomen County, Minnesota
Mahnomen County is a county in the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 census, the population was 5,413, its county seat is Mahnomen. The county is part of the White Earth Indian Reservation, it is the only county in Minnesota within an Indian reservation. The county, along with East Polk and Becker County, is one of the biggest cattle-raising areas in northwestern Minnesota. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 583 square miles, of which 558 square miles is land and 25 square miles is water. Mahnomen is one of 17 Minnesota savanna region counties with more savanna soils than either prairie or forest soils. U. S. Highway 59 Minnesota State Highway 113 Minnesota State Highway 200 Polk County Clearwater County Becker County Norman County As of the 2000 census, there were 5,190 people, 1,969 households, 1,366 families residing in the county; the population density was 9 people per square mile. There were 2,700 housing units at an average density of 5 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 62.85% White 0.13% Black or African American, 28.55% Native American, 0.06% Asian, 0.31% from other races, 8.09% from two or more races. 0.89% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 29.4% were of German and 17.0% Norwegian ancestry. There were 1,969 households out of which 32.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.60% were married couples living together, 11.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.60% were non-families. 27.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.14. In the county, the population was spread out with 29.20% under the age of 18, 7.20% from 18 to 24, 23.50% from 25 to 44, 23.40% from 45 to 64, 16.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 102.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.40 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $30,053, the median income for a family was $35,500. Males had a median income of $23,614 versus $21,000 for females; the per capita income for the county was $13,438. About 11.80% of families and 16.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.30% of those under age 18 and 15.30% of those age 65 or over. Bejou Mahnomen Waubun Mahkonce National Register of Historic Places listings in Mahnomen County, Minnesota USS Mahnomen County County of Mahnomen website http://www.co.mahnomen.mn.us/
North Dakota is a U. S. state in northern regions of the United States. It is the nineteenth largest in area, the fourth smallest by population, the fourth most sparsely populated of the 50 states. North Dakota was admitted to the Union on November 3, 1889, along with its neighboring state, South Dakota, its capital is Bismarck, its largest city is Fargo. In the 21st century, North Dakota's natural resources have played a major role in its economic performance with the oil extraction from the Bakken formation, which lies beneath the northwestern part of the state; such development has led to reduced unemployment. North Dakota contains the tallest human-made structure in the KVLY-TV mast. North Dakota is a Midwestern state of the United States, it lies at the center of the North American continent. The geographic center of North America is near the town of Rugby. Bismarck is the capital of North Dakota, Fargo is the largest city. Soil is North Dakota's most precious resource, it is the base of the state's great agricultural wealth.
But North Dakota has enormous mineral resources. These mineral resources include billions of tons of lignite coal. In addition, North Dakota has large oil reserves. Petroleum was discovered in the state in 1951 and became one of North Dakota's most valuable mineral resources. In the early 2000's, the emergence of hydraulic fracturing technologies enabled mining companies to extract huge amounts of oil from the Bakken shale rock formation in the western part of the state. North Dakota's economy is based more on farming than are the economies of most other states. Many North Dakota factories manufacture farm equipment. Many of the state’s merchants rely on agriculture. Farms and ranches cover nearly all of North Dakota, they stretch from the flat Red River Valley in the east, across rolling plains, to the rugged Badlands in the west. The chief crop, wheat, is grown in nearly every county. North Dakota flaxseed, it is the country’s top producer of barley and sunflower seeds and a leader in the production of beans, lentils, oats and sugar beets.
Few white settlers came to the North Dakota region before the 1870's because railroads had not yet entered the area. During the early 1870's, the Northern Pacific Railroad began to push across the Dakota Territory. Large-scale farming began during the 1870's. Eastern corporations and some families established huge wheat farms covering large areas of land in the Red River Valley; the farms made such enormous profits. White settlers, attracted by the success of the bonanza farms, flocked to North Dakota increasing the territory's population. In 1870, North Dakota had 2,405 people. By 1890, the population had grown to 190,983. North Dakota was named for the Sioux people; the Sioux called meaning allies or friends. One of North Dakota's nicknames is the Peace Garden State; this nickname honors the International Peace Garden, which lies on the state's border with Manitoba, Canada. North Dakota is called the Flickertail State because of the many flickertail ground squirrels that live in the central part of the state.
North Dakota is in the U. S. region known as the Great Plains. The state shares the Red River of the North with Minnesota to the east. South Dakota is to the south, Montana is to the west, the Canadian provinces of Saskatchewan and Manitoba are to the north. North Dakota is near the middle of North America with a stone marker in Rugby, North Dakota marking the "Geographic Center of the North American Continent". With an area of 70,762 square miles, North Dakota is the 19th largest state; the western half of the state consists of the hilly Great Plains as well as the northern part of the Badlands, which are to the west of the Missouri River. The state's high point, White Butte at 3,506 feet, Theodore Roosevelt National Park are in the Badlands; the region is abundant in fossil fuels including crude oil and lignite coal. The Missouri River forms Lake Sakakawea, the third largest artificial lake in the United States, behind the Garrison Dam; the central region of the state is divided into the Missouri Plateau.
The eastern part of the state consists of the flat Red River Valley, the bottom of glacial Lake Agassiz. Its fertile soil, drained by the meandering Red River flowing northward into Lake Winnipeg, supports a large agriculture industry. Devils Lake, the largest natural lake in the state, is found in the east. Eastern North Dakota is overall flat. Most of the state is covered in grassland. Natural trees in North Dakota are found where there is good drainage, such as the ravines and valley near the Pembina Gorge and Killdeer Mountains, the Turtle Mountains, the hills around Devil's Lake, in the dunes area of McHenry County in central North Dakota, along the Sheyenne Valley slopes and the Sheyenne delta; this diverse terrain supports nearly 2,000 species of plants. North Dakota has a continental climate with cold winters; the temperature differences are significant because of its far inland position and being in the center of the Northern Hemisphere, with equal distances to the North Pole and the Equator.
As such, summers are subtropical, but winters are cold enough to ensure plant hardiness is low. Native American peoples lived in what is now North Dakota for thousands of year
Becker County, Minnesota
Becker County is a county in the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 32,504, its county seat is Detroit Lakes. A portion of the White Earth Indian Reservation extends into the county; the county was created in 1858 and organized in 1871. Becker County became a county on March 18, 1858, it was named for George Loomis Becker, one of three men elected to Congress when Minnesota became a state. Since Minnesota could only send two, Becker elected to stay behind, he was promised to have a county named after him; the city of Detroit Lakes was founded by Colonel George Johnston in 1871. It grew with the construction of the Northern Pacific Railroad. Johnston had led settlers hailing from New England to settle in this region. An 1877 election decided that Detroit Lakes known as Detroit, would become the county seat. Detroit won the election by a 90% majority. Frazee, Lake Park, Audubon were in the running. In 1884, Detroit Lakes had many businesses, including two hotels, a bank, a newspaper, an opera house.
The first courthouse was built that year. In 1885, the first County Fire Department was constructed. In 1903, the Soo Line Railroad built a line through the county. Detroit Lakes hosts a park dedicated to the Grand Army of the Republic; the City of Detroit Lakes rededicated the GAR Park on April 15, 2015, marking the 150th anniversary of the end of the Civil War and the death of President Lincoln. The rededication was sponsored by Colonel Tom Mortenson and his wife, representing the Women's Relief Corps who spearheaded community support for the effort that included new signage for the Park and a time capsule to be opened on the 200th anniversary; the county terrain tree-covered and dotted with lakes and ponds. The terrain slopes to the west and north, with its highest point near its NW corner, at 1,631' ASL; the county has a total area of 1,445 square miles, of which 1,315 square miles is land and 130 square miles is water. Becker County has much diversity in its topographical features, it is home to several hundred lakes, many acres of fertile farm land, forested areas.
Much of the land consists of hills and deciduous trees. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Detroit Lakes have ranged from a low of −2 °F in January to a high of 82 °F in July, although a record low of −46 °F was recorded in February 1936 and a record high of 107 °F was recorded in July 1936. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 0.53 inches in February to 4.44 inches in June. Becker County voters have voted solidly Republican in recent decades. In only one national election since 1980 has the county selected the Democratic Party candidate; as of the 2000 United States Census, there were 30,000 people, 11,844 households, 8,184 families in the county. The population density was 22.8/sqmi. There were 16,612 housing units at an average density of 13 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 89.35% White, 0.19% Black or African American, 7.52% Native American, 0.36% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.24% from other races, 2.32% from two or more races. 0.77% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
32.2 % were of 26.0 % Norwegian and 5.2 % Swedish ancestry. There were 11,844 households out of which 31.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.10% were married couples living together, 7.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.90% were non-families. 26.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 3.02. The county population contained 26.60% under the age of 18, 7.10% from 18 to 24, 24.90% from 25 to 44, 24.90% from 45 to 64, 16.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 99.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $34,797, the median income for a family was $41,807. Males had a median income of $29,641 versus $20,693 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,085. About 8.50% of families and 12.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.40% of those under age 18 and 11.80% of those age 65 or over.
Becker County is the setting of the 2006 independent film Sweet Land, though it was filmed in Chippewa County. National Register of Historic Places listings in Becker County, Minnesota Becker County government’s website
Red River Valley
The Red River Valley is a region in central North America, drained by the Red River of the North. Forming the border between Minnesota and North Dakota when these territories were admitted as states in the United States, this fertile valley has been important to the economies of these states and to Manitoba, Canada; the population centers of Moorhead, Minnesota and Grand Forks, North Dakota, Winnipeg, Manitoba developed in the valley as settlement by ethnic Europeans increased in the late nineteenth century. Completion of major railroads, availability of cheap lands, extinguishing of Indian land claims attracted many new settlers; some developed large-scale agricultural operations known as bonanza farms, which concentrated on wheat commodity crops. Paleogeographic Lake Agassiz laid down the Red River Valley Silts; the valley was long an area of habitation by various indigenous cultures, including the historic Ojibwe and Métis peoples. The river flows north through a wide ancient lake plain to Lake Winnipeg.
The geography and seasonal conditions can produce devastating floods, with several recorded since the mid-20th century. French fur traders had relations with First Nations and Native Americans throughout the Great Lakes region, they lived with the tribes and married or had relations with native women. By the mid-17th century, the Métis, descendants of these Frenchmen and Cree tribes people, settled in the Red River valley; the Métis established an ethnicity and culture, as many continued a tradition as hunters and traders involved in the fur trade. They were farmers in this area; the British took over French territory east of the Mississippi River following its victory in the Seven Years' War. In the early 19th century, the lucrative fur trade attracted continuing interest, Lord Selkirk established the Red River Colony. In 1803 the United States acquired former French territory west of the Mississippi River in the Louisiana Purchase from France; this included some of the Red River Valley. The U.
S. government uses the term Red River Valley to describe the sections of northwestern Minnesota and northeastern North Dakota to which it secured title following the Anglo-American Convention of 1818 that settled the northern boundary of the US and Canada. This land became part as the second article of the 1818 treaty declared the 49th parallel to be the official border between the U. S. and Canada up to the Rocky Mountains. The land acquired under the treaty had an area of 29,066,880 acres, comprising 1.3 percent of total U. S. land area. Centered on the Red River of the North, these lands had been under the control of Great Britain. West of the Red River Valley, the territory of the Louisiana Purchase, which the US acquired from France, extends north of the 49th parallel; the US ceded this to Britain in exchange for gaining the Red River Valley. These northernmost parts of the Louisiana Purchase are one of the few North American territories ceded by the United States to a foreign power; the four factors make the Red River Valley so prone to flooding: Synchrony of Discharge with Spring Thaw: The Red River flows northward.
The spring thaw proceeds northward. As a result, runoff from the southern portion of the valley joins the fresh melt-off waters from northerly areas along the Red River. In the northern part of the Valley, this can result in devastating floods if the effects occur at the same time. Ice Jams: These are produced because of the northward-flowing river system. Ice is moving from the southern Valley and freshly-broken ice is moving from the central and northern Valley; these two meet steadily. Glacial Lake Plain: The floor of Glacial Lake Agassiz is one of the flattest expanses of land in the world. Here, the Red River has cut a winding valley; as a result of this, when the river floods on this plain, a devastating event can occur. The areal coverage of the waters can become dramatic. Being 9,300 years old, the Red River has not yet carved a large valley-floodplain system on the surrounding geography. Thus, the large lake plain becomes the floodplain to this river. Decrease in Gradient Downstream: The gradient, or slope, of the Red River averages 5 inches per mile of length.
In the region of Drayton-Pembina, the gradient is only 1.5 inches per mile. The water tends to pool in this area during flood season; the region can become a shallow lake. Treaty of 1818 Pembina Region Red River Colony Sheyenne River Shellmouth Reservoir Portage Diversion Red River Floodway Old Crossing Treaty Métis people RiverWatchOnline: Red River History